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A yacht is a sailing or power vessel used for pleasure, cruising, or racing. There is no standard definition, so the term applies to such vessels that have a cabin with amenities that accommodate overnight use. To be termed a , as opposed to a , such a pleasure vessel is likely to be at least in length and may have been judged to have good aesthetic qualities. The Commercial Yacht Code classifies yachts and over as . Such yachts typically require a hired crew and have higher construction standards. Further classifications for large yachts are: —carrying no more than 12 passengers, —solely for the pleasure of the owner and guests, or by
flag A flag is a piece of fabric A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking network of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crochetin ...

flag
, the country under which it is registered. A
superyacht A superyacht or megayacht is a large and luxurious pleasure vessel. There are no official or agreed upon definitions for such yachts, but these terms are regularly used to describe professionally crewed motor or sailing yachts, ranging from to m ...
(sometimes ) generally refers to any yacht (sail or power) longer than . Racing yachts are designed to emphasize performance over comfort. Charter yachts are run as a business for profit. As of 2020 there were more than 15,000 yachts of sufficient size to require a professional crew.


Etymology

The term, ''yacht'', originates from the
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
word ''jacht'' (pl. ''jachten'', which means "hunt"), and originally referred to light, fast sailing vessels that the
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was ...
navy used to pursue
pirate Piracy is an act of robbery Robbery is the crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted ...

pirate
s and other transgressors around and into the shallow waters of the
Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pays-Bas) and historically called the Netherlands ( nl, de Nederlanden), Flanders, or Belgica, refers to a coastal lowland region in Northwestern Europe ...
.


History

The history of pleasure boats begins with rowed craft in Pharaonic Egyptian times, and other vessels in the waters of Burma, India,
Mindanao Mindanao () is the List of islands of the Philippines, second-largest island in the Philippines, after Luzon and List of islands by population, seventh-most populous island in the world. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, the ...
and Japan. It described 8th-century Anglo-Saxon royal ''pleg-scips'' (play ships) that featured ornamented bows and sterns and which had the capability of cooking on board.


Sail

The history of sailing yachts begins in Europe in the beginning of the 1600s with the building of a pleasure vessel for the son of
King James I of England James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Kingdom of Ireland, Ireland as James I from the Union of the Crowns, union of the Scottish and ...

King James I of England
. While other monarchs used naval ships for transportation and conquest, James I was the first English monarch to commission the construction of a yacht—for his son Henry, Prince of Wales in the early 1600s. Pleasure vessels acquired the name ''yacht'' after the time of , who spent time exiled in Europe and visited the Netherlands, where a variety of ''jachten'' were already well developed as pleasure boats for the elite classes since the beginning of the 17th century. Upon his restoration to the English crown, Charles commissioned a series of royal yachts, which included at least one experimental
catamaran A Formula 16 beachable catamaran Powered catamaran passenger ferry at Salem, Massachusetts, United States A catamaran () (informally, a "cat") is a multi-hulled watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, a ...

catamaran
. The first recorded yacht race between two vessels occurred in 1661, followed by the first open sailing competition in 1663 in English waters. Starting in 1739, England found itself in a series of wars—a period that saw a decline in yachting. In Ireland, however, the gentry enjoyed yachting and founded the first yacht club in Cork as the Cork Harbour Water Club in 1720. English yacht racing continued among the English gentry who founded England's oldest yacht club in 1775 to support a fleet at
Cumberland Cumberland ( ) is a historic county of North West England North West England is one of nine official and consists of the of , , , and . The North West had a population of 7,052,000 in 2011. It is the in the United Kingdom, after the ...

Cumberland
. With maritime peace, starting in 1815, came a resurgence of interest in yachting. Boatbuilders, who had been making fast vessels both for smugglers and the government revenue cutters, turned their skills again to yachts. The fast yachts of the early 19th century were fore-and-aft
lugger A lugger is a defined by its , using the on all of its one or several . They were widely used as working craft, particularly off the coasts of , , and . Luggers varied extensively in size and design. Many were undecked, open boats, some of w ...
s,
schooner A schooner () is a type of defined by its rig: on all of two or more masts and, in the case of a two-masted schooner, the foremast generally being shorter than the mainmast. A common variant, the topsail schooner also has a square topsail on th ...

