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13 (number) 13 (THIRTEEN /θɜːrˈtiːn/ ) is the natural number following 12 and preceding 14 . In spoken English, the numbers 13 and 30 are often confused. When carefully pronounced, they differ in which syllable is stressed : 13 /θɜːrˈtiːn/ ( listen ) vs. 30 /ˈθɜːrti/ . However, in dates such as 1300 ("thirteen hundred") or when contrasting numbers in the teens, such as 13, 14, 15, the stress shifts to the first syllable: 13 /ˈθɜːrtiːn/ . Strikingly similar folkloric aspects of the number 13 have been noted in various cultures around the world: one theory is that this is due to the cultures employing lunarsolar calendars (there are approximately 12.41 lunations per solar year, and hence 12 "true months" plus a smaller, and often portentous, thirteenth month). This can be witnessed, for example, in the " Twelve Days of Christmas Twelve Days of Christmas " of Western European tradition [...More...]  "13 (number)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Roman Numerals The numeric system represented by ROMAN NUMERALS originated in ancient Rome Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe Europe well into the Late Middle Ages Late Middle Ages . Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet . Roman numerals, as used today, are based on seven symbols: SYMBOL I V X L C D M VALUE 1 5 10 50 100 500 1,000The use of Roman numerals Roman numerals continued long after the decline of the Roman Empire Roman Empire . From the 14th century on, Roman numerals Roman numerals began to be replaced in most contexts by the more convenient HinduArabic numerals ; however, this process was gradual, and the use of Roman numerals persists in some minor applications to this day [...More...]  "Roman Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Ternary Numeral System The TERNARY numeral system (also called BASE3) has three as its base . Analogous to a bit , a ternary digit is a TRIT (TRinary digIT). One trit is equivalent to log23 (about 1.58496) bits of information . Although ternary most often refers to a system in which the three digits 0 , 1 , and 2 are all nonnegative numbers, the adjective also lends its name to the balanced ternary system, comprising the digits −1 , 0 and +1, used in comparison logic and ternary computers [...More...]  "Ternary Numeral System" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Quaternary Numeral System QUATERNARY is the base 4 numeral system . It uses the digits 0, 1, 2 and 3 to represent any real number . Four is the largest number within the subitizing range and one of two numbers that is both a square and a highly composite number (the other being 36), making quaternary a convenient choice for a base at this scale. Despite being twice as large, its radix economy is equal to that of binary. However, it fares no better in the localization of prime numbers (the next best being the primorial base six, senary ). Quaternary shares with all fixedradix numeral systems many properties, such as the ability to represent any real number with a canonical representation (almost unique) and the characteristics of the representations of rational numbers and irrational numbers . See decimal and binary for a discussion of these properties [...More...]  "Quaternary Numeral System" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Greek Numerals GREEK NUMERALS, also known as IONIC, IONIAN, MILESIAN, or ALEXANDRIAN NUMERALS, are a system of writing numbers using the letters of the Greek alphabet . In modern Greece Greece , they are still used for ordinal numbers and in contexts similar to those in which Roman numerals Roman numerals are still used elsewhere in the West. For ordinary cardinal numbers , however, Greece Greece uses Arabic numerals Arabic numerals . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Description * 3 Table * 4 Higher numbers * 5 Zero * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYThe Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations ' Linear A and Linear B alphabets used a different system, called Aegean numerals Aegean numerals , which included specialized symbols for numbers: 𐄇 = 1, 𐄐 = 10, 𐄙 = 100, 𐄢 = 1000, and 𐄫 = 10000 [...More...]  "Greek Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Divisor In mathematics , a DIVISOR of an integer n {displaystyle n} , also called a FACTOR of n {displaystyle n} , is an integer m {displaystyle m} that may be multiplied by some other integer to produce n {displaystyle n} . In this case one says also that n {displaystyle n} is a MULTIPLE of m . {displaystyle m.} An integer n {displaystyle n} is DIVISIBLE by another integer m {displaystyle m} if m {displaystyle m} is a divisor of n {displaystyle n} ; this implies dividing n {displaystyle n} by m {displaystyle m} leaves no remainder [...More...]  "Divisor" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Numeral System A NUMERAL SYSTEM (or SYSTEM OF NUMERATION) is a writing system for expressing numbers; that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using digits or other symbols in a consistent manner. It can be seen as the context that allows the symbols "11" to be interpreted as the binary symbol for three, the decimal symbol for eleven, or a symbol for other numbers in different bases . The number the numeral represents is called its value. Ideally, a numeral system will: * Represent a useful set of numbers (e.g. all integers , or rational numbers ) * Give every number represented a unique representation (or at least a standard representation) * Reflect the algebraic and arithmetic structure of the numbers.For example, the usual decimal representation of whole numbers gives every nonzero whole number a unique representation as a finite sequence of digits , beginning by a nonzero digit [...More...]  "Numeral System" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Base 13 This is a LIST OF NUMERAL SYSTEMS , that is, writing systems for expressing numbers. CONTENTS * 1 By culture / time period * 2 By type of notation * 2.1 Standard positional numeral systems * 2.2 Nonstandard positional numeral systems Nonstandard positional numeral systems * 2.2.1 Bijective numeration Bijective numeration * 2.2.2 Signeddigit representation Signeddigit representation * 2.2.3 Negative bases * 2.2.4 Complex bases * 2.2.5 Noninteger bases * 2.2.6 Other * 2.3 Nonpositional notation * 3 See also * 4 References BY CULTURE / TIME PERIOD NAME BASE SAMPLE APPROX [...More...]  "Base 13" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Factorization In mathematics , FACTORIZATION (also FACTORISATION in some forms of British English ) or FACTORING is the decomposition of a mathematical object (for example, a number , a polynomial , or a matrix ) into a product of other objects, or factors, which when multiplied together give the original. For example, the number 15 factors into primes as 3 × 5, and the polynomial x2 − 4 factors as (x − 2)(x + 2). In all cases, a product of simpler objects is obtained. The aim of factoring is usually to reduce something to “basic building blocks” that cannot be further factored, such as numbers to prime numbers, or polynomials to irreducible polynomials . Factoring integers is covered by the fundamental theorem of arithmetic and factoring polynomials by the fundamental theorem of algebra . Viète\'s formulas relate the coefficients of a polynomial to its roots , which appear in the polynomial's factors [...More...]  "Factorization" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Quinary QUINARY (BASE 5 or PENTAL ) is a numeral system with five as the base. A possible origination of a quinary system is that there are five fingers on either hand . In the quinary place system, five numerals, from 0 to 4 , are used to represent any real number . According to this method, five is written as 10, twentyfive is written as 100 and sixty is written as 220. As five is a prime number, only the reciprocals of the powers of five terminate, although its location between two highly composite numbers (4 and 6 ) guarantees that many recurring fractions have relatively short periods. Today, the main usage of base 5 is as a biquinary system, which is decimal using five as a subbase . Another example of a subbase system, is sexagesimal , base 60, which used 10 as a subbase. Each quinary digit has log25 (approx. 2.32) bits of information [...More...]  "Quinary" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Senary The SENARY numeral system (also known as BASE6 or HEXIMAL) has six as its base . It has been adopted independently by a small number of cultures. Like decimal , it is a semiprime , though being the product of the only two consecutive numbers that are both prime (2 and 3) it has a high degree of mathematical properties for its size. As six is a superior highly composite number , many of the arguments made in favor of the duodecimal system also apply to this base6 [...More...]  "Senary" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Twelve Days Of Christmas THE TWELVE DAYS OF CHRISTMAS, also known as TWELVETIDE, is a festive Christian season celebrating the Nativity of Jesus Christ . In most Western ecclesiastical traditions, " Christmas Christmas Day " is considered the "First Day of Christmas" and the Twelve Days are 25 December – 5 January, inclusive. For many Christian denominations Christian denominations ; for example, the Anglican Communion Anglican Communion and Lutheran Church , the Twelve Days are identical to Christmastide Christmastide , but for others, e.g., the Roman Catholic Church , "Christmastide" lasts longer than the Twelve Days of Christmas [...More...]  "Twelve Days Of Christmas" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Fibonacci Number In mathematics , the FIBONACCI NUMBERS are the numbers in the following integer sequence , called the FIBONACCI SEQUENCE, and characterized by the fact that every number after the first two is the sum of the two preceding ones: 1 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 5 , 8 , 13 , 21 , 34 , 55 , 89 , 144 , {displaystyle 1,;1,;2,;3,;5,;8,;13,;21,;34,;55,;89,;144,;ldots } Often, especially in modern usage, the sequence is extended by one more initial term: 0 , 1 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 5 , 8 , 13 , 21 , 34 , 55 , 89 , 144 , {displaystyle 0,;1,;1,;2,;3,;5,;8,;13,;21,;34,;55,;89,;144,;ldots } . The Fibonacci spiral: an approximation of the golden spiral created by drawing circular arcs connecting the opposite corners of squares in the Fibonacci tiling; this one uses squares of sizes 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13 and 21 [...More...]  "Fibonacci Number" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Happy Number A HAPPY NUMBER is a number defined by the following process: Starting with any positive integer , replace the number by the sum of the squares of its digits in baseten , and repeat the process until the number either equals 1 (where it will stay), or it loops endlessly in a cycle that does not include 1. Those numbers for which this process ends in 1 are happy numbers, while those that do not end in 1 are unhappy numbers (or sad numbers). CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Sequence behavior * 3 Happy prime * 4 Happy numbers in other bases * 5 Cubing the digits rather than squaring * 6 Higher powers * 7 Origin * 8 Popular culture * 9 Programming example * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Literature * 13 External links OVERVIEWMore formally, given a number n = n 0 {displaystyle n=n_{0}} , define a sequence n 1 {displaystyle n_{1}} , n 2 {displaystyle n_{2}} , .. [...More...]  "Happy Number" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Stress (linguistics) In linguistics , and particularly phonology , STRESS or ACCENT is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence. This emphasis is typically caused by such properties as increased loudness and vowel length , full articulation of the vowel, and changes in pitch . The terms stress and accent are often used synonymously in this context, but they are sometimes distinguished, with accent being more strictly soundbased (auditory). For example, when emphasis is produced through pitch alone, it is called pitch accent, and when produced through length alone, it is called quantitative accent. When caused by a combination of various intensified properties, it is called stress accent or dynamic accent; English uses what is called variable stress accent. The stress placed on syllables within words is called WORD STRESS or LEXICAL STRESS [...More...]  "Stress (linguistics)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Natural Number In mathematics , the NATURAL NUMBERS are those used for counting (as in "there are six coins on the table") and ordering (as in "this is the third largest city in the country"). In common language, words used for counting are "cardinal numbers " and words used for ordering are "ordinal numbers ". Some definitions, including the standard ISO 800002 , begin the natural numbers with 0 , corresponding to the NONNEGATIVE INTEGERS 0, 1, 2, 3, …, whereas others start with 1, corresponding to the POSITIVE INTEGERS 1 , 2 , 3 , …. Texts that exclude zero from the natural numbers sometimes refer to the natural numbers together with zero as the WHOLE NUMBERS, but in other writings, that term is used instead for the integers (including negative integers) [...More...]  "Natural Number" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 