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102nd Motorised Division Trento
The 102nd Motorised Division Trento
102nd Motorised Division Trento
(in Italian: 102ª Divisione Fanteria Trento) was a motorised infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II. It was formed in 1939 and kept in reserve in Italy
Italy
until it was moved to North Africa
North Africa
in February 1941. It took part in Axis attacks across North Africa, following the Allied Operation Compass
Operation Compass
and suffered heavy losses at Tobruk
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Italy
Coordinates: 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana  (Italian)FlagEmblemAnthem: Il Canto degli Italiani  (Italian) "The Song of the Italians"Location of  Italy  (dark green) – in Europe  (light green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (light green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Rome 41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E / 41.900; 12.483Official languages ItalianaNative languages see full listReligion83.3% Christians 12.4% irreligious 3.7% Muslims 0.2% Buddhists 0.1% Hindus 0.3% other religions[1]Demonym ItalianGovernment Unitary constitutional parliamentary republic• PresidentSergio Mattarella• Prime MinisterPaolo Gentiloni• President of the SenateElisabetta Casellati•&
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Kingdom Of Italy (1861-1946)
The Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II
King Victor Emmanuel II
of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy
Italy
under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy
Italy
declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto
Veneto
following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome
Rome
in 1870, ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power
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18th Brigade (Australia)
Second World WarSiege of Tobruk Syria–Lebanon campaign New Guinea campaign Borneo
Borneo
campaignCommandersNotable commanders Leslie MorsheadInsigniaUnit Colour PatchThe 18th Brigade
Brigade
was an infantry brigade of the Australian Army, which served during the Second World War. The brigade was raised on 13 October 1939 and was one of the first three infantry brigades of the Second Australian Imperial Force
Second Australian Imperial Force
(2nd AIF) to be formed. Initially commanded by Brigadier Leslie Morshead, it served in the United Kingdom in 1940–1941, where it helped bolster the British garrison in anticipation of a possible German invasion following the Fall of France
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Leslie Morshead
First World WarGallipoli Campaign Battle of Messines Battle of Passchendaele Spring Offensive Hundred Days OffensiveSecond World WarSiege of Tobruk First Battle of El Alamein Second Battle of El Alamein New Guinea
New Guinea
campaign Borneo campaignAwards Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George Distinguished Service Order Efficiency Decoration
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Operation Brevity
Associated articlesFrontier Wire Devil's gardens Fort Capuzzo Maletti Group Camouflage Babini Group Combeforce 3rd Indian Motor Brigade Baggush Box Operation Brevity
Operation Brevity
was a limited offensive conducted in mid-May 1941, during the Western Desert Campaign
Western Desert Campaign
of the Second World War. Conceived by the commander-in-chief of the British Middle East Command, General Archibald Wavell, Brevity was intended to be a rapid blow against weak Axis front-line forces in the Sollum–Capuzzo– Bardia
Bardia
area of the border between Egypt and Libya
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24th Brigade (Australia)
World War IIWestern Desert Campaign New Guinea campaign Huon Peninsula campaign Battle of Labuan Battle of North BorneoCommandersNotable commanders Selwyn PorterThe 24th Brigade
Brigade
was a brigade-sized infantry unit of the Australian Army. Formed on 1 July 1940 as part of the Second Australian Imperial Force, the unit was raised for service during World War II. Originally formed as part of the 8th Australian Division the brigade was subsequently transferred to the newly created 9th Australian Division in December. The brigade served during the Western Desert Campaign, the landing at Lae, the Huon Peninsula campaign
Huon Peninsula campaign
and the Labuan landings
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XIII Corps (United Kingdom)
First World War[1] Battle of the Somme
Battle of the Somme
1916 Operations on the Ancre Arras Offensive Battle of the Somme
Battle of the Somme
1918 Advance in Flanders Battles of the Hindenburg Line Final Advance in PicardySecond World WarWestern Desert Campaign Tunisia Campaign Allied invasion of Sicily Italian CampaignCommandersNotable commanders Brian Horrocks Miles C
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Halfaya Pass
Coordinates: 31°30′N 25°11′E / 31.500°N 25.183°E / 31.500; 25.183 Halfaya Pass
Halfaya Pass
