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ÆON (company)
ÆON CO., LTD. (イオン株式会社, Ion Kabushiki-gaisha), commonly written AEON CO., LTD., is the holding company of Æon Group . It has its headquarters in Mihama-ku , Chiba , Chiba Prefecture . It operates all the AEON Retail Stores (formerly known as JUSCO supermarkets) directly in Japan. Meanwhile, AEON CO. (M) BHD operates all the AEON Retail Stores directly in Malaysia . ÆON is the largest retailer in Asia. ÆON is a retail network comprising around 300 consolidated subsidiaries and 26 equity-method affiliated companies ranging from convenience stores " Ministop " and supermarkets to shopping malls and specialty stores , including Talbots . ÆON is Japan's single-largest shopping mall developer and operator. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYThe company was established in September 1926. In 1970, three companies, Futagi, Okadaya, and Shiro, formed JUSCO Co., Ltd. The employees voted to name the company " Japan United Stores Company". On August 21, 2001, the company became ÆON Co., Ltd. On August 21, 2008 the corporate structure changed. ÆON Co., Ltd. became a holding company while ÆON Retail Co., Ltd. took over the retail operations formerly held by ÆON Co., Ltd
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List Of Business Entities
A BUSINESS ENTITY is an entity that is formed and administered as per commercial law in order to engage in business activities, charitable work, or other activities allowable. Most often, business entities are formed to sell a product or a service. There are many types of business entities defined in the legal systems of various countries. These include corporations , cooperatives , partnerships , sole traders , limited liability company and other specifically permitted and labelled types of entities. The specific rules vary by country and by state or province. Some of these types are listed below, by country. For guidance, approximate equivalents in the company law of English-speaking countries are given in most cases, ≈ public limited company (UK, Ireland and the Commonwealth) ≈ Ltd.
Ltd.
(UK, Ireland and the Commonwealth) ≈ limited partnership = unlimited partnership = chartered company = statutory company = holding company = subsidiary company = one man company (sole proprietor ) = NGOs However, the regulations governing particular types of entity, even those described as roughly equivalent, differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. When creating or restructuring a business, the legal responsibilities will depend on the type of business entity chosen
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Public Company
A PUBLIC, PUBLICLY TRADED, PUBLICLY HELD COMPANY, or PUBLIC CORPORATION is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are freely traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets. In some jurisdictions, public companies over a certain size must be listed on an exchange. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Securities of a company * 2.1 Advantages * 2.2 Disadvantages * 2.3 Stockholders * 3 General trend * 4 Privatization * 5 Trading and valuation * 6 See also * 7 References HISTORYIn the early modern period, the Dutch developed several financial instruments and helped lay the foundations of modern financial system. The Dutch East India Company (VOC) became the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. In other words, the VOC was officially the first publicly traded company, because it was the first company to be ever actually listed on an official stock exchange . While the Italian city-states produced the first transferable government bonds, they did not develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fully fledged capital market : corporate shareholders. As Edward Stringham (2015) notes, "companies with transferable shares date back to classical Rome, but these were usually not enduring endeavors and no considerable secondary market existed (Neal, 1997, p
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Kabushiki Kaisha
A _KABUSHIKI GAISHA_ (Japanese : 株式会社, lit. "share company") or _KABUSHIKI KAISHA_, commonly abbreviated KK, is a type of company (会社, _kaisha_) defined under the Companies Act of Japan . Often translated as "stock company", "joint-stock company", or "stock corporation". CONTENTS * 1 Usage in language * 2 History * 3 Formation * 3.1 Receipt of capital * 4 Structure * 4.1 Board of directors * 4.2 Auditing and reporting * 4.3 Officers * 5 Other legal issues * 5.1 Taxation * 5.2 Derivative litigation * 6 See also * 7 Footnotes * 8 External links USAGE IN LANGUAGEIn English, _kabushiki kaisha_ is usually used while the original Japanese pronunciation is _kabushiki gaisha_ due to rendaku . A kabushiki kaisha must include "株式会社" in its name (Article 6, paragraph 2 of the Companies Act). In a company name, "株式会社" can be used as a prefix (e.g. 株式会社電通 _ Kabushiki gaisha Dentsū _, which is called "_mae-kabu_") or as a suffix (e.g. トヨタ自動車株式会社 _ Toyota Jidōsha Kabushiki gaisha _, which is called "_ato-kabu_"). Many Japanese companies translate the phrase "株式会社" in their name as "Co., Ltd." while others use the more Americanized translations "Corporation" or "Incorporated"