schooner
s, and
sloop A sloop is a sailboat sloop ged sloop Image:Sail plan sloop.svg, Gaff-rigged sloop with a Topsail#Gaff rig, gaff topsail A sloop is a sailboat with a single mast (sailing), mast typically having only one headsail in front of the mast and ...

sloop
s. By the 1850s, yachts featured large sail areas, a narrow beam, and a deeper draft than was customary until then. Racing between yachts owned by wealthy patrons was common, with large wagers at stake. The
America's Cup The America's Cup, informally known as the Auld Mug, is a trophy awarded in the sailing (sport), sport of sailing. It is the oldest International sport, international competition still operating in any sport. America's Cup match racing, match ...

America's Cup
arose out of a contest between the yacht, ''
America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country primarily located in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and a ...
'', and its English competitors. Both countries had rules by which to rate yachts, the English by tonnage and the American by length. In the late 19th century, a yacht owner would base their choice of vessels upon preferred lifestyle and budget, which would determine the size and type of vessel, which would most likely be a fore-and aft, two-masted sailing vessel. A treatise on the subject, ''A Manual of Yacht and Boat Sailing'', provided detailed information on selecting, equipping, sailing, seamanship, management of the paid crew, and racing such vessels. It included a brief section on steam yachts, the recirculating coil steam engine just having made such yachts efficient enough for leisure travel on the water.


Power

While sailing yachts continued to exist, the development of reliable power plants created a new category of pleasure craft. The power plants started with the
steam engine from Stott Park Bobbin Mill, Cumbria, England A steam engine is a heat engine In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energ ...

steam engine
and transitioned to the
internal combustion An internal combustion engine (ICE or IC engine) is a heat engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combu ...
engine. Whereas sailing yachts continued to be steered from the after portion of the vessel, power yachts adopted the
bridge A bridge is a Nonbuilding structure, structure built to Span (engineering), span a physical obstacle, such as a body of water, valley, or road, without closing the way underneath. It is constructed for the purpose of providing passage over the ...
in a forward cabin structure that afforded better forward and sideways visibility.


Steam

The history of steam yachts starts with large sailing yachts with a . Early examples, driven with paddle wheels, had a railed platform from which the person conning the vessel could walk across the vessel above the main deck, the origin of the
bridge A bridge is a Nonbuilding structure, structure built to Span (engineering), span a physical obstacle, such as a body of water, valley, or road, without closing the way underneath. It is constructed for the purpose of providing passage over the ...
. In the late 18th century, steam engines became more efficient, spars were removed and became standard. Large steam yachts were luxurious; their staff included a
captain Captain is a title for the commander of a military unit, the commander of a ship, aeroplane, spacecraft, or other vessel, or the commander of a port, fire department or police department, election precinct, etc. The captain is a military rank in ar ...

captain
,
engineer Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are Professional, professionals who Invention, invent, design, analyze, build and test Machine, machines, complex systems, architecture, structures, gadgets and materials to fulfill functional objecti ...
, and stewards, as well as deck hands. The development of the steam engine figured in yacht design. In England, the practice was to use
fire-tube boiler A fire-tube boiler is a type of boiler Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, adminis ...
s wherein the hot gases of combustion ran through parallel tubes surrounded by water; a design that required as slow process of heating the water to avoid damaging the boiler before making steam. In the United States, the practice was to use
water-tube boiler A high pressure watertube boiler (also spelled water-tube and water tube) is a type of Boiler (steam generator), boiler in which water circulates in tubes heated externally by the fire. Fuel is burned inside the furnace#Industrial furnaces, furnace, ...
s, wherein the water is surrounded by the hot gases of combustion, allowing for making steam more rapidly. While the boiler was the source of steam, the
marine steam engine A marine steam engine is a steam engine from Stott Park Bobbin Mill, Cumbria, England A steam engine is a heat engine In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and ...
is where the steam was converted to mechanical power. With smaller, more rapidly spinning propellors engines comprised cylinders with pistons, connected to a crank shaft, driven by steam. Near the end of the 19th century,
compound engine A compound engine is an engine that has more than one stage for recovering energy from the same working fluid, with the exhaust from the first stage passing through the second stage, and in some cases then on to another subsequent stage or even sta ...
s came into widespread use. Compound engines exhausted steam into successively larger cylinders to accommodate the higher volumes at reduced pressures, giving improved efficiency. These stages were called expansions, with double- and triple-expansion engines being common, especially in shipping where efficiency was important to reduce the weight of coal carried. Steam engines remained the dominant source of power until the early 20th century, when advances in the design of the
steam turbine A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do Work (physics), mechanical work on a rotating output shaft. Its modern manifestation was invented by Charles Algernon Parsons, Charles Parsons in 188 ...
, s and
internal combustion engine An internal combustion engine (ICE or IC engine) is a heat engine In thermodynamics and engineering, a heat engine is a system that converts heat to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do work (physics), mechanical work. It doe ...

