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.303 British
The .303 British
.303 British
(designated as the 303 British by the C.I.P.[2] and SAAMI[3]) or 7.7×56mmR, is a .303-inch (7.7 mm) calibre (with the bore diameter measured between the lands as is common practice in Europe) rimmed rifle cartridge first developed in Britain as a black-powder round put into service in December 1888 for the Lee–Metford
Lee–Metford
rifle
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Ballistite
Ballistite is a smokeless propellant made from two high explosives, nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine. It was developed and patented by Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
in the late 19th century.Contents1 Military adoption 2 Development of cordite and unsuccessful claim by Nobel of patent infringement 3 See also 4 ReferencesMilitary adoption[edit] Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel
patented Ballistite in 1887 while he was living in Paris. His formulation was composed of 10% camphor and equal parts nitroglycerine and collodion.[1] The camphor reacted with any acidic products of the chemical breakdown of the two explosives. This both stabilized the explosive against further decomposition and prevented spontaneous explosions. However, camphor tends to evaporate over time, leaving a potentially unstable mixture.[2] Nobel's patent specified that the nitrocellulose should be "of the well-known soluble kind"
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SAAMI
The Sporting Arms and Ammunition
Ammunition
Manufacturers' Institute (SAAMI, pronounced "Sammy") is an association of American firearms and ammunition manufacturers
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Soviet Invasion Of Afghanistan
 Soviet Union 40th Army Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Supported by:  India[1][2]   East Germany
East Germany
(1979–1980)[3] Sunni Mujahideen: Jamiat-e Islami[4]Shura-e Nazar Gulbuddin faction[4]Maktab al-Khadamat Khalis faction[4] Ittehad i-Islami (IULA)[4] Harakat-i-Inqilab (IRM)[4] Jebh-e Nejat-e Melli (ANLF)[4] Mahaz-e Milli (NIFA)[4]Supported by: Pakistan
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War In Afghanistan (2001–present)
ISAF phase (2001–14): Islamic Republic of Afghanistan[7] ISAF  United States  United Kingdom  Italy  Germany  Georgia  Jordan  Turkey  Bulgaria  Poland  Romania  Spain  Australia  Czech RepublicContinued list[a] Macedonia  Denmark  Armenia  Azerbaijan  Finland  France  Croatia  Hungary  Norway  Lithuania  Mongolia  United Arab Emirates  Belgium  Portugal  Slovakia  Netherlands  Montenegro  Latvia  Sweden  Albania  Ukraine  Bosnia and Herzegovina  Greece  Ireland  Iceland  Estonia  Malaysia  Slovenia  Austria  Bahrain  El Salvador  Luxembourg  New Zealand  South Korea  Tonga Canada  Pakistan[8]  
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Grain (unit)
A grain is a unit of measurement of mass, and in the troy weight, avoirdupois, and Apothecaries' system, equal to exactly 7001647989100000000♠64.79891 milligrams. It is nominally based upon the mass of a single virtual ideal seed of a cereal. From the Bronze Age into the Renaissance the average masses of wheat and barley grains were part of the legal definitions of units of mass
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Primer (firearm)
In firearms, the primer (/ˈpraɪmər/) is a component of handgun and rifle cartridges and shotgun shells, and is responsible for initiating the propellant combustion that will push the projectiles out of the gun barrel. Early primers were simply the same black powder used to fire muzzleloaders but poured into an external flash pan, where it could be ignited by an ignition source such as a slow match or a flintlock. This external powder was connected through a small opening at the rear of the gun barrel that led to the main charge within the barrel. As gunpowder will not burn when wet, this made it difficult (or even impossible) to fire these types of weapons in rainy or humid conditions. Modern primers are made of shock-sensitive chemicals
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Small Arms Ammunition Pressure Testing
Small arms ammunition pressure testing is used to establish standards for maximum average peak pressures of chamberings, as well as determining the safety of particular loads for the purposes of new load development. In metallic cartridges, peak pressure can vary based on propellant used, primers used, charge weight, projectile type, projectile seating depth, neck tension, chamber throat/leade parameters. In shotshells, the primary factors are charge weight, projectile weight, wad type, hull construction, and crimp quality.Contents1 Modern civilian test methodologies1.1 C.I.P
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Copper Units Of Pressure
Copper
Copper
units of pressure or CUP, and the related lead units of pressure or LUP, are terms applied to pressure measurements used in the field of internal ballistics for the estimation of chamber pressures in firearms. These terms were adopted by convention to indicate that the pressure values were measured by copper crusher and lead crusher gauges respectively. In recent years, they have been replaced by the adoption of more modern piezoelectric pressure gauges that more accurately measure chamber pressures and generally give significantly higher pressure values. This nomenclature was adopted to avoid confusion and the potentially dangerous interchange of pressure values and standards made by different types of pressure gauges. Pressure
Pressure
is a fundamental thermodynamic parameter that is expressed in units of force divided by area
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C.I.P.