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Ticker Symbol
A TICKER SYMBOL or STOCK SYMBOL is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market . A stock symbol may consist of letters, numbers or a combination of both. "Ticker symbol" refers to the symbols that were printed on the ticker tape of a ticker tape machine. CONTENTS* 1 Interpreting the symbol * 1.1 Other identifiers * 2 Symbols by Country * 2.1 Canada * 2.2 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* 2.3 United States
United States
* 2.3.1 Single-letter ticker symbols * 2.4 Other countries * 3 See also * 4 References INTERPRETING THE SYMBOL Stock
Stock
symbols are unique identifiers assigned to each security traded on a particular market. For example, AAPL is for Apple Inc.; OODH is for Orion DHC, Inc.; and HD is for Home Depot, Inc. A stock symbol can consist of letters, numbers, or a combination of both, and is a way to uniquely identify that stock. The symbols were kept as short as possible to reduce the number of characters that had to be printed on the ticker tape , and to make it easy to recognize by traders and investors. The allocation of symbols and formatting convention is specific to each stock exchange. In the US, for example, stock tickers are typically between 1 and 4 letters and represent the company name where possible
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Tokyo Stock Exchange
Coordinates : 35°40′57.60″N 139°46′43.71″E / 35.6826667°N 139.7788083°E / 35.6826667; 139.7788083 _ This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2012)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_ Tokyo
Tokyo
Stock
Stock
Exchange 東京証券取引所 TYPE Stock exchange
Stock exchange
LOCATION Tokyo, Japan COORDINATES 35°40′57.60″N 139°46′43.71″E / 35.6826667°N 139.7788083°E / 35.6826667; 139.7788083 FOUNDED May 15, 1878; 139 years ago (1878-05-15) (as Tokyo
Tokyo
Kabushiki Torihikijo) May 16, 1949 (1949-05-16) (as Tokyo
Tokyo
Stock
Stock
Exchange) OWNER Japan
Japan
Exchange Group, Inc
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TOPIX
TOKYO STOCK PRICE INDEX (東証株価指数), commonly known as TOPIX, along with the Nikkei 225 , is an important stock market index for the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE) in Japan , tracking all domestic companies of the exchange's First Section. It is calculated and published by the TSE. As of 1 February 2011 , there are 1,669 companies listed on the First Section of the TSE, and the market value for the index was ¥ 197.4 trillion. The index transitioned from a system where a company's weighting is based on the total number of shares outstanding to a weighting based on the number of shares available for trading (called the free float). This transition took place in three phases starting in October 2005 and was completed in June 2006. Although the change is a technicality, it had a significant effect on the weighting of many companies in the index, because many companies in Japan have significant holdings of shares of their business partners as a part of intricate business alliances, and such shares are no longer included in calculating the weight of companies in the index. TSE currently calculates and distributes TOPIX every second and further plans to launch a new High-Speed Index dissemination service provided at the millisecond level starting from February 28, 2011
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Chiba, Chiba
CHIBA (千葉市, Chiba-shi, Japanese: ) is the capital city of Chiba Prefecture
Chiba Prefecture
, Japan. It sits about 40 kilometres (25 mi) southeast of the center of Tokyo
Tokyo
on Tokyo Bay
Tokyo Bay
. Chiba City became a government-designated city in 1992. In February 2016, its population was 972,861, with a population density of 3,580 people per square kilometer. The city had an area of 271.76 square kilometres (104.93 sq mi). Chiba City is one of the Kantō region 's primary seaports, and is home to Chiba Port, which handles one of the highest volumes of cargo in the nation. Much of the city is residential, although there are many factories and warehouses along the coast. There are several major urban centers in the city, including Makuhari , a prime waterfront business district in which Makuhari Messe is located, and Central Chiba, in which the prefectural government office and the city hall are located. Chiba is famous for the Chiba Urban Monorail , the longest suspended monorail in the world. Some popular destinations in the city include: Kasori Shell Midden, the largest shellmound in the world at 134,000 m2 (160,000 sq yd), Inage Beach, the first artificial beach in the nation which forms part of the longest artificial beach in Japan, and the Chiba City Zoological Park, popular on account of the standing red panda Futa
