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World cinema is a term in
film theory Film theory is a set of scholarly approaches within the academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary higher education, h ...
that refers to films made outside of
U.S. motion picture industry
U.S. motion picture industry
, particularly those in opposition to the aesthetics and values of commercial American cinema.Nagib, Lúcia. "Towards a positive definition of world cinema." ''Remapping world cinema: Identity, culture and politics in film'' (2006): 30-37. The Third Cinema of
Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg , area = , population = ( est.) , density = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2018 , ethnic ...

Latin America
and various
national cinema National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), customs, or Identity (social s ...
s are commonly identified as part of world cinema. The term has been criticized for
Americentrism Americentrism, also known as American-centrism or US-centrism, is a tendency to assume the culture of the United States The culture of the United States of America is primarily of Western origin, but is influenced by a multicultural ethos t ...
and for ignoring the diversity of different cinematic traditions around the world.


Types

World cinema has an unofficial implication of films with "artistic value" as opposed to "Hollywood commercialism." Foreign language films are often grouped with " art house films" and other
independent film An independent film, independent movie, indie film, or indie movie is a feature film A feature film or feature-length film is a narrative film (motion picture or "movie") with a running time long enough to be considered the principal or sole ...
s in DVD stores, cinema listings etc. Unless dubbed into one's native language, foreign language films played in English-speaking regions usually have English
subtitles Subtitles are text Text may refer to: Written word * Text (literary theory) Text may refer to: Written word * Text (literary theory), any object that can be read, including: **Religious text, a writing that a religious tradition considers ...
. Few films of this kind receive more than a limited release and many are never played in major cinemas. As such the marketing, popularity and gross takings for these films are usually markedly less than for typical Hollywood blockbusters. The combination of subtitles and minimal exposure adds to the notion that "World Cinema" has an inferred artistic prestige or intelligence, which may discourage less sophisticated viewers. Additionally, differences in cultural style and tone between foreign and domestic films affects attendance at cinemas and DVD sales.Curran, Daniel. ''Foreign Films: More than 500 films on video cassette,'' pages v-vi. Evanston, Illinois: CineBooks, 1989. Foreign language films can be commercial, low brow or
B-movie A B movie or B film is a low-budget A low-budget film or low-budget movie is a motion picture shot with little to no funding from a major film studio or private investor. Many independent films are made on low budgets, but films made on the ...
s. Furthermore, foreign language films can cross cultural boundaries, particularly when the visual spectacle and style is sufficient to overcome people's misgivings. Films of this type became more common in the early 2000s, as ''
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon ''Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon'' is a 2000 ''wuxia ( ), which literally means "martial heroes", is a genre of Chinese fiction concerning the adventures of martial artist Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat prac ...
'', ''
Amélie ''Amélie'' (also known as ''Le Fabuleux Destin d'Amélie Poulain''; ; en, The Fabulous Destiny of Amélie Poulain, italic=yes) is a French-German 2001 romantic comedy Romantic comedy (also known as romcom or rom-com) is a subgenre of co ...
'', ''
Brotherhood of the Wolf ''Brotherhood of the Wolf'' (french: Le Pacte des loups) is a 2001 French period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a co ...
'', '' Y Tu Mama Tambien'' and ''
Talk to Her ''Talk to Her'' ( es, Hable con ella) is a 2002 Spanish drama written and directed by Pedro Almodóvar, and starring Javier Cámara, Darío Grandinetti, Leonor Watling Leonor Elizabeth Ceballos Watling (born 28 July 1975) is a Spanish film a ...
'' enjoyed great successes in United States cinemas and
home video Home video is prerecorded media sold or Video rental shop, rented for home viewing. The term originates from the VHS and Betamax era, when the predominant medium was videotapes, but has carried over to optical disc formats such as DVD and Blu-ra ...
sales. The first foreign and foreign language film to top the North American
box office A box office or ticket office is a place where tickets are sold to the public for admission to an event. Patrons may perform the transaction at a countertopImage:Kitchen 050918 154652.jpg, A stainless steel countertop A countertop, also count ...

box office
was ''
Hero A hero (heroine in its feminine form) is a real person or a main fictional character who, in the face of danger, combats adversity through feats of ingenuity, courage Courage (also called bravery or valour) is the choice and willing ...
'' in August 2004. "The rule for foreign-language films is that if you've done $5 million or better (in United States cinemas), you've had a very nice success; if you do $10 (million) or better (in United States cinemas), you're in blockbuster category," Warner Independent Pictures ex-president Mark Gill said. On the other hand, English-dubbed foreign films rarely did well in United States box office (with the exception of anime films). The 1982 United States theatrical release of Wolfgang Peterson's ''Das Boot'' was the last major release to go out in both original and English-dubbed versions, and the film's original version actually grossed much higher than the English-dubbed version. Later on, English-dubbed versions of international hits like ''Un indien dans la ville'', ''Godzilla 2000'', ''Anatomy (film), Anatomy'', ''Pinocchio (2002 film), Pinocchio'' and ''High Tension'' flopped at United States box office. When Miramax planned to release the English-dubbed versions of ''Shaolin Soccer'' and ''
Hero A hero (heroine in its feminine form) is a real person or a main fictional character who, in the face of danger, combats adversity through feats of ingenuity, courage Courage (also called bravery or valour) is the choice and willing ...
'' in the United States cinemas, their English-dubbed versions scored badly in test screenings in the United States, so Miramax finally released the films in United States cinemas with their original language.


See also

*Eurocinema vod, Eurocinema * Jutra Award * Dhaka University Film Society * List of cinema of the world * Academy Award for Best International Feature Film * César Award for Best Foreign Film * Cairo International Film Festival * History of film * Transnational cinema * World Cinema Foundation


References

{{Worldcinema, state=collapsed Cinema by location, World Cinema by country, World