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Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked
fibre Fiber or fibre (from la, fibra, links=no) is a natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including ...

fibre
s, suitable for use in the production of
textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, o ...

textile
s,
sewing Sewing is the craft of fastening or attaching objects using stitches made with a sewing needle A sewing needle, used for hand- sewing, is a long slender tool with a pointed tip at one end and a hole (or ''eye'') at the other. The earliest nee ...

sewing
,
crochet Crochet (; ) is a process of creating textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, se ...

crochet
ing,
knitting Knitting is a method by which yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, or ropemaking. Thread (yarn), Thread is a type of ...

knitting
,
weaving Weaving is a method of textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheti ...

weaving
,
embroidery Embroidery is the craft A craft or trade is a pastime or an occupation that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. In a historical sense, particularly the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...

embroidery
, or
rope A rope is a group of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, or ropemaking. Thread (yarn), Thread is a type of yarn inte ...

rope
making.
Thread Thread or threads may refer to: Objects * Thread (yarn), a kind of thin yarn used for sewing ** Thread (unit of measurement), a cotton yarn measure * Screw thread, a helical ridge on a cylindrical fastener Arts and entertainment * Thread (film), ...
is a type of yarn intended for sewing by hand or
machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine that uses Power (physics), power to apply Force, forces and control Motion, moveme ...

machine
. Modern manufactured sewing threads may be finished with
wax Waxes are a diverse class of organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), millions of organic compounds are known. The study of the properties, ...
or other lubricants to withstand the stresses involved in sewing.
Embroidery thread Embroidery thread is yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibre Fiber or fibre (from la, fibra, links=no) is a natural or man-made substance that is significantly longer than it is wide. Fibers are often used in the manu ...

Embroidery thread
s are yarns specifically designed for needlework.


Etymology

The word yarn comes from
Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century. The English language underwent distinct variations and developments following ...
, from the
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
''gearn'', akin to
Old High German Old High German (OHG, german: Althochdeutsch, German abbr. ) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 750 to 1050. There is no standardised or supra-regional form of German at this period, and ...
's ''garn'', "yarn",
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
's ''"garen",
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
's ''chordē'', "string", and
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
's ''hira'', "band".


Materials

Yarn can be made from a number of
natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and ...
or
synthetic fiber Synthetic fiber or synthetic fibre (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codi ...
s, or a blend of natural and synthetic fibers.


Natural fibers


Cotton

The most common plant fiber is
cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus '' Gossypium'' in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural condition ...

cotton
, which is typically spun into fin
yarn
for mechanical weaving or knitting into
cloth A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, ...

cloth
. Cotton is grown throughout the world. After harvesting it is ginned and prepared for yarn spinning.


Silk

Silk Silk is a natural fiber, natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be weaving, woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoon (silk), cocoons. The be ...

Silk
is a
natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and ...
protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a No ...

protein
fiber Fiber or fibre (from la, fibra, links=no) is a natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including ...

fiber
, some forms of which can be
woven Woven fabric is any textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knit ...

woven
into
textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, o ...

textile
s. The protein fiber of silk is composed mainly of
fibroin Fibroin is an insoluble protein Proteins are large s and s that comprise one or more long chains of . Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including , , , providing and , and from one location to another. Prote ...
and is produced by the larvae of the moth''
Bombyx mori ''Bombyx mori'', the domestic silk moth, is an insect from the . It is the closest relative of ', the wild silk moth. The silkworm is the or of a silk moth. It is an economically important insect, being a primary producer of . A silkworm' ...

Bombyx mori
''. Silk production is thought to have begun in China and silk thread and cloth manufacture was well-established by the
Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history. From ...

Shang dynasty
(1600-1050 BCE).


Linen

Linen Linen () is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant. Linen is very strong, absorbent, and dries faster than cotton. Because of these properties, linen is comfortable to wear in hot weather and is valued for use in garments. It also h ...