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Department Store
A DEPARTMENT STORE is a retail establishment offering a wide range of consumer goods in different product categories known as "departments". In modern major cities, the department store made a dramatic appearance in the middle of the 19th century , and permanently reshaped shopping habits, and the definition of service and luxury. Similar developments were under way in London (with Whiteleys ), in Paris (_ Le Bon Marché _ in 1852) and in New York (with Stewart\'s ). Department stores today have sections that sell the following: clothing, furniture, home appliances, toys, cosmetics, houseware, gardening, toiletries, sporting goods, do it yourself , paint, and hardware and additionally select other lines of products such as food, books, jewelry, electronics, stationery, photographic equipment, baby products, and products for pets. Customers check out near the front of the store or, alternatively, at sales counters within each department. Some are part of a retail chain of many stores, while others may be independent retailers. In the 1970s, they came under heavy pressure from discounters. Since 2010, they have come under even heavier pressure from online stores such as Amazon. Big-box stores , hypermarkets , and discount stores are modern equivalent of historical department stores. Before shopping malls, department stores were standalone
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Discount Department Store
A DISCOUNT STORE is a retail store which sells products at prices that are lower than the typical market value. A "full-line discount store" or "mass merchandiser" may offer a wide assortment of goods with a focus on price rather than service, display, or wide choice - such as Aldi
Aldi
and Lidl ; a "speciality", "single line", or "category killer " discount store may specialize in specific merchandise such as jewelry, electronic equipment, or electrical appliances, relying on bulk purchase and efficient distribution to keep down cost - such as Toys "R" Us
Toys "R" Us
and Staples . Discount stores are not variety stores , which sell goods at a single price-point or multiples thereof (£1, $2, etc.). Discount stores differ from variety stores in that they sell many name-brand products, and because of the wide price range of the items offered. Following World War II
World War II
, a number of retail establishments in the U.S. began to pursue a high-volume, low-profit-margin strategy designed to attract price-conscious consumers. This strategy has received renewed interest from retailers and customers alike stemming from the Great Recession that began in 2007 that forced buyers to revisit the approach to the products they wanted. Currently Aldi
Aldi
, the largest retailer in the world (Planet Retail Ranking; June 2014), operates more than 10,121 discount stores worldwide
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Discount Store
A DISCOUNT STORE is a retail store which sells products at prices that are lower than the typical market value. A "full-line discount store" or "mass merchandiser" may offer a wide assortment of goods with a focus on price rather than service, display, or wide choice - such as Aldi
Aldi
and Lidl ; a "speciality", "single line", or "category killer " discount store may specialize in specific merchandise such as jewelry, electronic equipment, or electrical appliances, relying on bulk purchase and efficient distribution to keep down cost - such as Toys "R" Us and Staples . Discount stores are not variety stores , which sell goods at a single price-point or multiples thereof (£1, $2, etc.). Discount stores differ from variety stores in that they sell many name-brand products, and because of the wide price range of the items offered. Following World War II
World War II
, a number of retail establishments in the U.S. began to pursue a high-volume, low-profit-margin strategy designed to attract price-conscious consumers. This strategy has received renewed interest from retailers and customers alike stemming from the Great Recession that began in 2007 that forced buyers to revisit the approach to the products they wanted. Currently Aldi