internal combustion engine
s gradually resulted in the replacement of reciprocating (piston) steam engines.


Internal combustion

Nicolaus Otto Nicolaus August Otto (10 June 1832, Holzhausen an der Haide Holzhausen an der Haide is a municipality in the Rhein-Lahn, district of Rhein-Lahn, in Rhineland-Palatinate, in western Germany. Holzhausen is the birthplace of Nicolaus August Ott ...
and
Gottlieb Daimler Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler (; 17 March 1834 – 6 March 1900) was a German engineer Engineers, as practitioners of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures ...
developed practical
four-stroke A four-stroke (also four-cycle) engine is an internal combustion An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of ...
gasoline engines, starting in 1876. Beginning in 1898 engines increased in horsepower from to by 1906. Some were destined for , other for motor yachts. for boats were demonstrated in 1903. Diesels became a more prevalent type of power plant in the 20th century thanks to their low cost of operation and reliability.


Classification

The Recreational Craft Directive requires that all vessels sold in the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
and United Kingdom satisfy one of four design categories, based on the
wind force Wind is the flow of gas Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), de ...
and seas that they are designed to encounter: * yachts are fit for conditions that exceed wind force 8——and maximum wave heights, encountered in ocean passages and extended voyages. * yachts are fit for conditions that are less than wind force 8——and maximum wave heights, encountered in ocean passages and extended voyages. * yachts are fit for wind force 6——and maximum wave heights, encountered in exposed coastal waters, bays inlets, lakes and rivers. * yachts are fit for wind force 4——and maximum wave heights, encountered in sheltered coastal waters, bays inlets, lakes and rivers. The of Great Britain and its dominions defines a as one that is or more at the waterline and is in commercial use for sport or pleasure, while not carrying cargo or more than 12 passengers and carrying a professional crew. The code regulates the equipping of such vessels, both at sea and in port—including such matters as crew duty times and the presence of a helicopter on board. The code has different levels of standard for vessels above and below 500
gross tons Gross tonnage (GT, G.T. or gt) is a nonlinear measure of a ship's overall internal volume. Gross tonnage is different from gross register tonnage. Neither gross tonnage nor gross register tonnage should be confused with measures of mass or weight ...
. Such yachts may be considered and are more commonly at or more in length. Other countries have standards similar to LY2. Whereas large yachts may carry no more than 12 passengers, yachts are solely for the pleasure of the owner and guests do not carry the passenger restriction. Yachts may be identified by flag—the country under which a yacht is registered. An industry publication categorizes superyachts by size, by speed, as "explorer" yachts, as sailing yachts, and classic yachts.


Construction

Originally, all yachts were made of wood, using a wooden keel and ribs, clad with planks. These materials were supplanted with iron or steel in steam yachts. In the 1960s
fiberglass Fiberglass (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American Englis ...
became a prevalent material. These materials and others continue in use. Whereas yachts of and below may be constructed of
fiberglass Fiberglass (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American Englis ...
, larger yachts are more likely to be constructed of steel, aluminum or composite
fiber-reinforced plastic Fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) (also called fiber-reinforced polymer, or fiber-reinforced plastic) is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres. The fibres are usually glass fibre, glass (in fibreglass), Carbon fibers, c ...
. * ''Wood'' construction, using conventional planks over ribs continues. Hard-chined boats made with plywood is an infrequent technique. Whereas yachts made with the WEST system—plies of wood strips, soaked in epoxy and applied over the boat frame—provide a durable, lightweight and robust hull. * ''Metal'' hulls from steel or aluminum offer the opportunity for welding components to a completely watertight hull. Both metals are vulnerable to damage due to
electrolysis In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in ...

electrolysis
. Steel is easy to repair in boatyards around the world, whereas aluminum is a much lighter material. * ''Fiberglass'' construction is best suited for
mass-produced Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of substantial amounts of standardized Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standard A technic ...
yachts, using a mold and is therefore the most prevalent material. Fiberglass skins comprise plies of roving (glass fabric) and matting, soaked in resin for the hull. Decks typically have a core of balsa or PVC foam between layers of glass mat. Both elements of construction are vulnerable to intrusion of water and the development of blisters below the waterline.


