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Étienne-Jules Marey
Étienne-Jules Marey
Étienne-Jules Marey
(French: [maʁɛ]; 5 March 1830, Beaune, Côte-d'Or
Côte-d'Or
– 15 May 1904,[1] Paris) was a French scientist, physiologist and chronophotographer. His work was significant in the development of cardiology, physical instrumentation, aviation, cinematography and the science of laboratory photography. He is widely considered to be a pioneer of photography and an influential pioneer of the history of cinema. He was also a pioneer in establishing a variety of graphical techniques for the display and interpretation of quantitative data from physiological measurement.[2]Contents1 Biography 2 Chronophotography 3 Bibliography 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit]Flying pelican captured by Marey around 1882. He found a way to record several phases of movements in one photoMarey started by studying blood circulation in the human body
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Virtual Laboratory
The online project Virtual Laboratory. Essays and Resources on the Experimentalization of Life, 1830-1930, located at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, is dedicated to research in the history of the experimentalization of life. The term experimentalization describes the interaction between the life sciences, the arts, architecture, media and technology within the experimental paradigm, ca. 1830 to 1930. The Virtual Laboratory is a platform that not only presents work on this topic but also acts as a research environment for new studies.Contents1 History 2 Structure 3 Literature 4 External linksHistory[edit] In 1997, the first version of the Virtual Laboratory was presented, titled Virtual Laboratory of Physiology. At this time, the main focus lay on the development of technological preconditions of physiological research in the 19th century. Therefore, a database with relevant texts and images was created
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Exposition Universelle (1900)
The Exposition Universelle of 1900 was a world's fair held in Paris, France, from 14 April to 12 November 1900, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next. The style that was universally present in the Exposition was Art Nouveau
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Naples
Naples
Naples
(/ˈneɪpəlz/; Italian: Napoli [ˈnaːpoli] ( listen), Neapolitan: Napule [ˈnɑːpələ] or [ˈnɑːpulə]; Latin: Neapolis; Ancient Greek: Νεάπολις, meaning "new city") is the capital of the Italian region Campania
Campania
and the third-largest municipality in Italy
Italy
after Rome
Rome
and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits. The Metropolitan City of Naples
Metropolitan City of Naples
had a population of 3,115,320
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Stazione Zoologica
The Stazione Zoologica
Stazione Zoologica
Anton Dohrn
Anton Dohrn
is a research institute in Naples, Italy, devoted to basic research in biology
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Anton Dohrn
Felix Anton Dohrn
Anton Dohrn
FRS FRSE
FRSE
(29 September 1840 – 26 September 1909) was a prominent German Darwinist and the founder and first director of the first zoological research station in the world, the Stazione Zoologica in Naples, Italy.Contents1 Family history 2 Entomology 3 Introduction to Darwinism 4 Development of "zoological stations" 5 Foundation of the Stazione Zoologica 6 The "Bench" system 7 Legacy 8 References 9 External linksFamily history[edit] Dohrn was born in Stettin (Szczecin), Prussian Province of Pomerania, into a wealthy middle class family. His grandfather, Heinrich Dohrn, had been a wine and spice merchant, and had made the family fortune by trading in sugar. This wealth allowed Anton's father, Carl August, to devote himself to his various hobbies; travelling, folk music and insects
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Le Globe
Le Globe was a French newspaper, published in Paris by the Bureau du Globe between 1824 and 1832,[1] and created with the goal of publishing Romantic creations. It was established by Pierre Leroux
Pierre Leroux
and the printer Alexandre Lachevardière. After 1828, the paper became political and Liberal in tone. The Aide-toi, le ciel t'aidera association's organ was first Le Globe and then Le National.[2] Charles Renouard
Charles Renouard
was among the liberals who opposed the Bourbon Restoration.[3] He was a member of the "Aide-toi" society and participated in the creation of the Globe. He was the lawyer for this journal, and contributed to it regularly from 1825 to 1827.[4] Le Globe was bought by the Saint-Simonists in 1830, and was the official voice of the movement under the July Monarchy
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Posillipo
Posillipo
Posillipo
is a residential quarter of Naples, southern Italy, located along the northern coast of the Gulf of Naples; it is called Pusilleco in the Neapolitan language. From the 1st century BC the Bay of Naples
Naples
witnessed the rise of villas constructed by elite Romans along the most panoramic points of the coast, who had chosen the area as a favourite vacation spot
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1880
1880
1880
was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1880th year of the Common Era