Linen
is another natural fiber with a long history of use for yarn and textiles. The linen fibers are derived from the
flax Flax, also known as common flax or linseed, is a flowering plant, ''Linum usitatissimum'', in the family Linaceae. It is cultivated as a food and fiber crop in regions of the world with temperate climates. Textiles made from flax are known in Wes ...

flax
plant.


Other plant fibers

Other plant fibers which can be spun include
bamboo Bamboos are a diverse group of evergreen perennial plant, perennial flowering plants in the subfamily (biology), subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family ''Poaceae''. The origin of the word "bamboo" is uncertain, but it probably comes from t ...

bamboo
,
hemp Hemp, or industrial hemp, is a botanical class of ''Cannabis sativa ''Cannabis sativa'' is an annual herbaceous flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embry ...
,
maize Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be ...

maize
,
nettle{{redirect, Nettle Nettle is part of the English name of many plants with stinging hairs, particularly those of the genus '' Urtica''. It is also part of the name of plants which resemble ''Urtica'' species in appearance but do not have stinging hai ...

nettle
, and
soy The soybean or soya bean (''Glycine max'') is a species of legume native to East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, ...
fiber.


Animal fibers

The most commonly spun animal fiber is
wool Wool is the textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitti ...
harvested from
sheep Sheep (''Ovis aries'') are quadruped The zebra is a quadruped. Quadrupedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where a tetrapod Tetrapods (; from Greek 'four' and 'foot') are four-limbed animals constituting the superclass Tetrapo ...

sheep
. Shearing sheep helps the sheep regulate their body temperature and avoid pests. Other animal fibers used include
alpaca The alpaca (''Vicugna pacos'') is a species of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern of a single continent called ...

alpaca
, angora,
mohair Mohair (pronounced ) is a fabric A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibre Fiber or fibre (from la, fibra, links=no) is a natural or ...
,
llama The llama (; ) (''Lama glama'') is a domesticated South America South America is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict crite ...

llama
, cashmere, and
silk Silk is a natural fiber, natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be weaving, woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoon (silk), cocoons. The be ...

silk
. More rarely, yarn may be spun from
camel A camel is an even-toed ungulate The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla , ) are ungulates—hoofed animals—which bear weight equally on two (an even number) of their five toes: the third and fourth. The other three toes are either present, ...

camel
,
yak The domestic yak (''Bos grunniens'') is a type of long-haired domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care o ...

yak
,
possum Possum may refer to: Animals * Phalangeriformes Phalangeriformes is a paraphyletic suborder of about 70 species of small to medium-sized arboreal Arboreal locomotion is the locomotion of animals in trees. In habitats in which trees are pr ...
,
musk ox Musk is a class of aromatic substances commonly used as base notes in perfume Perfume (, ; french: parfum) is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvent A solvent (from the Latin language, Latin ''wikt ...

musk ox
,
vicuña The vicuña (''Lama vicugna'') or vicuna (both , very rarely spelled ''vicugna'', its former genus name) is one of the two wild South American South America is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Gene ...

vicuña
,
cat The cat (''Felis catus'') is a domestic Domestic may refer to: In the home * Anything relating to the human home A home, or domicile, is a space used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for an individual, group or family ...

cat
,
dog The dog or domestic dog (''Canis familiaris'' or ''Canis lupus familiaris'') is a Domestication, domesticated descendant of the wolf which is characterized by an upturning tail. The dog Origin of the domestic dog, derived from an Pleistocene ...
,
wolf The wolf (''Canis lupus''), also known as the gray wolf or grey wolf, is a large canine Canine may refer to: Zoology * dog-like mammals (i.e. members of the canid subfamily Caninae) ** ''Canis'', a genus including dogs, wolves, coyotes, a ...

wolf
,
rabbit Rabbits, also known as bunnies or bunny rabbits, are small mammal Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication ...

