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13 (number)
13 (thirteen /θɜːrˈtiːn/) is the natural number following 12 and preceding 14. In English speech, the numbers 13 and 30 are sometimes confused, as they sound very similar. Strikingly folkloric aspects of the number 13 have been noted in various cultures around the world: one theory is that this is due to the cultures employing lunar-solar calendars (there are approximately 12.41 lunations per solar year, and hence 12 "true months" plus a smaller, and often portentous, thirteenth month)
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Cardinal Number (linguistics)
In linguistics, more precisely in traditional grammar, a cardinal number or cardinal numeral (or just cardinal) is a part of speech used to count, such as the English words one, two, three, but also compounds, e.g. three hundred and forty-two (Commonwealth English) or three hundred forty-two (American English). Cardinal numbers are classified as definite numerals and are related to ordinal numbers, such as first, second, third, etc.[1][2][3] See also[edit] Cardinal number
Cardinal number
for the related usage in mathematics English numerals
English numerals
(in particular the Cardinal numbers section) Distributive number Multiplier Numeral (linguistics)
Numeral (linguistics)
for examples of number systemsReferences[edit] Notes^ David Crystal
David Crystal
(2011). Dictionary of Linguistics
Linguistics
and Phonetics (6th ed.). John Wiley & Sons
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Quinary
Quinary
Quinary
(base-5 or pental[1][2][3]) is a numeral system with five as the base. A possible origination of a quinary system is that there are five fingers on either hand. In the quinary place system, five numerals, from 0 to 4, are used to represent any real number. According to this method, five is written as 10, twenty-five is written as 100 and sixty is written as 220. As five is a prime number, only the reciprocals of the powers of five terminate, although its location between two highly composite numbers (4 and 6) guarantees that many recurring fractions have relatively short periods. Today, the main usage of base 5 is as a biquinary system, which is decimal using five as a sub-base. Another example of a sub-base system, is sexagesimal, base 60, which used 10 as a sub-base. Each quinary digit has log25 (approx
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Base 13
This is a list of numeral systems, that is, writing systems for expressing numbers.Contents1 By culture / time period 2 By type of notation2.1 Standard positional numeral systems 2.2 Non-standard positional numeral systems2.2.1 Bijective numeration 2.2.2 Signed-digit representation 2.2.3 Negative bases 2.2.4 Complex bases 2.2.5 Non-integer bases 2.2.6 Other2.3 Non-positional notation3 See also 4 ReferencesBy culture / time period[edit]Name Base Sample Approx
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Factorization
In mathematics, factorization (also factorisation in some forms of British English) or factoring consists of writing a number or another mathematical object as a product of several factors, usually smaller or simpler objects of the same kind. For example, 3 × 5 is a factorization of the integer 15, and (x – 2)(x + 2) is a factorization of the polynomial x2 – 4. Factorization
Factorization
is not usually considered meaningful within number systems possessing division, such as the real or complex numbers, since any x displaystyle x can be trivially written as ( x y ) × ( 1 / y ) displaystyle (xy)times (1/y) whenever y displaystyle y has a reciprocal
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Divisor
In mathematics, a divisor of an integer n displaystyle n , also called a factor of n displaystyle n , is an integer m displaystyle m that may be multiplied by some integer to produce n displaystyle n . In this case one says also that n displaystyle n is a multiple of m . displaystyle m
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Greek Numerals
Greek numerals, also known as Ionic, Ionian, Milesian, or Alexandrian numerals, are a system of writing numbers using the letters of the Greek alphabet. In modern Greece, they are still used for ordinal numbers and in contexts similar to those in which Roman numerals
Roman numerals
are still used elsewhere in the West. For ordinary cardinal numbers, however, Greece
Greece
uses Arabic numerals.Contents1 History 2 Description 3 Table 4 Higher numbers 5 Zero 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] The Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations' Linear A
Linear A
and Linear B alphabets used a different system, called Aegean numerals, which included specialized symbols for numbers: 𐄇 = 1, 𐄐 = 10, 𐄙 = 100, 𐄢 = 1000, and 𐄫 = 10000.[1] Attic numerals, which were later adopted as the basis for Roman numerals, were the first alphabetic set