Common Era
(CE) and Anno Domini
Anno Domini
(AD) designations, the 880th year of the 2nd millennium, the 80th year of the 19th century, and the 1st year of the 1880s
1880s
decade
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1876
1876
1876
was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1876th year of the Common Era
Common Era
(CE) and Anno Domini
Anno Domini
(AD) designations, the 876th year of the 2nd millennium, the 76th year of the 19th century, and the 7th year of the 1870s
1870s
decade
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Animal Locomotion
Animal locomotion, in ethology, is any of a variety of movements or methods that animals use to move from one place to another.[1] Some modes of locomotion are (initially) self-propelled, e.g., running, swimming, jumping, flying, hopping, soaring and gliding. There are also many animal species that depend on their environment for transportation, a type of mobility called passive locomotion, e.g., sailing (some jellyfish), kiting (spiders) and rolling (some beetles and spiders). Animals move for a variety of reasons, such as to find food, a mate, a suitable microhabitat, or to escape predators. For many animals, the ability to move is essential for survival and, as a result, natural selection has shaped the locomotion methods and mechanisms used by moving organisms
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Samuel Pierpont Langley
Samuel Pierpont Langley
Samuel Pierpont Langley
(/ˈlæŋli/; August 22, 1834 – February 27, 1906) was an American astronomer, physicist, inventor of the bolometer and aviation pioneer.Contents1 Life 2 Allegheny Observatory 3 Aviation
Aviation
work 4 Legacy 5 Bolometer 6 Commercial time service 7 Media 8 See also 9 References9.1 Notes 9.2 Bibliography10 External linksLife[edit] He was born in Roxbury, Boston
Roxbury, Boston
on 22 August 1834.[3] He attended Boston Latin School, graduated from English High School of Boston, was an assistant in the Harvard College Observatory, then moved to a job ostensibly as a professor of mathematics at the United States Naval Academy, but actually was sent there to restore the Academy's small observatory
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Smithsonian Institution
The Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
(/smɪθˈsoʊniən/ smith-SOH-nee-ən), established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.[1] The institution is named after its founding donor, British scientist James Smithson.[2] Originally organized as the "United States National Museum," that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967.[3] Termed "the nation's attic"[4] for its eclectic holdings of 154 million items,[2] the Institution's nineteen museums, nine research centers, and zoo include historical and architectural landmarks, mostly located in the District of Columbia.[5] Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York City, Pittsburgh, Texas, Virginia, and Panama
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Aerodynamics
Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing. It is a sub-field of fluid dynamics and gas dynamics, and many aspects of aerodynamics theory are common to these fields. The term aerodynamics is often used synonymously with gas dynamics, the difference being that "gas dynamics" applies to the study of the motion of all gases, and is not limited to air. The formal study of aerodynamics began in the modern sense in the eighteenth century, although observations of fundamental concepts such as aerodynamic drag were recorded much earlier
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Joint
A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.[1][2][3] They are constructed to allow for different degrees and types of movement. Some joints, such as the knee, elbow, and shoulder, are self-lubricating, almost frictionless, and are able to withstand compression and maintain heavy loads while still executing smooth and precise movements.[3] Other joints such as sutures between the bones of the skull permit very little movement (only during birth) in order to protect the brain and the sense organs.[3] The connection between a tooth and the jawbone is also called a joint, and is described as a fibrous joint known as a gomphosis
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Wind Tunnel
A wind tunnel is a tool used in aerodynamic research to study the effects of air moving past solid objects. A wind tunnel consists of a tubular passage with the object under test mounted in the middle. Air is made to move past the object by a powerful fan system or other means. The test object, often called a wind tunnel model, is instrumented with suitable sensors to measure aerodynamic forces, pressure distribution, or other aerodynamic-related characteristics. The earliest wind tunnels were invented towards the end of the 19th century, in the early days of aeronautic research, when many attempted to develop successful heavier-than-air flying machines. The wind tunnel was envisioned as a means of reversing the usual paradigm: instead of the air standing still and an object moving at speed through it, the same effect would be obtained if the object stood still and the air moved at speed past it
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