rabbit
,
bison Bison are large, even-toed ungulate The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla , ) are ungulate Ungulates ( ) are members of the diverse clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', "branch"), also known as a monophyletic group or natural gro ...

bison
, or
chinchilla Chinchillas are either of two species ('' Chinchilla chinchilla'' and ''Chinchilla lanigera'') of crepuscular An adult firefly (''Photuris lucicrescens'') or "lightning bug" – a crepuscular beetle A crepuscular animal is one that is ...

chinchilla
hair, as well as
turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...
or
ostrich ''Struthio'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a ...

ostrich
feathers. Natural fibers such as these have the advantage of being slightly elastic and very breathable while trapping a great deal of air, making for some of the warmest fabrics.


Synthetic fibers

Some examples of synthetic fibers that are used as yarn are
nylon Nylon is a generic designation for a family of s composed of s ( linked by links).The polyamides may be or . Nylon is a -like , generally made from , that can be melt-processed into fibers, , or shapes. Nylon polymers can be mixed with a w ...

nylon
,
acrylic fiber Acrylic fibers are synthetic fiber Synthetic fiber or synthetic fibre (in British English; American and British English spelling differences#-re, -er, see spelling differences) are fibers made by humans through chemical synthesis, as opposed ...
,
rayon Rayon is a synthetic fiber Synthetic fiber or synthetic fibre (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that ...

rayon
, and
polyester Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in every repeat unit of their main chain. As a specific material, it most commonly refers to a type called polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Polyesters include natural ...
. Synthetic fibers are generally extruded in continuous strands of gel-state materials. These strands are drawn (stretched), annealed (hardened), and cured to obtain properties desirable for later processing. Synthetic fibers come in three basic forms: staple, tow, and filament. Staple is cut fibers, generally sold in lengths up to 120 mm. Tow is a continuous "rope" of fibers consisting of many filaments loosely joined side-to-side. Filament is a continuous strand consisting of anything from 1 filament to many. Synthetic fiber is most often measured in a weight per linear measurement basis, along with cut length. Denier and Dtex are the most common weight to length measures. Cut-length only applies to staple fiber. Filament extrusion is sometimes referred to as "spinning" but most people equate spinning with spun yarn production.


Yarn from recycled materials

T-shirt yarn is a yarn made from the same fabric as is used in T-shirts and other wearables. It is often made from the remainder fabric of clothing manufacture, and therefore is considered a recycled and green product. It can also be made at home out of used clothing. The resulting yarn can be used in
knitted Knitting is a method by which yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibre Fiber or fibre (from la, fibra, links=no) is a natural or man-made substance that is significantly longer than it is wide. Fibers are often use ...
or
crocheted Crochet (; ) is a process of creating textiles by using a crochet hook to interlock loops of yarn, thread (yarn), thread, or strands of other materials. The name is derived from the French term ''crochet'', meaning 'small hook'. Hooks can be made ...

crocheted
items.


Comparison of material properties

In general, natural fibers tend to require more careful handling than synthetics because they can shrink,
felt Felt is a textile material that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibers together. Felt can be made of natural fibers such as wool Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including Cashmere wool, ca ...
, stain, shed, fade, stretch, wrinkle, or be eaten by
moth Moths are a paraphyletic In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—Monophyly, monophyletic subgroups. The g ...

moth
s more readily, unless special treatments such as mercerization or superwashing are performed to strengthen, fix color, or otherwise enhance the fiber's own properties. Some types of protein yarns (i.e., hair, silk, feathers) may feel irritating to some people, causing sensations of
contact dermatitis Contact dermatitis is a type of inflammation of the skin. Some symptoms of contact dermatitis can include itchy or dry skin, a red rash, bumps, blisters, and swelling. The rash isn't contagious or life-threatening, but it can be very uncomfortabl ...