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Roman Numerals
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals
Roman numerals
originated in ancient Rome
Rome
and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin
Latin
alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, are based on seven symbols:[1]Symbol I V X L C D MValue 1 5 10 50 100 500 1,000The use of Roman numerals
Roman numerals
continued long after the decline of the Roman Empire
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Ternary Numeral System
The ternary numeral system (also called base 3) has three as its base. Analogous to a bit, a ternary digit is a trit (trinary digit)
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Quaternary Numeral System
Quaternary is the base-4 numeral system. It uses the digits 0, 1, 2 and 3 to represent any real number. Four is the largest number within the subitizing range and one of two numbers that is both a square and a highly composite number (the other being 36), making quaternary a convenient choice for a base at this scale. Despite being twice as large, its radix economy is equal to that of binary. However, it fares no better in the localization of prime numbers (the next best being the primorial base six, senary). Quaternary shares with all fixed-radix numeral systems many properties, such as the ability to represent any real number with a canonical representation (almost unique) and the characteristics of the representations of rational numbers and irrational numbers
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Negative Number
In mathematics, a negative number is a real number that is less than zero. Negative numbers represent opposites. If positive represents a movement to the right, negative represents a movement to the left. If positive represents above sea level, then negative represents below sea level. If positive represents a deposit, negative represents a withdrawal. They are often used to represent the magnitude of a loss or deficiency. A debt that is owed may be thought of as a negative asset, a decrease in some quantity may be thought of as a negative increase. If a quantity may have either of two opposite senses, then one may choose to distinguish between those senses—perhaps arbitrarily—as positive and negative. In the medical context of fighting a tumor, an expansion could be thought of as a negative shrinkage. Negative numbers are used to describe values on a scale that goes below zero, such as the Celsius and Fahrenheit
Fahrenheit
scales for temperature
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Senary
The senary numeral system (also known as base-6, heximal, or seximal[1]) has six as its base. It has been adopted independently by a small number of cultures. Like decimal, it is a semiprime, though being the product of the only two consecutive numbers that are both prime (2 and 3) it has a high degree of mathematical properties for its size
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Ordinal Number (linguistics)
In linguistics, ordinal numbers are words representing position or rank in a sequential order. The order may be of size, importance, chronology, and so on. In English, they are adjectives such as third and tertiary. They differ from cardinal numbers, which represent quantity. Ordinal numbers may be written in English with numerals and letter suffixes: 1st, 2nd or 2d, 3rd or 3d, 4th, 11th, 21st, 101st, 477th, etc., with the suffix acting as an ordinal indicator. Written dates often omit the suffix, although it is, nevertheless, pronounced. For example: 5 November 1605 (pronounced "the fifth of November ... "); November 5, 1605, ("November Fifth ..."). When written out in full with "of", however, the suffix is retained: the 5th of November
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Octal
The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. Octal
Octal
numerals can be made from binary numerals by grouping consecutive binary digits into groups of three (starting from the right). For example, the binary representation for decimal 74 is 1001010. Two zeroes can be added at the left: (00)1 001 010, corresponding the octal digits 1 1 2, yielding the octal representation 112. In the decimal system each decimal place is a power of ten. For example: 74 10 = 7 × 10 1 + 4 × 10 0 displaystyle mathbf 74 _ 10 =mathbf 7 times 10^ 1 +mathbf 4 times 10^ 0 In the octal system each place is a power of eight
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Base 36
The senary numeral system (also known as base-6, heximal, or seximal[1]) has six as its base. It has been adopted independently by a small number of cultures. Like decimal, it is a semiprime, though being the product of the only two consecutive numbers that are both prime (2 and 3) it has a high degree of mathematical properties for its size
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