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Émile Zola
Émile Édouard Charles Antoine Zola (/ˈzoʊlə/;[1] French: [e.mil zo.la]; 2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902)[2] was a French novelist, playwright, journalist, the best-known practitioner of the literary school of naturalism, and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism. He was a major figure in the political liberalization of France and in the exoneration of the falsely accused and convicted army officer Alfred Dreyfus, which is encapsulated in the renowned newspaper headline J'accuse
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Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the factory system. Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested
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Heredity
Heredity
Heredity
is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents. Through heredity, variations between individuals can accumulate and cause species to evolve by natural selection. The study of heredity in biology is genetics.Contents1 Overview 2 Relation to theory of evolution 3 History3.1 Gregor Mendel: father of genetics 3.2 Modern development of genetics and heredity 3.3 Common genetic disorders4 Types4.1 Dominant and recessive alleles5 See also 6 References 7 External linksOverview[edit] Heredity
Heredity
of phenotypic traits: Father
Father
and son with prominent ears and crowns. DNA
DNA
structure
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La Comédie Humaine
La Comédie humaine
La Comédie humaine
(French pronunciation: ​[la kɔmedi ymɛn], The Human Comedy) is the title of Honoré de Balzac's (1799–1850) multi-volume collection of interlinked novels and stories depicting French society in the period of the Restoration (1815-1830) and the July Monarchy
July Monarchy
(1830–1848). The Comédie humaine consists of 91 finished works (stories, novels or analytical essays) and 46 unfinished works (some of which exist only as titles).[1] It does not include Balzac's five theatrical plays or his collection of humorous tales, the "Contes drolatiques" (1832–37)
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São Paulo Museum Of Art
The São Paulo
São Paulo
Museum of Art (Portuguese: Museu de Arte de São Paulo, or MASP) is an art museum located on Paulista Avenue
Paulista Avenue
in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.[2][3] It is well known for its headquarters, a 1968 concrete and glass structure designed by Lina Bo Bardi, whose main body is supported by two lateral beams over a 74 metres (243 ft) freestanding space, considered a landmark of the city and a main symbol of modern Brazilian architecture.[4] The museum is a private non-profit institution founded in 1947 by Assis Chateaubriand
Assis Chateaubriand
and Pietro Maria Bardi
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Second French Empire
The French Second Empire
Empire
(French: Second Empire)[1] was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III
Napoleon III
from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.Contents1 Rule of Napoleon III 2 History2.1 Coup of 1851 2.2 Early reign 2.3 Freedom of the press 2.4 The Union libérale 2.5 Rise of Prussia 2.6 Mobilization of the working classes 2.7 Plebiscite of 1870 2.8 End of the Empire3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 Further reading6.1 Surveys 6.2 Politics 6.3 Military and diplomatic 6.4 Social and economic 6.5 Historiography7 External linksRule of Napoleon III[edit]Napoléon IIIImperial Standard of Napoléon IIIThe structure of the French government during the Second Empire
Empire
was little changed from the First. But Emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III
stressed his own imperial role as the foundation of the government
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Gustave Charpentier
Gustave Charpentier
Gustave Charpentier
(French: [ɡystaːv ʃaʁpɑ̃tje]; 25 June 1860 – 18 February 1956) was a French composer, best known for his opera Louise.[1]Contents1 Life and career 2 Compositions 3 Recordings 4 References 5 External linksLife and career[edit] Charpentier was born in Dieuze, Moselle, the son of a baker, and with the assistance of a rich benefactor he studied violin at the conservatoire in Lille
Lille
before entering the Paris Conservatoire
Paris Conservatoire
in 1881. There he took lessons in composition under Jules Massenet
Jules Massenet
(from 1885) and had a reputation of wanting to shock his professors
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French Coup Of 1851
The French coup d'état of 2 December 1851 was a self-coup staged by Prince Louis- Napoléon Bonaparte
Napoléon Bonaparte
(at the time President of the French Second Republic). It ended in the successful dissolution of the French National Assembly and the subsequent re-establishment of the French Empire the next year. When he faced the prospect of having to leave office in 1852, Louis-Napoléon (nephew of Napoléon Bonaparte) staged the coup in order to stay in office and implement his reform programs; these included the restoration of universal suffrage (previously abolished by the legislature). His political measures, and the extension of his mandate for 10 years, were popularly endorsed by constitutional referendum