Aldi
, the largest retailer in the world (Planet Retail Ranking; June 2014), operates more than 10,121 discount stores worldwide
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Drug Store
A PHARMACY (also called "DRUGSTORE" in American English or "COMMUNITY PHARMACY" or "CHEMIST\'S" in Commonwealth English ) is a retail shop which provides prescription drugs , among other products. At the pharmacy, a pharmacist oversees the fulfillment of medical prescriptions and is available to give advice on their offerings of over-the-counter drugs . A typical pharmacy would be in the commercial area of a community. CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics of a good pharmacy * 2 Duties * 3 Responsibilities * 4 Clinical roles * 4.1 United Kingdom * 5 Support staff * 6 Ownership * 7 Gallery * 8 References * 9 External links CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD PHARMACYThe American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy recommends that consumers choose a pharmacy at which they can have a consulting relationship with the pharmacist. Anyone using drugs benefits when they have easier access to a pharmacist who is knowledgeable about their care. A good pharmacy will be able to provide drugs in a timely manner. Being timely includes both processing the request quickly and having drug stock available to fill the prescription. Some consumers need drugs delivered to their home, perhaps by mail, and may select a pharmacy which offers that service. Different pharmacies may charge different prices for the same drugs, so shopping for lower prices may identify a pharmacy offering better value
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Pharmacy
PHARMACY is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs . It is a health profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and aims to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs . The scope of pharmacy practice includes more traditional roles such as compounding and dispensing medications, and it also includes more modern services related to health care , including clinical services, reviewing medications for safety and efficacy, and providing drug information. Pharmacists , therefore, are the experts on drug therapy and are the primary health professionals who optimize use of medication for the benefit of the patients. An establishment in which pharmacy (in the first sense) is practiced is called a PHARMACY (this term is more common in the United States) or a CHEMIST\'S (which is more common in Great Britain). In the United States and Canada, DRUGSTORES commonly sell medicines, as well as miscellaneous items such as confectionery, cosmetics , office supplies , toys , hair care products and magazines and occasionally refreshments and groceries. In its investigation of herbal and chemical ingredients, the work of the pharma may be regarded as a precursor of the modern sciences of chemistry and pharmacology , prior to the formulation of the scientific method
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Home Improvement
Home improvement, home renovation, or remodelling is the process of renovating or making additions to one's home. Home improvement can be projects that upgrade an existing home interior (such as electrical and plumbing), exterior (masonry, concrete, siding, roofing), or other improvements to the property (i.e
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Hypermarket
In commerce , a HYPERMARKET is a superstore combining a supermarket and a department store . The result is an expansive retail facility carrying a wide range of products under one roof, including full groceries lines and general merchandise . In theory, hypermarkets allow customers to satisfy all their routine shopping needs in one trip. The term hypermarket (French : hypermarché) was coined in 1968 by French trade expert Jacques Pictet. Hypermarkets, like other big-box stores , typically have business models focusing on high-volume, low-margin sales. Typically covering an area of 5,000 to 15,000 square metres (54,000 to 161,000 sq ft), they generally have more than 200,000 different brands of merchandise available at any one time. Because of their large footprints , many hypermarkets choose suburban or out-of-town locations that are easily accessible by automobile. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 The United States * 1.2 Japan
Japan
* 1.3 Europe * 1.4 Canada * 2 Size * 3 Success * 4 Future * 5 Warehouse club * 6 See also * 7 References * 7.1 Bibliography * 8 External links HISTORYIn 1963, Carrefour
Carrefour
opened the first hypermarket in St Genevieve-de-Bois, near Paris, France. By the end of the twentieth century, stores