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Łańcut
Łańcut
Łańcut
(Polish pronunciation: [ˈwaɲt͡sut];[1] German: Landshut, Yiddish: לאַנצוט-Lantzut‎), is a town in south-eastern Poland, with 18,004 inhabitants, as of 2 June 2009.[2] Situated in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship
Subcarpathian Voivodeship
(since 1999), it is the capital of Łańcut County.Contents1 History 2 Main sights 3 Transport 4 International relations4.1 Twin towns — sister cities5 See also 6 References6.1 Bibliography 6.2 Attribution 6.3 Notes7 External linksHistory[edit] Archeological investigations carried out in the region of Łańcut confirm the existence of human settlements from about 4000 years B.C.[3] The first owner of the town was Otton (z Pilczy) Pilecki, who was given the Łańcut
Łańcut
estate by the Polish king, Casimir III the Great, in 1349, as a reward for his service
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Lanžhot
Lanžhot
Lanžhot
(German: Landshut) is a town in Břeclav
Břeclav
District, South Moravian Region, Czech Republic. It has a population of 3,735 (2006 est.). It is the southernmost Moravian town
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Duchess
A duke (male) (British English: /djuːk/[1] or American English: /duːk/[2]) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of the nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch. The title comes from French duc, itself from the Latin dux, 'leader', a term used in republican Rome to refer to a military commander without an official rank (particularly one of Germanic or Celtic origin), and later coming to mean the leading military commander of a province. The title dux survived in the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
where it was used in several contexts signifying a rank equivalent to a captain or general. Later on, in the 11th century, the title Megas Doux
Megas Doux
was introduced for the post of commander-in-chief of the entire navy. During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the title (as Herzog) signified first among the Germanic monarchies
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Polish Language
Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland
Poland
and is the native language of the Poles. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages.[8] Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used throughout the world by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 55 million Polish language
Polish language
speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script
Latin script
(ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż)
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Stucco
Stucco
Stucco
or render is a material made of aggregates, a binder and water. Stucco
Stucco
is applied wet and hardens to a very dense solid. It is used as a decorative coating for walls and ceilings, and as a sculptural and artistic material in architecture. Stucco
Stucco
may be used to cover less visually appealing construction materials, such as metal, concrete, cinder block, or clay brick and adobe. In English, stucco usually refers to a coating for the outside of a building and plaster one for interiors; as described below, the material itself is often little different
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Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski
Prince Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski
Lubomirski
(20 January 1616 – 31 December 1667) was a Polish noble (szlachcic), magnate, outstanding politician and military commander. Lubomirski
Lubomirski
was a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire SRI. He was the initiator of the Lubomirski
Lubomirski
Rebellion of 1665–1666. Lubomirski
Lubomirski
was the son of voivode and starost Stanisław Lubomirski and Princess Zofia Ostrogska. He was married to Konstancja Ligęza since 1641 and Barbara Tarło since 1654
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Tylman Van Gameren
Tylman van Gameren, also Tilman or Tielman and Tylman Gamerski,[1] (Utrecht, July 3, 1632 – c. 1706, Warsaw)[2] was a Dutch-born Polish[3][4] architect and engineer who, at the age of 28, settled in Poland
Poland
and worked for Queen Marie Casimire, wife of Poland's King John III Sobieski. Tylman left behind a lifelong legacy of buildings that are regarded as gems of Polish Baroque
Baroque
architecture.[4]Contents1 Life and professional career 2 Works 3 See also 4 References 5 Literature 6 External linksLife and professional career[edit] Tylman was born in Utrecht, the Netherlands, and was trained by Jacob van Campen whilst the latter was busy building the Stadhuis on the Dam. Like many Dutch artists at the height of the Dutch Golden Age, Tylman left for Italy in 1650
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Classical Music
Classical music
Classical music
is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music. While a more precise term is also used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820 (the Classical period), this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods.[1] The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common-practice period
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History Of Poland (1795–1918)
In 1795 the third and the last of the three 18th-century partitions of Poland
Poland
ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Nevertheless, events both within and outside the Polish lands kept hopes for restoration of Polish independence alive throughout the 19th century
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Habsburg Monarchy
The Habsburg Monarchy
Monarchy
(German: Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine
Habsburg-Lorraine
until 1918. The Monarchy
Monarchy
was a composite state composed of territories within and outside the Holy Roman Empire, united only in the person of the monarch. The dynastic capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611,[2] when it was moved to Prague
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Distillation
Distillation
Distillation
is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation. Distillation
Distillation
may result in essentially complete separation (nearly pure components), or it may be a partial separation that increases the concentration of selected components of the mixture. In either case the process exploits differences in the volatility of the mixture's components. In industrial chemistry, distillation is a unit operation of practically universal importance, but it is a physical separation process and not a chemical reaction. Distillation
Distillation
has many applications
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Town Privileges
Town
Town
privileges or borough rights were important features of European towns during most of the second millennium. The city law customary in Central Europe
Europe
probably dates back to Italian models, which in turn were oriented towards the traditions of the self-administration of Roman cities Judicially, a borough (or burgh) was distinguished from the countryside by means of a charter from the ruling monarch that defined its privileges and laws. Common privileges involved trade (marketplace, the storing of goods, etc.) and the establishment of guilds. Some of these privileges were permanent and could imply that the town obtained the right to be called a borough, hence the term borough rights (German Stadtrecht, Dutch stadsrechten). Some degree of self-government, representation by diet, and tax-relief could also be granted
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Count
Count
Count
(male) or countess (female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility.[1] The word count came into English from the French comte, itself from Latin
Latin
comes—in its accusative comitem—meaning “companion”, and later “companion of the emperor, delegate of the emperor”. The adjective form of the word is "comital". The British and Irish equivalent is an earl (whose wife is a "countess", for lack of an English term)
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Council Of Four Lands
The Council of Four Lands (Va'ad Arba' Aratzot) in Lublin, Poland was the central body of Jewish authority in Poland from the second half of the 16th century to 1764. The first known regulation for the Council is dated by 1580.[1]). Seventy delegates from local kehillot met to discuss taxation and other issues important to the Jewish community. The "four lands" were Greater Poland, Little Poland, Ruthenia and Volhynia.[2] In Polish it was referred to as the Jewish Sejm (Polish: Sejm Żydowski).[3] The terms "Council of Three Lands" and "Council of Five Lands" and more have also been used for the same body
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Cemetery
A cemetery or graveyard is a place where the remains of dead people are buried or otherwise interred. The word cemetery (from Greek κοιμητήριον, "sleeping place")[1][2] implies that the land is specifically designated as a burial ground and originally applied to the Roman underground catacombs.[3] The term graveyard is often used interchangeably with cemetery, but a graveyard primarily refers to a burial ground within a churchyard.[4][5] The intact or cremated remains of people may be interred in a grave, commonly referred to as burial, or in a tomb, an "above-ground grave" (resembling a sarcophagus), a mausoleum, columbarium, niche, or other edifice. In Western cultures, funeral ceremonies are often observed in cemeteries. These ceremonies or rites of passage differ according to cultural practices and religious beliefs
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Rebbe
Rebbe
Rebbe
(Hebrew: רבי‬: /ˈrɛbɛ/ or /ˈrɛbi/[1]) is a Yiddish word derived from the Hebrew word rabbi, which means "master, teacher, or mentor"
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