(Arabic: مَمَرّ حَلْفَيَا translit. Mamarr Ħalfayā‎, known colloquially as Hellfire Pass) is located in Egypt, near the border with Libya. A 600 feet (180 m) high escarpment extends south eastwards from the Egyptian-Libyan border at the coast at as-Salum (or Saloum, Solum, Sollum), with the scarp slope facing into Egypt. Halfaya Pass
Halfaya Pass
is about two miles 2 miles (3.2 km) inland from the Mediterranean and provides a natural route through. The escarpment is known as Akabah el-Kebir عقبة الكبير (`aqabat al-kabīr) "great ascent". To El-Edrisi
El-Edrisi
it was known as عقبة السلوم (`aqabat as-salūm) "graded ascent", whence the modern name of the gulf and the town of Salum. In antiquity it was known as Catabathmus Magnus
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Operation Battleaxe
 United Kingdom British India  Poland  Czechoslovakia Germany  ItalyCommanders and leaders Archibald Wavell Noel Beresford-Peirse Italo Gariboldi Erwin RommelStrength25,000 men[1] 90 cruisers and c. 100 'I' tanks"[2] 98 fighters[3] 105 bombers[3] 8th Panzer Regiment began with c. 100 tanks, about 50 being gun tanks; 5th Panzer Regiment had 96 tanks (57 gun tanks).[2] 130 fighters[3] 84 bombers[a]Casualties and losses969 casualties[b] 91[c]-98 tanks[d] 36 aircraft[e] 1,270 casualties[f] 12 tanks[g] 10 aircraft[2]v t eWestern Desert CampaignInvasion of Egypt CompassNibeiwa Sidi Barrani Bardia MechiliBeda FommKufra GiarabubSonnenblume TobrukBardia raid Twin PimplesBrevity Skorpion Battleaxe CrusaderFlipper 1st Bir el Gubi Point 175 2nd Bir el GubiGazalaBir HakeimMersa Matruh 1st Alamein Sidi Haneish Alam Hal
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Bardia
Bardia,[2] or El Burdi (Arabic: البردية or البردي‎) is a Mediterranean
Mediterranean
seaport in the Butnan District
Butnan District
of eastern Libya. It is also seldom known as Bórdi Slemán.[3] History[edit] In Roman times the town was known as Petras Maior.[4] During World War I, German U-boats
U-boats
made several landings in the port of Bardia
Bardia
in support of the Senussi
Senussi
order during their revolt against British and Italian colonial rule.[5] During World War II, it was the site of a major Italian fortification, invested by the XXIII Corps under the command of General Annibale Bergonzoli.[6] On 21 June 1940, the town was bombarded by the 7th Cruiser Squadron of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Fleet
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Chester Wilmott
Reginald William Winchester Wilmot (21 June 1911 – 10 January 1954) was an Australian war correspondent who reported for the BBC
BBC
and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
during the Second World War. After the war he continued to work as a broadcast reporter, and wrote a well-appreciated book about the liberation of Europe. He was killed in the crash of a BOAC Comet over the Mediterranean Sea.Contents1 Early life 2 War reporter 3 BBC
BBC
work 4 Military historian 5 Broadcaster 6 Death 7 Books 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further readingEarly life[edit] Wilmot was born in Brighton, a suburb of Melbourne; he was the son of Reginald "Old Boy" Wilmot, a well-known sports journalist
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Operation Crusader
 United Kingdom India Australia  New Zealand  South Africa Poland Czechoslovakia[1]  Germany  ItalyCommanders and leaders Claude Auchinleck Neil Ritchie Willoughby Norrie Reade Godwin-Austen Ettore Bastico Erwin Rommel Ludwig Crüwell Gastone Gambara Enea NavariniStrength118,000 men[2] 738 tanks[note 1] 724 aircraft (616 serviceable)[note 2] 119,000 men[note 3] 390[note 4]–414 tanks[note 5] 536 aircraft (342 serviceable)[note 6]Casualties and losses17,700 casualties[note 7] ~800 tanks destroyed, damaged, or broken down[6][note 8] ~300 aircraft[8] 38,300 casualties[note 9] 340 tanks destroyed or damaged[note 10] at least 332 aircraft lost[note 11]v t eWestern Desert CampaignInvasion of Egypt CompassNibeiwa Sidi Barrani Bardia MechiliBeda FommKufra GiarabubSonnenblume TobrukBardia raid Twin PimplesBrevity Skorpion Battleaxe
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British Eighth Army
Associated articlesFrontier Wire Devil's gardens Fort Capuzzo Maletti Group Camouflage Babini Group Combeforce 3rd Indian Motor Brigade Baggush Boxv t eTunisian CampaignRun for Tunis Sidi Bou Zid Kasserine Pass Ochsenkopf Medenine Mareth Line El Guettar Wadi Akarit Longstop Hill Hill 609 Vulcan Flax Retribution Strikev t eItalian CampaignInvasion of SicilyInvasion of ItalyBaytown Avalanche SlapstickArmistice with ItalyAchse Naples Vatican bombingVolturno Line Barbara Line Bari raid Winter Line
Winter Line
( Bernhardt Line
Bernhardt Line
/ Cassino / Anzio Nettuno)Trasimene Line Ancona ElbaSan Marino Gothic Line 1945 Spring offensiveThe Eighth Army was a field army formation of the British Army
British Army
during the Second World War, fighting in the North African and Italian campaigns
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Flanking Maneuver
In military tactics, a flanking maneuver, or flanking manoeuvre is a movement of an armed force around a flank to achieve an advantageous position over an enemy.[1] Flanking is useful because a force's offensive power is concentrated in its front
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