contact dermatitis
,
hives Hives, also known as urticaria, is a kind of with red, raised, itchy bumps. They may also burn or sting. Often the patches of rash move around. Typically they last a few days and do not leave any long-lasting skin changes. Fewer than 5% of case ...
,
wheezing A wheeze is a continuous, coarse, whistling sound produced in the respiratory airways during breathing. For wheezes to occur, some part of the respiratory tree must be narrowed or obstructed (for example narrowing of the lower respiratory tract ...
reactions. These reactions are likely a sensitivity to thicker and coarser fiber diameter or fiber ends. In fact, contrary to popular belief, wool allergies are practically unknown. According to a study reviewing the evidence of wool as an allergen conducted by Acta Dermato-Venereologica contemporary superfine or ultrafine Merino wool with their reduced fibre diameters do not provoke itch, are well tolerated and in fact benefit eczema management. Further studies suggest that known allergens applied during textile processing are minimally present in wool garments today given current industry practices and are unlikely to lead to allergic reactions. When natural hair-type fibers are burned, they tend to singe and have a smell of burnt hair; this is because many, as human hair, are protein-derived. Cotton and viscose (rayon) yarns burn as a wick. Synthetic yarns generally tend to melt though some synthetics are inherently flame-retardant. Noting how an unidentified fiber strand burns and smells can assist in determining if it is natural or synthetic, and what the fiber content is. Both synthetic and natural yarns can
pill Pill or The Pill may refer to: Drugs * Pill (pharmacy) A tablet is a pharmaceutical A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, medicinal drug or simply drug) is a drug File:Aspirine macro shot.jpg, Uncoated aspir ...
. Pilling is a function of fiber content, spinning method, twist, contiguous staple length, and fabric construction. Single ply yarns or using fibers like merino wool are known to pill more due to the fact that in the former, the single ply is not tight enough to securely retain all the fibers under abrasion, and the merino wool's short staple length allows the ends of the fibers to pop out of the twist more easily. Yarns combining synthetic and natural fibers inherit the properties of each parent, according to the proportional composition. Synthetics are added to lower cost, increase durability, add unusual color or visual effects, provide machine washability and stain resistance, reduce heat retention or lighten garment weight.


Structure


Spun yarn

Spun yarn is made by twisting staple
fibre Fiber or fibre (from la, fibra, links=no) is a natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including ...

fibre
s together to make a cohesive thread, or "single." Twisting fibres into yarn in the process called
spinning Spin or spinning may refer to: Businesses * SPIN (cable system) SPIN (or South Pacific Island Network) was a submarine communications cable, submarine communications cable system that would connect the New Zealand to Tahiti and would connect sev ...
can be dated back to the
Upper Paleolithic The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) also called the is the third and last subdivision of the or Old . Very broadly, it dates to between 50,000 and years ago (the beginning of the ), according to some theories coinciding with the ...
, and yarn spinning was one of the first processes to be
industrialized Industrialisation Industrialisation (or industrialization) is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society An agrarian society, or agricultural society, is any community whose economy is based ...
. Spun yarns are produced by placing a series of individual fibres or filaments together to form a continuous assembly of overlapping fibres, usually bound together by twist. Spun yarns may contain a single type of fibre, or be a blend of various types. Combining synthetic fibres (which can have high strength, lustre, and fire retardant qualities) with natural fibres (which have good water absorbency and skin comforting qualities) is very common. The most widely used blends are
cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus '' Gossypium'' in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural condition ...

cotton
-
polyester Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in every repeat unit of their main chain. As a specific material, it most commonly refers to a type called polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Polyesters include natural ...
and
wool Wool is the textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitti ...
-
acrylic fibre Acrylic fibers are synthetic fibers made from a polymer ( polyacrylonitrile) with an average molecular weight of -100,000, about 1900 monomer units. For a fiber to be called "acrylic" in the US, the polymer must contain at least 85% acrylonit ...
blends. Blends of different
natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and ...

