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Łódź
Łódź
Łódź
(Polish: [wutɕ] (listen); also written in English as Lodz)[a] is the third-largest city in Poland
Poland
and a former industrial hub. Located in the central part of the country, it has a population of 685,285 (2018).[1] It is the capital of Łódź Voivodeship, and is located approximately 120 kilometres (75 mi) south-west of Warsaw.[6] The city's coat of arms is an example of canting, as it depicts a boat (łódź in Polish), which alludes to the city's name. Łódź
Łódź
was once a small settlement that first appeared in written records in around 1332. In the early 15th century it was granted city rights, but remained a rather small and insubstantial town
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Telephone Numbering Plan
A telephone numbering plan is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunication to assign telephone numbers to subscriber telephones or other telephony endpoints.[1] Telephone numbers are the addresses of participants in a telephone network, reachable by a system of destination code routing. Telephone numbering plans are defined in each of administrative regions of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and they are also present in private telephone networks. For public number systems, geographic location plays a role in the sequence of numbers assigned to each telephone subscriber. Numbering plans may follow a variety of design strategies which have often arisen from the historical evolution of individual telephone networks and local requirements. A broad division is commonly recognized, distinguishing open numbering plans and closed numbering plans[discuss]
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Kuyavia
Kuyavia
Kuyavia
(Polish: Kujawy, German: Kujawien, Latin: Cuiavia), also referred to as Cuyavia, is a historical region in north-central Poland, situated on the left bank of Vistula, as well as east from Noteć
Noteć
River and Lake Gopło
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Central European Summer Time
Central European Summer Time
European Summer Time
(CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time
Central European Time
(UTC+01:00) during the other part of the year
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Daylight Saving Time
Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time
(DST), also daylight savings time or daylight time (United States) and summer time (United Kingdom, European Union, and others), is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn.[1] In effect, DST causes a lost hour of sleep in the spring and an extra hour of sleep in the fall.[2][3] George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895.[4] The German Empire
German Empire
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
organized the first nationwide implementation starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used it at various times since then, particularly since the 1970s energy crisis
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Central European Time
Central European Time
Central European Time
(CET), used in most parts of Europe
Europe
and a few North African
North African
countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC). The time offset from UTC
UTC
can be written as UTC+01:00
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Time Zone
A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes. Time
Time
zones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions because it is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time. Most of the time zones on land are offset from Coordinated Universal Time
Time
(UTC) by a whole number of hours (UTC−12:00 to UTC+14:00), but a few zones are offset by 30 or 45 minutes (e.g. Newfoundland
Newfoundland
Standard Time
Time
is UTC−03:30, Nepal
Nepal
Standard Time
Time
is UTC+05:45, and Indian Standard Time
Time
is UTC+05:30). Some higher latitude and temperate zone countries use daylight saving time for part of the year, typically by adjusting local clock time by an hour
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Metropolitan Area
A metropolitan area is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.[1] A metro area usually comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships, boroughs, cities, towns, exurbs, suburbs, counties, districts, states, and even nations like the eurodistricts. As social, economic and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions.[2] Metropolitan areas include satellite cities, towns and intervening rural areas that are socioeconomically tied to the urban core, typically measured by commuting patterns.[3] Most metropolitan areas are anchored by one major city such as Paris
Paris
metropolitan area (Paris) and New York metropolitan area
New York metropolitan area
(New York City)
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Civic Platform
Civic Platform
Civic Platform
(Polish: Platforma Obywatelska, PO)[nb 1] is a liberal-conservative[12][13][14][15] and Christian democratic[16][17] political party in Poland. Civic Platform
Civic Platform
came to power following the 2007 general election as the major coalition partner in Poland's government, with party leader Donald Tusk
Donald Tusk
as Prime Minister of Poland. Tusk was re-elected as Prime Minister in the 2011 general election but stepped down three years later to assume the post of President of the European Council. Prime Minister Ewa Kopacz
Ewa Kopacz
led the party in the 2015 general election but was defeated by the Law and Justice
Law and Justice
party. On 16 November 2015 Civic Platform
Civic Platform
government stepped down after exactly 8 years in power
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Coat Of Arms
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters, crest, and motto
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City Rights
Town
Town
privileges or borough rights were important features of European towns during most of the second millennium. The city law customary in Central Europe
Europe
probably dates back to Italian models, which in turn were oriented towards the traditions of the self-administration of Roman cities Judicially, a borough (or burgh) was distinguished from the countryside by means of a charter from the ruling monarch that defined its privileges and laws. Common privileges involved trade (marketplace, the storing of goods, etc.) and the establishment of guilds. Some of these privileges were permanent and could imply that the town obtained the right to be called a borough, hence the term borough rights (German Stadtrecht, Dutch stadsrechten). Some degree of self-government, representation by diet, and tax-relief could also be granted
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Prussia
Prussia
Prussia
(/ˈprʌʃə/; German:  Preußen (help·info) [ˈpʁɔʏ̯sən]) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia. It was de facto dissolved by an emergency decree transferring powers of the Prussian government to German Chancellor
German Chancellor
Franz von Papen
Franz von Papen
in 1932 and de jure by an Allied decree in 1947. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital in Königsberg
Königsberg
and from 1701 in Berlin, decisively shaped the history of Germany. In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire
German Empire
under Prussian leadership
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Yiddish Language
Yiddish
Yiddish
(ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, lit. "Jewish", pronounced [ˈjɪdɪʃ] or [ˈɪdɪʃ]; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, lit. Judaeo-German)[3] is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century[4] in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with a High German-based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic as well as from Slavic languages
Slavic languages
and traces of Romance languages.[5][6][7] Yiddish
Yiddish
is written with a fully vocalized version of the Hebrew alphabet. The earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז‎ (loshn-ashknaz, "language of Ashkenaz") or טײַטש‎ (taytsh), a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German
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Second Partition Of Poland
The 1793 Second Partition of Poland
Second Partition of Poland
was the second of three partitions (or partial annexations) that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
by 1795. The second partition occurred in the aftermath of the Polish–Russian War of 1792
Polish–Russian War of 1792
and the Targowica Confederation
Targowica Confederation
of 1792, and was approved by its territorial beneficiaries, the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and the Kingdom of Prussia
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