Accommodations

Depending on size, a cruising yacht is likely to have at least two cabins, a main salon and a forward stateroom. In smaller yachts, the salon is likely to have convertible berths for its crew or passengers. Typically the salon includes a dining area, which may have a folding, built-in table. The salon is typically contiguous to the
galley A galley is a type of that is propelled mainly by . The galley is characterized by its long, slender hull, shallow , and low (clearance between sea and railing). Virtually all types of galleys had sails that could be used in favorable winds, b ...
. A cruising yacht is likely to have a
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(bathroom) with a marine toilet that discharges waste into a holding tank. Larger yachts may have additional staterooms and heads. There is typically a navigation station that allows planning the route.


Systems

Onboard systems include: * Electrical power, provided by batteries recharged by a motor-driven alternator (sail) or by a generator set (motor) * Water, stored in on-board tanks, refilled on shore or replenished with a desalination water maker * Sanitation, provided by toilets using seawater and discharged into holding tanks. * Refrigeration by ice or an engine-driven mechanical system. Modern yachts employ a suite of electronics for communication, measurement of surroundings, and navigation. * ''Communications'' equipment includes radios in a variety of bandwidths, specifically for maritime use. * ''Instrumentation'' also provides information on depth of water under the vessel (
depth sounder Echo sounding is a type of sonar used to determine the depth of water by transmitting acoustic waves into water. The time interval between emission and return of a pulse is recorded, which is used to determine the depth of water along with the spee ...
), windspeed (
anemometer An anemometer is a device used for measuring wind speed and wind direction, direction. It is also a common weather station instrument. The term is derived from the Greek word ''anemos'', which means wind, and is used to describe any wind speed in ...

anemometer
), and directional orientation (
compass A compass is a device that shows the cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East and west are perpendicular ( ...

compass
). * ''Navigation'' electronics include units that identify a vessel's location (e.g.
GPS The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national ...
) and display the vessel's location (
chartplotter A Chartplotter is a device used in marine navigation Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.Bowditch, 2003:799. The field of navigation ...
) and other vessels and nearby shore (
radar Radar (radio detection and ranging) is a detection system that uses radio waves to determine the distance (''ranging''), angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, Marine radar, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor ...

radar
).


Sailing yachts

Sailing yacht A sailing yacht (US ship prefixes SY or S/Y), is a leisure craft that uses sails as its primary means of propulsion. A yacht may be a sail or power vessel used for pleasure, cruising, or racing. There is no standard definition, so the term applies ...

Sailing yacht
s for ''cruising'' versus ''racing'' embody different tradeoffs between comfort and performance. Cruising yachts emphasize comfort over performance. Racing yachts are designed to compete against others in their class, while providing adequate comfort to their crews.


Cruising

Cruising yachts may be designed for near-shore use or for passage-making. They may also be raced, but they are designed and built with the comfort and amenities necessary for overnight voyages. Qualities considered in cruising yachts include: performance, comfort under way, ease of handling, stability, living comfort, durability, ease of maintenance, affordability of ownership.


Categories

Cruising sailboats share the common attribute of providing overnight accommodations. They may be classified as ''small'' (easy to haul behind a trailer), ''near-shore'' and ''off-shore''.
Multihull A multihull is a or with more than one , whereas a vessel with a single hull is a . Multihull ships can be classified by the number of hulls, by their arrangement and by their shapes and sizes. Multihull history s, double-canoes (s), and ...

Multihull
sailing yachts are a category, apart. *''Small yachts'' are typically shorter than length overall.
Trailer sailer A trailer sailer is a type of sailboat sloop ged sloop Image:Sail plan sloop.svg, Gaff-rigged sloop with a Topsail#Gaff rig, gaff topsail A sloop is a sailboat with a single mast (sailing), mast typically having only one headsail in front of t ...
s that are readily towed by a car are generally shorter than length overall and weigh less than . *''Near-shore yachts'' typically range in size from length overall. *''Offshore yachts'' typically exceed length overall.