natural
fibres are common too, especially with more expensive fibres such as
alpaca The alpaca (''Vicugna pacos'') is a species of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria ...
, angora and cashmere. Yarn is selected for different textiles based on the characteristics of the yarn fibres, such as warmth (wool), light weight (cotton or rayon), durability (nylon is added to sock yarn, for example), or softness (cashmere, alpaca). Yarn is composed of twisted strands of fiber, which are known as plies when grouped together. These strands of yarn are twisted together (
plied In the textile arts File:Panel LACMA M.63.55.2.jpg, 200px, Textile, painted silk, 45 × 29 in. (114.3 × 74.93 cm), Qing dynasty, Qing Dynasty, China, mid-18th century, LACMA textile collection Textile arts are arts and crafts that use fiber c ...
) in the opposite direction to make a thicker yarn. Depending on the direction of this final twist, the yarn will have either ''s-twist'' (the threads appear to go "up" to the left) or ''z-twist'' (to the right). For a single ply yarn, the direction of the final twist is the same as its original twist. The twist direction of yarn can affect the final properties of the fabric, and combined use of the two twist directions can nullify skewing in knitted fabric. The mechanical integrity of yarn is derived from frictional contacts between its composing fibers. The science behind this was first studied by
Galileo Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei ( , ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642), commonly referred to as Galileo, was an astronomer An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific qu ...

Galileo
.


Carded and combed yarn

Combed yarns are produced by adding another step of yarn spinning, namely combing, which aligns the fibres and removes the short fibres carried over from the previous step of carding. Combed yarn results in superior-quality fabrics. In comparison to carded yarns, this particular yarn is slightly more expensive, because the weaving in a long, consuming process. Combining separates small fibres from elongated fibres, in which this procedure makes the yarn softer and smoother.


Hosiery yarn

Hosiery yarns are used in the manufacturing of
Knitted fabrics File:Ibarra (Aramayona), yarn bombing 2.JPG, Yarn bombing in Ibarra de Aramayona, Aramaio, Spain Knitting is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a textile or knitted fabric, fabric; it's used in many types of garments. Knitting m ...
. Since the knitted materials are more delicate than
woven Woven fabric is any textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knit ...

woven
materials; hence hosiery yarns are made 'softer' with fewer twists per inch than their woven counterparts. Hosiery yarn comes from a separate spinning process, and is used with circular knitting machines to form fabric.


Open-end yarn

Open-end yarn is produced by
open-end spinningOpen-end spinning is a technology for creating yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, or ropemaking. Thread (yarn), Thread is ...
without a spindle. The method of spinning is different from
ring spinning Ring spinning is a method of spinning Spin or spinning may refer to: Businesses * SPIN (cable system) or South Pacific Island Network * Spin (company), an American scooter-sharing system * SPiN, a chain of table tennis lounges Computing * SPIN ...
. In open-end yarn, there is no
roving A roving is a long and narrow bundle of fiber. Rovings are produced during the process of making spun ''Spun'' is a 2002 American black comedy Black comedy, also known as black humor, dark humor, dark comedy, morbid humor, or gallows humor, ...
frame stage. Sliver from the
card Card or The Card may refer to: People with the name * Card (surname) Arts and entertainment * Playing card A playing card is a piece of specially prepared card stock, heavy paper, thin cardboard, plastic-coated paper, cotton-paper blend, or ...
goes into the rotor, is spun into yarn directly. Open-end yarn can be produced from shorter fibers. Open-end yarns are different from ring yarns. Open-end yarns are limited to coarser counts.


Novelty yarn

Novelty yarns or complex yarns are the yarns with special (fancy) effects introduced during spinning or
plying In the , plying (from the French verb ''plier'', "to fold", from the Latin verb ''plico'', from the ancient Greek verb .) is a process of twisting one or more (called strands) of together to create a stronger yarn. Strands are twisted together in ...
. One example is Slub yarns; the slub effect means a yarn with thick and thin sections alternating regularly or irregularly. In a similar manner creating deliberate unevenness, Additions or injections of neps or metallic or synthetic fibers(along with natural fibers) in spinning creates beautiful yarns.


