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École Polytechnique
École Polytechnique
École Polytechnique
(French pronunciation: ​[ekɔl pɔlitɛknik]; also known as EP or X) is a French public institution of higher education and research in Palaiseau, a suburb southwest of Paris. It is one of the most prestigious and selective French grandes écoles, especially known for its polytechnicien engineering degree program. The school was established in 1794 by the mathematician Gaspard Monge during the French Revolution,[2] and was once previously a military academy under Napoleon I
Napoleon I
in 1804. The school is still supervised by the French ministry of defense, although Polytechnique is no longer a military academy and only a small number of its students choose to pursue a military career
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François Mitterrand
François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand[a] (26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman who was President of France
President of France
from 1981 to 1995, the longest time in office of any French president. As leader of the Socialist Party, he was the first figure from the left elected president under the Fifth Republic. Reflecting family influences, Mitterrand started political life on the Catholic nationalist right. He served under the Vichy Regime
Vichy Regime
in its earlier years. Subsequently he joined the Resistance, moved to the left, and held ministerial office several times under the Fourth Republic. He opposed de Gaulle's establishment of the Fifth Republic. Although at times a politically isolated figure, Mitterrand outmaneuvered rivals to become the left's standard bearer in every presidential election from 1965 to 1988, except 1969
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French Revolution Of 1848
The 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution (révolution de Février), was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe. In France
France
the revolutionary events ended the Orléans monarchy
Orléans monarchy
(1830–1848) and led to the creation of the French Second Republic. Following the overthrow of King Louis Philippe in February 1848, the elected government of the Second Republic ruled France. In the months that followed, this government steered a course that became more conservative. On 23 June 1848, the people of Paris
Paris
rose in insurrection,[1] which became known as June Days uprising
June Days uprising
– a bloody but unsuccessful rebellion by the Paris
Paris
workers against a conservative turn in the Republic's course
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CalTech
The California
California
Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)[8] is a private doctorate-granting university located in Pasadena, California, United States and is considered one of the leading universities in the world in science and technology. Although founded as a preparatory and vocational school by Amos G. Throop in 1891, the college attracted influential scientists such as George Ellery Hale, Arthur Amos Noyes
Arthur Amos Noyes
and Robert Andrews Millikan
Robert Andrews Millikan
in the early 20th century. The vocational and preparatory schools were disbanded and spun off in 1910 and the college assumed its present name in 1921
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Vocational School
A vocational school, sometimes also called a trade school, career center, or vocational college, is a type of educational institution, which, depending on country, may refer to secondary or post-secondary education designed to provide vocational education, or technical skills required to perform the tasks of a particular and specific job. In the case of secondary education, these schools differ from academic high schools which usually prepare students who aim to pursue tertiary education, rather than enter directly into the workforce. With regard to post-secondary education, vocational schools are traditionally distinguished from four-year colleges by their focus on job-specific training to students who are typically bound for one of the skilled trades, rather than providing academic training for students pursuing careers in a professional discipline
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Battle Of Paris (1814)
Decisive Coalition victoryEmperor Napoleon
Napoleon
abdicates the throne and is exiled to Elba Treaty of Fontainebleau End of the War of the Sixth CoalitionTerritorial changes Redrawing of the map of Europe later during the First Treaty of Paris and during the early stages of the Congress of ViennaBelligerents France Russia Austria PrussiaCommanders and leaders Joseph Bonaparte Auguste Marmont Jeannot de Moncey Édouard Mortier Alexander I Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly Louis Alexandre Langeron Karl von Schwarzenberg Ignaz Giulay Frederick William III Gebhard
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Lazare Carnot
Lazare Nicolas Marguerite, Count Carnot (13 May 1753 – 2 August 1823) was a French mathematician, physicist and politician. He was known as the Organizer of Victory in the French Revolutionary Wars.Contents1 Education and early life 2 Political career2.1 Military accomplishments2.1.1 Relationship with Maximilien Robespierre
Maximilien Robespierre
and the Jacobin
Jacobin
Club 2.1.2 Relationship with Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte3 Retirement and legacy 4 Work in mathematics and theoretical engineering4.1 See Also5 Famous offspring 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksEducation and early life[edit] Born on May 13, 1753 in the village of Nolay, Côte-d'Or, Carnot was the son of local judge and royal notary, Claude Carnot and his wife, Marguerite Pothier. He was the second oldest of seven children
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Emperor Of The French
Emperor
Emperor
of the French (French: Empereur des Français) was the title used by the House of Bonaparte
House of Bonaparte
starting when Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte was given the title of Emperor
Emperor
on 14 May 1804 by the French Senate
French Senate
and was crowned emperor of the French on 2 December 1804 at the cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris, in Paris, with the Crown of Napoleon. The title emphasized that the emperor ruled over "the French people" (the nation) and not over France (the republic). The old formula of "King of France" indicated that the king owned France as a personal possession
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Sixth Coalition
Coalition victory, Treaty of Fontainebleau, First Treaty of ParisBourbon Restoration; Napoleon's exile to Elba Various territorial changes Beginning of the Congress of Vienna Hostilities resume with the return of Napoleon
Napoleon
to power in 1815BelligerentsOriginal coalition Kingdom of Prussia  Russian Empire  Austrian Empire  United Kingdom Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Portugal Spanish Empire  Kingdom of Sicily  Kingdom of SardiniaAfter Battle of Leipzig Bavaria  Württemberg Baden United Netherlands French Empire Napoleonic Italy 
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July Revolution
The French Revolution
French Revolution
of 1830, also known as the July Revolution (révolution de Juillet), Second French Revolution
French Revolution
or Trois Glorieuses in French ("Three Glorious [Days]"), led to the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would be overthrown in 1848. It marked the shift from one constitutional monarchy, under the restored House of Bourbon, to another, the July Monarchy; the transition of power from the House of Bourbon to its cadet branch, the House of Orléans; and the replacement of the principle of hereditary right by popular sovereignty
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French Second Republic
The French Second Republic
Republic
was a short-lived republican government of France
France
between the 1848 Revolution and the 1851 coup by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte which initiated the Second Empire. It officially adopted the motto of the First Republic, Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité
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Nobel Prize
The Nobel Prize (/ˈnoʊbɛl/, Swedish pronunciation: [nʊˈbɛlː]; Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Norwegian: Nobelprisen) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895
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First World War
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Second World War
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Lyon
Centre: Parc de la Tête d'Or, Confluence district and the Vieux Lyon. Bottom: Pont Lafayette, Part-Dieu district with the Place Bellecour
Place Bellecour
in foreground during Festival of Lights.FlagCoat of armsMotto(s): Avant, avant, Lion le melhor. (Old Franco-Provençal: Forward, forward, Lyon
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Vichy France
Coordinates: 46°10′N 3°24′E / 46.167°N 3.400°E / 46.167; 3.400French StateÉtat Français1940–1944[1] Flag Emblem Motto: "Travail, Famille, Patrie""Work, Family, Fatherland"Anthem:  "La Marseillaise" (official) "Maréchal, nous voilà!" [2]Marshal, here we are!  (unofficial) The French State in 1942:  French State   French State, German military occupation zone   French protectorates The gradual loss of all Vichy
Vichy
territory to Free France
Free France
and the Allied powers
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