Design

Design considerations for a cruising yacht include seaworthiness, performance, sea kindliness, and cost of construction, as follows: * ''Seaworthiness'' addresses the integrity of the vessel and its ability to stay afloat and shelter its crew in the conditions encountered. * ''Performance'' hinges on a number of factors, including the waterline length (longer means faster), drag in the water (narrower hull with smooth appendages), hull shape, and sail shape and area. * ''Sea kindliness'' is an indicator of steering ease, directional stability and quelling of motion induced by wind and waves. Multihulls offer tradeoffs as cruising sailboats, compared with
monohull image:monohull.svg, right A monohull is a type of boat having only one hull (watercraft), hull, unlike multihulled boats which can have two or more individual hulls connected to one another. Fundamental concept Among the earliest hulls were simple ...

monohull
s. They may be catamarans or trimarans. They rely on form stability—having separate hulls far apart—for their resistance to capsize. Their advantages include greater: stability, speed, (for catamarans) living space, and shallower draft. Their drawbacks include: greater expenses, greater
windageWindage is a term used in aerodynamics, firearms ballistics, and automobiles. Usage Aerodynamics Windage is a force created on an object by friction when there is relative movement between air and the object. Windage loss is the reduction in eff ...
, more difficult tacking under sail, less load capacity, and more maneuvering room required because of their broad beam. They come with a variety of sleeping accommodations and (for catamarans) bridge-deck configurations.


Rigs

Gaff rig Gaff rig is a sailing rig (configuration of sails, mast and stays) in which the sail is four-cornered, fore-and-aft rigged, controlled at its Parts of a sail#Non-triangular fore and aft sails, peak and, usually, its entire Parts of a sail#Non-tr ...
s have been uncommon in the construction of cruising boats, since the mid 20th century. More common rigs are
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, fractional, cutter, and
ketch A ketch is a two- masted sailboat whose mainmast is taller than the mizzen, mizzen mast (or aft-mast), generally in a 40-foot or bigger boat. The name ketch is derived from ''catch''. The ketch's main mast is usually stepped in the same positi ...

ketch
. Occasionally employed rigs since then have been the
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yawl
, schooner,
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,
catboat A catboat is a sailboat with a single sail on a single mast (sailing), mast set well forward in the Bow (ship), bow of the boat. Traditionally they were Gaff rig, gaff rigged. Most have a shallow Draft (hull), draft, with centreboards, although some ...
.


Gear

Sailboats employ
standing rigging File:Standing rigging--square-rigged sailing vessel--Detail.jpg, Standing rigging on a square-rigged vessel (illustrated left), which supports a mast comprising three steps: ''main'', ''top'', and ''topgallant'' (illustrated right). The shrouds sup ...
to support the rig,
running rigging Running rigging is the rigging Bermuda rigged sloop at Convict Bay, Bermuda, circa 1879 Rigging comprises the system of ropes, cables and chains, which support a sailing ship or sail boat's masts—''standing rigging'', including Shroud (sa ...
to raise and adjust sails, cleats to secure lines, winches to work the sheets, and more than one anchor to secure the boat in harbor. A cruising yacht's deck usually has safety line to protect the crew from falling overboard and a bow pulpit to facilitate handling the jib and the anchor. In temperate climates, the cockpit may have a canvas windshield with see-through panels, called a "dodger". Steering may be either by tiller or wheel.


Engine

Cruising yachts have an auxiliary propulsion power unit to supplement the use of sails. Such power is inboard on the vessel and diesel, except for the smallest cruising boats, which may have an outboard gasoline motor. A sailboat might have a engine, whereas a sailboat might have a engine.


Racing

Racing yachts emphasize performance over comfort.
World Sailing World Sailing (WS) is the world governing body for the sport of sailing recognized by the International Olympic Committee The International Olympic Committee (IOC; french: Comité international olympique, CIO) is a non-governmental Sport ...
recognizes eleven classes of racing yacht.