Filament yarn

Filament yarn consists of filament fibres (very long continuous fibres) either twisted together or only grouped together. Thicker monofilaments are typically used for industrial purposes rather than fabric production or decoration.
Silk Silk is a natural fiber, natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be weaving, woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoon (silk), cocoons. The be ...

Silk
is a natural filament, and synthetic filament yarns are used to produce silk-like effects.


Texturized yarn

Texturized yarns are made by a process of air texturizing filament yarns (sometimes referred to as '' taslanizing''), which combines multiple filament yarns into a yarn with some of the characteristics of spun yarns. They are synthetic continuous filaments that are modified to impart special texture and appearance. It was originally applied to synthetic fibers to reduce transparency, slipperiness and increase warmth, absorbency and makes the yarn more opaque. It was used to manufacture a variety of textile products: knitted underwear and outer wear, shape-retaining knitted suits, overcoats. They also were used in the production of artificial fur, carpets, blankets, etc.


Colour

Yarn may be used undyed, or may be coloured with
natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and ...

natural
or artificial
dye A dye is a color Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the visual perception, visual perceptual Physical property, property corresponding in humans to the categories called ''blue'', ''green'', ''red'', etc. Colo ...
s. Most yarns have a single uniform hue, but there is also a wide selection of variegated yarns: * Heathered or tweed: yarn with flecks of different coloured fibre * Ombre: variegated yarn with light and dark shades of a single
hue In color theory, hue is one of the main properties (called color appearance parameters) of a color Color ( American English), or colour ( Commonwealth English), is the characteristic of visual perception described through color ''c ...

hue
* Multicolored: variegated yarn with two or more distinct hues (a "parrot colourway" might have green, yellow and red) * Self-striping: yarn dyed with lengths of colour that will automatically create stripes in a knitted or crocheted object * Marled: yarn made from strands of different-coloured yarn twisted together, sometimes in closely related hues


Weight

Yarn quantities for handcrafts are usually measured and sold by weight in
ounces The ounce is the name of several different units of mass Mass is both a property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of ...
(oz) or
grams Grams is the plural of gram The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) is a metric system The metric system is a system of measurement A system of measurement is a collection of units of measurement and rules relating them ...
(g). Common sizes include 25g, 50g, and 100g skeins. Some companies also primarily measure in ounces with common sizes being three-ounce, four-ounce, six-ounce, and eight-ounce skeins. Textile measurements are taken at a standard temperature and humidity, because fibers can absorb moisture from the air. The actual length of the yarn contained in a ball or skein can vary due to the inherent heaviness of the fibre and the thickness of the strand; for instance, a 50 g skein of lace weight mohair may contain several hundred metres, while a 50 g skein of bulky wool may contain only 60 metres. There are several thicknesses of craft yarn, referred to as
weight In science Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as well as ...
. This is not to be confused with the measurement and weight listed above. The Craft Yarn Council of America is making an effort to promote a standardized industry system for measuring this, numbering the weights from 0 (finest) to 7 (thickest). Each weight can be described by a number and name. Size 0 yarn is called Lace, size 1 is Super Fine, size 2 is Fine, size 3 is Light, size 4 is Medium, size 5 is Bulky, size 6 is Super Bulky, and size 7 is Jumbo. Each weight also has several common, unregulated terms associated with it. However, this naming convention is more descriptive than precise; fibre artists disagree about where on the continuum each lies, and the precise relationships between the sizes. These terms include, fingering, sport, double-knit (or DK), worsted, aran (or heavy worsted), bulky, super-bulky, and roving. Another measurement of yarn weight, often used by weavers, is wraps per inch (WPI). The yarn is wrapped snugly around a ruler and the number of wraps that fit in an inch are counted. Labels on yarn for handicrafts often include information on gauge (knitting), gauge, which can also help determine yarn weight. Gauge, known in the UK as tension, is a measurement of how many stitches and rows are produced per inch or per cm on a specified size of knitting needle or crochet hook. The proposed standardization uses a four-by-four inch/ten-by-ten cm knitted stockinette or single crocheted square, with the resultant number of stitches across and rows high made by the suggested tools on the label to determine the gauge. In Europe, textile engineers often use the unit tex (unit), tex, which is the weight in grams of a kilometre of yarn, or decitex, which is a finer measurement corresponding to the weight in grams of 10 km of yarn. Many other units have been used over time by different industries.