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French Second Republic
The French Second Republic
Republic
was a short-lived republican government of France
France
between the 1848 Revolution and the 1851 coup by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte which initiated the Second Empire. It officially adopted the motto of the First Republic, Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité
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Louis Christophe François Hachette
Louis Christophe François Hachette (pronounced [lwi kʁistɔf fʁɑ̃swa aʃɛt]) (5 May 1800 – 31 July 1864) was a French publisher who established a publishing Paris house designed to produce books and other material to improve the system of school instruction. Publications were initially focused on the classics and subsequently expanded to include books and magazines of all types. The firm is currently part of a global publishing house.Contents1 Early life 2 Milestones 3 See also 4 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Hachette was born at Rethel
Rethel
in the Ardennes
Ardennes
département of France. After studying three years at prestigious École Normale Supérieure with the view of becoming a teacher 1822, he was, on political grounds, expelled from the seminary. In 1926, after briefly studying law, Hachette opened Brédif, a bookshop located near the Sorbonne in Paris
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Baccalauréat
The baccalauréat (French pronunciation: ​[bakaloʁea]), often known in France
France
colloquially as bac, is an academic qualification which French students take after high school. It was introduced by Napoleon I
Napoleon I
in 1808. It is the main diploma required to pursue university studies. There is also the European Baccalaureate which students take at the end of the European School
European School
education. It confirms a rounded secondary education and gives access to a wide range of university education. It differs from British A levels
A levels
and Scottish Highers, but is similar to a North American two-years College diploma, in that it is earned comprehensively and can be obtained in streams requiring a high level in a number of different subjects, depending on the stream
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Romanticism
Romanticism
Romanticism
(also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism
Romanticism
was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical
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Bohemianism
Bohemianism
Bohemianism
is the practice of an unconventional lifestyle, often in the company of like-minded people and with few permanent ties. It involves musical, artistic, literary or spiritual pursuits. In this context, Bohemians may or may not be wanderers, adventurers, or vagabonds. This use of the word bohemian first appeared in the English language in the nineteenth century to describe the non-traditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished artists, writers, journalists, musicians, and actors in major European cities.[1] Bohemians were associated with unorthodox or anti-establishment political or social viewpoints, which often were expressed through free love, frugality, and—in some cases—voluntary poverty
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Louise (opera)
Louise is an opera (roman musical) in four acts by Gustave Charpentier to an original French libretto by the composer, with some contributions by Saint-Pol-Roux, a symbolist poet and inspiration of the surrealists.[1] The opera depicts Parisian working-class life. However the city itself is in many ways the true star of this very atmospheric work – invoked at various points during the opera.[2] A French example of verismo opera, it tells the story of the love between Louise, a seamstress living with her parents in Paris, and Julien, a young artist
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Italians
c. 140 million Italian citizens: c. 60 million Italian ancestry: c. 80 millionRegions with significant populations  Italy
Italy
       c
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Claude Bernard
Claude Bernard
Claude Bernard
(French: [bɛʁnaʁ]; 12 July 1813 – 10 February 1878) was a French physiologist. Historian I. Bernard Cohen of Harvard University called Bernard "one of the greatest of all men of science".[1] Among many other accomplishments, he was one of the first to suggest the use of blind experiments to ensure the objectivity of scientific observations.[2] He originated the term milieu intérieur, and the associated concept of homeostasis (the latter term being coined by Walter Bradford Cannon).Contents1 Biography 2 Works2.1 Milieu interieur 2.2 Vivisection3 Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksBiography[edit] Bernard was born in 1813 in the village of Saint-Julien[3] near Villefranche-sur-Saône
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