Design features

High-performance rigs provide aerodynamic efficiency and
hydrodynamical In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids—liquids and gases. It has several subdisciplines, including aerodynamics (the study of air and other gases in motion) and hydro ...
ly efficient hulls minimize drag through the water and sideways motion. Racing yachts have a wide selection of weights and shapes of sail to accommodate different wind strengths and points of sail. A suite of sails on a racing yachts would include several weights of
jib A jib is a triangular sail that sets ahead of the foremast The mast of a sailing vessel A sailing ship is a sea-going vessel that uses sails mounted on Mast (sailing), masts to harness the power of wind and propel the vessel. There is a vari ...
and spinnaker, plus a specialized storm jib and
trysail TrySail are a Japanese voice actress girl group A girl group is a music act featuring several women in music, female singers who generally vocal harmony, harmonize together. The term "girl group" is also used in a narrower sense in the United Stat ...
(in place of the
mainsail A mainsail is a sail rigged on the main mast Mast, MAST or MASt may refer to: Engineering * Mast (sailing) , a vertical spar on a sailing ship * Flagmast, a pole for flying a flag * Guyed mast , a structure supported by guy-wires * Mooring mas ...
). Performance yachts are likely to have full-battened kevlar or carbon-fiber mainsails. Underwater foils can become more specialized, starting with a higher-aspect ratio fin keel with hydrodynamically efficient bulbs for ballast. On some racing yachts, a
canting keel A canting keel is a form of sailing ballast Ballast is used in ships to provide moment to resist the lateral forces on the hull. Insufficiently ballasted boats tend to tip or heel excessively in high winds. Too much heel may result in the boat/s ...
shifts angle from side to side to promote sailing with less heeling angle (sideway tilt), while other underwater foils take care of
leeway Leeway is the amount of drift motion to leeward Image:Upwind downwind example.png, 400px, Example image showing definitions of windward (upwind) and leeward (downwind) Windward () is the direction upwind from the point of reference, alternativ ...
(sideways motion).


Motor yachts

Motor yachts range in length from before they are considered ''super-yachts or mega-yachts'', which are and longer. They also vary by use, by style, and by hull type. As of April 2020 a yacht, ''REV Ocean'', was under construction, which when launched would replace the '' Azzam'' as the longest superyacht. As superyachts have grown size, the distinction between a yacht and a ship (perhaps converted for personal use) has become unclear. A proposed definition for calling a vessel a yacht rather than a ship would if it was constructed solely for personal use and has a combined occupancy of less than 100, including crew.


Classification

The
United States Coast Guard The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is the maritime security, search and rescue, and maritime law enforcement, law enforcement military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's eight Uniformed services ...
classifies motorboats—any vessel less than , propelled by machinery—in four classes by length: *Class A: motorboats less than *Class 1: motorboats *Class 2: motorboats *Class 3: motorboats


Style

A motor yacht's style can both be functional and evoke an aesthetic—trending towards the modern or the traditional. Among the styles, mentioned in the literature, are: * ''Cruiser'' – A
cruiser A cruiser is a type of warship A warship or combatant ship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare. Usually they belong to the armed forces of a state. As well as being armed, warships are designed to with ...
has a displacement hull for economical, long-distance passage-making. * ''Sports cruiser'' – A sports cruiser has a semi-displacement or planing hull for fast trips. * ''Sports fisherman'' – A sports fisherman has a semi-displacement or planing hull for fast trips and carries gear for recreational catching of large fish. * ''Expedition'' –An expedition yacht has a displacement hull for economical, long-distance passage-making to remote destinations. These are also called yachts. * ''Lobster'' – A lobster yacht is styled like a Maine lobster boat and has a semi-displacement or planing hull for fast trips. * ''Trawler''– A trawler has conservative, traditional styling and has a displacement hull for economical, medium-distance passage-making.