Yarn skeins

There are many different ways in which yarn is wound, including hanks, skeins, donut balls, cakes, cakes, and cones.


Hank

A hank of yarn is a looped bundle of yarn, similar to how wire is typically sold. The yarn is usually tied in 2 places directly opposite each other to keep the loops together and to keep them from tangling. Hanks are a preferred method of fastening yarn for many yarn sellers and yarn-dyers due to its ability to more widely display the qualities of the fiber. It is often wound using a Swift (textiles), swift, a standing contraption that holds a yarn hank without obstruction and spins on a central axis to facilitate yarn ball winding There are two subtypes of hanks: twisted and folded. A twisted hank is a hank that has been twisted into a rope braid. A folded hank is a hank that has been folded in half and wrapped in a label for retail purposes.


Skein

Skeins are one of the most common types of yarn ball. Although skeins are technically described as yarn that has been wound into an oblong shape, the word "skein" is used generically to describe any ball of yarn. Many large-scale yarn retailers like Lion Brand Yarns, Lion brand and parent companies lik
Yarnspirations
sell their yarn in skeins. Unlike other types of yarn balls, a skein allows you to access both ends of the yarn. The yarn end in the inside of the skein is called a center pull. One major complaint of center pull bullet skeins is that the inside yarn end is not easily found, and often is pulled out of the skein in a jumble of tangled yarn called "yarn barf." There are two types of skeins: a pull skein, which is more rectangular in shape, and a bullet skein, which is rounder.


Uses

Yarn is used in multiple different clothing types and as a necessity for other things. It is commonly used when knitting beanies, gloves, weaving wool sweaters, cardigans, and jackets. Additionally, it can be used to make soft, warm wool socks. Besides using yarn for clothing attire purposes, it could also be used when doing arts and crafts such as making puppets, do-it-yourself pom poms, or as a decorative appliance. Moreover, you can make a lot more do-it-yourself projects with knitting yarn, like knitting a cup holder or a basket.


Microscopic aspect of selected yarns

Below are the images taken by a digital USB microscope. These show how the yarn looks in different kinds of clothes when magnified. File:Woolen Shawl.jpg, Woolen Shawl File:Fabric under microscope 3(Shawl).jpg, Woolen shawl under microscope File:Cloth Pencil Box.jpg, Cloth Pencil Box File:Fabric under microscope 2 (Cloth pencil box).jpg, Cloth Pencil Box under microscope File:Jeans1.jpg, Jeans File:Fabric under microscope 4 (Jeans).jpg, Jeans under microscope File:Sweatshirt.jpg, Sweatshirt File:Fabric under microscope 1 (Track Pants).jpg, Sweatshirt under microscope


See also

* Crochet thread * Dye lot * Electrically conducting yarn *
Embroidery thread Embroidery thread is yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibre Fiber or fibre (from la, fibra, links=no) is a natural or man-made substance that is significantly longer than it is wide. Fibers are often used in the manu ...

Embroidery thread
* Microfiber * ISO 2 * List of novelty yarns * List of yarns for crochet and knitting * Thread (yarn) * Textile manufacturing * Yarn bombing *Yarn conditioning


References


External links

* {{Authority control Yarn, Knitting tools and materials Crochet Sewing Weaving Fibers Animal hair products Recycling by material