The Commission internationale permanente pour l'épreuve des armes à feu portatives ("Permanent International Commission for the Proof of Small Arms" – commonly abbreviated as C.I.P.) is an international organisation which sets standards for safety testing of firearms. (The word portatives ("portable") in the name refers to the fact the C.I.P. tests small arms almost exclusively; it is ordinarily omitted from the English translation of the name.) As of 2015, its members are the national governments of 14 countries, of which 11 are European Union member states. The C.I.P. safeguards that all firearms and ammunition sold to civilian purchasers in member states are safe for the users. To achieve this, all such firearms are first proof tested at C.I.P. accredited Proof Houses. The same applies for cartridges; at regular intervals, cartridges are tested against the C.I.P
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Black Powder
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive. It consists of a mixture of sulfur, charcoal, and potassium nitrate (saltpeter)
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Sino-Indian War
The Sino-Indian War
Sino-Indian War
(Hindi: भारत-चीन युद्ध Bhārat-Chīn Yuddh), also known as the Sino-Indian Border Conflict (simplified Chinese: 中印边境战争; traditional Chinese: 中印邊境戰爭; pinyin: Zhōng-Yìn Biānjìng Zhànzhēng), was a war between China
China
and India
India
that occurred in 1962. A disputed Himalayan border was the main pretext for war, but other issues played a role. There had been a series of violent border incidents after the 1959 Tibetan uprising, when India
India
had granted asylum to the Dalai Lama
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Commonwealth Of Nations
The Commonwealth
Commonwealth
of Nations[2] (formerly the British Commonwealth),[3][1] also known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.[4] The Commonwealth
Commonwealth
operates by intergovernmental consensus of the member states, organised through the Commonwealth Secretariat and non-governmental organisations, organised through the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
Foundation.[5] The Commonwealth
Commonwealth
dates back to the mid-20th century with the decolonisation of the British Empire
British Empire
through increased self-governance of its territories
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Litre
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l,[1] sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume [2] — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,[3] although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3)
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Grain (measure)
A grain is a unit of measurement of mass, and in the troy weight, avoirdupois, and Apothecaries' system, equal to exactly 7001647989100000000♠64.79891 milligrams. It is nominally based upon the mass of a single virtual ideal seed of a cereal. From the Bronze Age into the Renaissance the average masses of wheat and barley grains were part of the legal definitions of units of mass
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Bolt Action
Bolt action
Bolt action
is a type of repeater firearm action where the handling of cartridges into and out of the weapon's barrel chamber are operated by manually manipulating the bolt directly via a handle, which is most commonly placed on the right-hand side of the weapon (as most users are right-handed). As the handle is operated, the bolt is unlocked from the receiver and pulled back to open the breech, allowing the spent cartridge case to be extracted and ejected, the firing pin within the bolt is cocked (either on opening or closing of the bolt depending on the gun design) and engages the sear, then upon the bolt being pushed back a new cartridge (if available) is loaded into the chamber, and finally the breech is closed tight by the bolt locking against the receiver. Bolt-action firearms (or "bolt guns" colloquially) are most often rifles, but there are some bolt-action variants of shotguns and a few handguns as well
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