Hulls

There are three basic types of motor yacht hull: , , and , which have progressively higher cruise speeds and hourly fuel consumption with increased engine power: * ''Full-displacement hulls'' move the water up and out of the way of the vessel, making a wave. They are limited in speed by the square root of the waterline length multiplied by a factor, depending on the units used. Added horsepower cannot increase the maximum speed, only the size of the waves produced. * ''Semi-displacement hulls'' allow speeds that are faster than the
hull speed Hull may refer to: Structures * Chassis, of an armored fighting vehicle * Fuselage, of an aircraft * Hull (botany), the outer covering of seeds * Hull (watercraft), the body or frame of a ship * Submarine hull Mathematics * Affine hull, in affin ...
of a displacement vessel because they rise somewhat out of the water and create smaller waves. They also provide greater comfort than planing hulls. * ''Planing hulls'' require sufficient power for the boat to slide up onto the surface, which avoids the need to use power to lift water out of the way of the vessel. Such vessels have flat surfaces on the undersides. A typical semi-displacement yacht has a wedge-shaped bow, which promotes penetrating waves, that transitions to flatter, wider surfaces aft, which promotes lifting the vessel out of the water—the "deep vee" hull, designed by Ray Hunt, found in approximately 75% of modern power boats. Cruising motor yachts are available in a range of styles as two-engine , ranging in length from with top speeds ranging from .


Engines

Motor yachts typically have one or more
diesel engine The diesel engine, named after Rudolf Diesel Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel ( (); 18 March 1858 – 29 September 1913) was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the Diesel engine The diesel engine, name ...

diesel engine
s. Gasoline-powered motors and engines are the provenance of
outboard motor An outboard motor is a propulsion Propulsion is the action or process of pushing or pulling to drive an object forward. The term is derived from two Latin words: '' pro'', meaning'' before'' or ''forward''; and '' pellere'', meaning ''to dri ...
s and , due to their power-to-weight ratios. Two engines adds expense, but provides reliability and maneuverability over a single engine. Motor yachts in the range might have the following hull, horsepower, cruise speed, and hourly fuel consumption characteristics: * – two diesels to cruise at , consuming . * – two diesels to cruise at , consuming . * – two diesels to cruise at , consuming . Superyachts may employ multiple diesels or a combination of diesels and
gas turbine A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous Continuity or continuous may refer to: Mathematics * Continuity (mathematics), the opposing concept to discreteness; common examples include ** Continuous probability di ...
s with a combined .


See also

*
International Sailing Federation International is an adjective (also used as a noun) meaning "between nations". International may also refer to: Music Albums * ''International'' (Kevin Michael album), 2011 * ''International'' (New Order album), 2002 * ''International'' (The Th ...
* List of keelboat classes designed before 1970 * List of large sailing yachts *
List of motor yachts by length __NOTOC__ This list of motor yachts by length, is a table of the world's longest, currently active superyachts, with an Length overall, overall length of at least and up. These boats are also known as "megayachts", "gigayachts" and even "teray ...
*
List of sailing boat types The following is a partial list of sailboat types and sailing classes, including keelboats, dinghy, dinghies and multihull (catamarans and trimarans). Olympic classes World Sailing Classes Historically known as the IYRU (International Yacht Ra ...
*
List of sailboat designers and manufacturersThis is a list of notable sailboat designers and manufacturers, which are described by an article in English Wikipedia. Sailboat design and manufacturing is done by a number of companies and groups. Notable designers Sailboat designer articles in W ...
*
Model yachting X class (1000 square inches, few other restrictions), beating upwind under vane rudder control on Spreckels Lake, Spreckles Lake in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park. The parameters of this class lead to visually pleasing designs with long hulls and ...
*
Superyacht A superyacht or megayacht is a large and luxurious pleasure vessel. There are no official or agreed upon definitions for such yachts, but these terms are regularly used to describe professionally crewed motor or sailing yachts, ranging from to m ...
* Yacht broker * Yacht charter *
Yacht racing Yacht racing is a Sailing (sport), sailing sport involving sailing yachts and larger sailboats, as distinguished from dinghy racing, which involves open boats. It is composed of multiple yachts, in direct competition, racing around a course marke ...
* *
Yacht tenderImage:Hacker tender and Christina O.jpg, 300px, A classic Hacker-Craft, tender to ''Christina O'' A yacht tender is a vessel used for servicing and providing support and entertainment to a private or charter yacht. They include utilitarian craft, po ...
*
Yachting Yachting is the use of recreational boats and ships called ''yacht A yacht is a sailing or power vessel used for pleasure, cruising, or racing. There is no standard definition, so the term applies to such vessels that have a cabin with amenit ...


References


External links

{{Authority control Yachts Dutch inventions Ship designs of the Dutch Republic