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Łódź
ŁóDź (/wuːtʃ/ wooch , /lɒdz/ lodz ; Polish: ( listen ); Yiddish : לאדזש‎, Lodzh; also written as LODZ) is the third-largest city in Poland
Poland
and a former industrial centre. Located in the central part of the country, it has a population of 693,797 (2017). It is the capital of Łódź Voivodeship , and is approximately 135 kilometres (84 mi) south-west of Warsaw
Warsaw
. The city's coat of arms is an example of canting : depicting a boat. It alludes to the city's name which translates literally as "boat." Łódź
Łódź
was once a small settlement that first appeared in written records in around 1332. In the early 15th century it was granted city rights , but remained a rather small and insubstantial town
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Daylight Saving Time
DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME (abbreviated DST), also sometimes erroneously referred to as DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. American inventor and politician Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
proposed a form of daylight time in 1784. He wrote an essay "An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost of Light" to the editor of The Journal of Paris , suggesting, somewhat jokingly, that Parisians could economize candle usage by getting people out of bed earlier in the morning, making use of the natural morning light instead. New Zealander George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895
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Central European Summer Time
CENTRAL EUROPEAN SUMMER TIME (CEST) is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1 ) during the rest of the year. It corresponds to UTC+2 , which makes it the same as Central Africa Time , South African Standard Time
South African Standard Time
and Kaliningrad Time in Russia
Russia
. CONTENTS * 1 Names * 2 Period of observation * 3 Usage * 4 See also * 5 References NAMESOther names which have been applied to Central European Summer Time are Middle European Summer Time (MEST), Central European Daylight Saving Time (CEDT), and Bravo Time (after the second letter of the NATO phonetic alphabet )
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UTC+2
UTC+02:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +02. In ISO 8601 the associated time would be written as 2017-08-09T10:11:53+02:00
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UTC+1
UTC+01:00 is a time offset that adds 1 hour to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). This time is used in: * Central European Time
Central European Time
* West Africa Time
West Africa Time
* Western European Summer Time
Western European Summer Time
* British Summer Time
British Summer Time
* Irish Standard Time * Romance Standard Time (Microsoft Windows Control panel) * Swatch Internet Time * EVE Online In ISO 8601 the associated time would be written as 2017-08-08T12:06:10+01:00
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Central European Time
TIME IN AFRICA UTC−01:00 Cape Verde Time
Cape Verde Time
UTC±00:00 Greenwich Mean Time UTC±00:00 UTC+01:00 Greenwich Mean Time Greenwich Mean Time +1


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Duchy Of Warsaw
The DUCHY OF WARSAW (Polish : Księstwo Warszawskie, French : Duché de Varsovie, German : Herzogtum Warschau) was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit . The duchy was held in personal union by one of Napoleon's allies, King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony . Following Napoleon\'s failed invasion of Russia , the duchy was occupied by Prussian and Russian troops until 1815, when it was formally partitioned between the two countries at the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
. It covered the central and eastern part of present Poland
Poland
and minor parts of present Lithuania
Lithuania
and Belarus
Belarus

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Time Zone
A TIME ZONE is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes. Time
Time
zones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions because it is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time. Most of the time zones on land are offset from Coordinated Universal Time
Time
(UTC) by a whole number of hours ( UTC−12 to UTC+14), but a few zones are offset by 30 or 45 minutes (for example Newfoundland Standard Time
Time
is UTC−03:30, Nepal
Nepal
Standard Time
Time
is UTC+05:45, and Indian Standard Time is UTC+05:30). Some higher latitude and temperate zone countries use daylight saving time for part of the year, typically by adjusting local clock time by an hour. Many land time zones are skewed toward the west of the corresponding nautical time zones
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Telephone Numbering Plan
A TELEPHONE NUMBERING PLAN is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunication to assign telephone numbers to subscriber telephones or other telephony endpoints. Telephone numbers are the addresses of participants in a telephone network, reachable by a system of destination code routing. Telephone numbering plans are defined in each of administrative regions of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and they are also present in private telephone networks. Numbering plans may follow a variety of design strategies which have often arisen from the historical evolution of individual telephone networks and local requirements. A broad division is commonly recognized, distinguishing open numbering plans and closed numbering plans. A closed numbering plan imposes a fixed number of digits assigned to every telephone, while an open numbering plan features a variable length of telephone numbers assigned to stations
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Yiddish Language
YIDDISH (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, lit. "Jewish ", pronounced ; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, lit. Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews
Jews
. It originated during the 9th century in Central Europe , providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with an extensive Germanic based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic , as well as from Slavic languages
Slavic languages
and traces of Romance languages . Yiddish
Yiddish
is written with a fully vocalized alphabet based on the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
. The earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז (loshn-ashknaz, "language of Ashkenaz") or טײַטש (taytsh), a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German
Middle High German

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Prussia
PRUSSIA (German : Preußen (help ·info )) was a historical state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg , and centred on the region of Prussia
Prussia
. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital in Königsberg
Königsberg
and from 1701 in Berlin
Berlin
, shaped the history of Germany
Germany
. In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire
German Empire
under Prussian leadership. In November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19
German Revolution of 1918–19

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Second Partition Of Poland
The 1793 SECOND PARTITION OF POLAND was the second of three partitions (or partial annexations ) that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
by 1795. The second partition occurred in the aftermath of the War in Defense of the Constitution and the Targowica Confederation of 1792, and was approved by its territorial beneficiaries, the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and the Kingdom of Prussia . The division was ratified by the coerced Polish parliament ( Sejm
Sejm
) in 1793 (see the Grodno Sejm
Sejm
) in a short-lived attempt to prevent the inevitable complete annexation of Poland, the Third Partition
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Kuyavia
KUYAVIA ( ; Polish : Kujawy, German : Kujawien, Latin : Cuiavia), also referred to as CUYAVIA, is a historical region in north-central Poland
Poland
, situated on the left bank of Vistula
Vistula
, as well as east from Noteć
Noteć
River and Lake Gopło . It is divided into three traditional parts: north-eastern (with the capital in Bydgoszcz
Bydgoszcz
, ethnographically regarded often as non-kuyavian), central (the capital in Inowrocław or Kruszwica
Kruszwica
), and south-eastern (the capital in Włocławek
Włocławek
or Brześć Kujawski )
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City Rights
TOWN PRIVILEGES or BOROUGH RIGHTS were important features of European towns during most of the second millennium. Judicially, a borough (or burgh ) was distinguished from the countryside by means of a charter from the ruling monarch that defined its privileges and laws . Common privileges involved trade (marketplace, the storing of goods, etc.) and the establishment of guilds . Some of these privileges were permanent and could imply that the town obtained the right to be called a borough , hence the term BOROUGH RIGHTS (German Stadtrecht, Dutch stadsrechten). Some degree of self-government , representation by diet , and tax-relief could also be granted. Multiple tiers existed; for example, in Sweden, the basic royal charter establishing a borough enabled trade, but not foreign trade, which required a higher-tier charter granting staple right
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Industry
INDUSTRY is the production of goods or related services within an economy . The major source of revenue of a group or company is the indicator of its relevant industry. When a large group has multiple sources of revenue generation, it is considered to be working in different industries. Manufacturing
Manufacturing
industry became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
, upsetting previous mercantile and feudal economies. This came through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the production of steel and coal
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Coat Of Arms
A COAT OF ARMS is an heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield ), surcoat , or tabard . The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters , crest , and motto . A coat of arms is traditionally unique to an individual person , family (except in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
), state, organisation or corporation
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