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Wisdom, sapience, or sagacity is the ability to contemplate and act using
knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to e ...
,
experience Experience refers to conscious , an English Paracelsian physician Consciousness, at its simplest, is " sentience or awareness of internal and external existence". Despite millennia of analyses, definitions, explanations and debates by philosoph ...

experience
,
understanding Understanding is a psychological Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconscious mind, unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought. It is an academic disc ...

understanding
,
common sense Common sense (often just known as sense) is sound, practical judgment concerning everyday matters, or a basic ability to Perception, perceive, Nous, understand, and Phronesis, judge in a manner that is shared by (i.e. ''common to'') nearly all ...
and
insight The Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (''InSight'') mission is a robotic Robotics is an interdisciplinarity, interdisciplinary field that integrates computer science and engineering. Robotics inv ...

insight
. Wisdom is associated with attributes such as unbiased judgment,
compassion Compassion motivates people to go out of their way to help the physical, mental, or emotional pains of another and themselves. Compassion is often regarded as having sensitivity, which is an emotional aspect to suffering. Though, when based on cer ...
, experiential self-knowledge,
self-transcendence Self-transcendence is a personality trait In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconscious mind, unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought. I ...
and
non-attachment Detachment, also expressed as non-attachment, is a state in which a person overcomes their attachment to desire for things, people or concepts of the world and thus attains a heightened perspective. It is considered a wise virtue Virtue ...
, and
virtues Virtue ( la, virtus) is morality, moral excellence. A virtue is a trait or quality that is deemed to be morally good and thus is Value (ethics), valued as a foundation of principle and good moral being. In other words, it is a behavior that sho ...
such as ethics and benevolence. Wisdom has been defined in many different ways, including several distinct approaches to assess the characteristics attributed to wisdom.


Definitions

The ''
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary A historical dictionary or dictionary on historical principles is a dictionary which deals not only with the latterday meanings of words but also the historica ...
'' defines wisdom as "Capacity of judging rightly in matters relating to life and conduct; soundness of judgment in the choice of means and ends; sometimes, less strictly, sound sense, esp. in practical affairs: opp. to folly;" also "Knowledge (esp. of a high or abstruse kind); enlightenment, learning, erudition."
Charles Haddon Spurgeon Charles Haddon Spurgeon (19 June 1834 – 31 January 1892) was an English Particular Baptist preacher. Spurgeon remains highly influential among Christians of various denominations, among whom he is known as the "Prince of Preachers". He ...

Charles Haddon Spurgeon
defined wisdom as "the right use of
knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to e ...
".
Robert I. Sutton Robert I. Sutton (born 1954 in Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive maps of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivisi ...
and
Andrew HargadonProfessor Andrew Hargadon is the Charles J. Soderquist Chair in Entrepreneurship and a Professor of Technology Management at the UC Davis Graduate School of Management, Graduate School of Management, UC Davis, University Of California, Davis.Universi ...
defined the "attitude of wisdom" as "acting with knowledge while doubting what one knows". In social and psychological sciences, several distinct approaches to wisdom exist, with major advances made in the last two decades with respect to operationalization and measurement of wisdom as a psychological construct. Wisdom is the capacity to have foreknowledge of something, to know the consequences (both positive and negative) of all the available course of actions, and to yield or take the options with the most advantage either for present or future implication.Meacham, J. A. (1990). The loss of wisdom. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), ''Wisdom: Its nature, origins, and development''. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 181 211


Mythological and philosophical perspectives

The
ancient Greeks Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 600). This era was ...
considered wisdom to be an important
virtue Virtue ( la, virtus ''Virtus'' () was a specific virtue in Ancient Rome. It carries connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin ''vir'', "man"). It was thus a fr ...

virtue
,
personified Personification occurs when a thing or abstraction is represented as a person, in literature or art, as an anthropomorphic metaphor A metaphor is a figure of speech that, for rhetorical effect, directly refers to one thing by mentioning anothe ...
as the
goddess A goddess is a female Female (symbol: ♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ovum, ova (egg cells). Barring rare medical conditions, most female mammals, including female humans, have two X chromo ...

goddess
es
Metis Metis or Métis may refer to: Ethnic groups * Métis, certain groups of Canadians and Americans with both First Nations and European ancestry * Métis in Canada trace their descent to First Nations peoples and European settlers **Manitoba Métis ...
and
Athena Athena or Athene, often given the epithet An epithet (, ) is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied ...

Athena
. Metis was the first wife of
Zeus Zeus or , , ; grc, Δῐός, ''Diós'', label=genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Ling ...

Zeus
, who, according to
Hesiod Hesiod (; grc-gre, Ἡσίοδος ''Hēsíodos'', 'he who emits the voice') was an ancient Greek poet generally thought to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēr ...
's
Theogony The ''Theogony'' (, , , i.e. "the genealogy or birth of the ") is a by (8th – 7th century BC) describing the origins and of the , composed c. 730–700 BC. It is written in the of and contains 1022 lines. Descriptions Hesiod's ''Theog ...
, had devoured her pregnant; Zeus earned the title of Mêtieta ("The Wise Counselor") after that, as Metis was the embodiment of wisdom, and he gave birth to Athena, who is said to have sprung from his head. Athena was portrayed as strong, fair, merciful, and chaste.
Apollo Apollo, grc, Ἀπόλλωνος, ''Apóllōnos'', label=genitive , ; , grc-dor, Ἀπέλλων, ''Apéllōn'', ; grc, Ἀπείλων, ''Apeílōn'', label=Arcadocypriot Greek, ; grc-aeo, Ἄπλουν, ''Áploun'', la, Apollō, ...

Apollo
was also considered a god of wisdom, designated as the conductor of the
Muses In and , the Muses ( grc, Μοῦσαι, Moûsai, el, Μούσες, Múses) are the goddesses of , , and . They were considered the source of the knowledge embodied in the , , and s that were related orally for centuries in ancient Greek cultu ...

Muses
(''Musagetes''), who were personifications of the sciences and of the inspired and poetic arts; According to
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thought and the Platoni ...

Plato
in his
Cratylus Cratylus ( ; grc, Κρατύλος, ''Kratylos'') was an History of Athens, ancient Athenian philosopher from the mid-late 5th century BCE, known mostly through his portrayal in Plato's Dialogues of Plato, dialogue ''Cratylus (dialogue), Cratylus'' ...
, the name of Apollo could also mean "''Ballon''" (archer) and "''Omopoulon''" (unifier of poles ivine and earthly, since this god was responsible for divine and true inspirations, thus considered an archer who was always right in healing and oracles: "he is an ever-darting archer". Apollo was considered the god who prophesied through the priestesses (
Pythia The Pythia (; grc, Πυθία ) was the name of the high priestess of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the ...

Pythia
) in the
Temple of Apollo (Delphi) A temple (from the ) is a building reserved for spiritual rituals and activities such as and . Religions which erect temples include (whose temples are typically called ), (whose temples are known as ), (often ), (whose temples are called ...
, where the aphorism "
know thyself The Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: Mycenaea ...
" (''gnōthi seauton'') was inscribed (part of the wisdom of the
Delphic maxims Delphic may refer to: * Delphic (band), British band * Uses as adjective: ** Of or connected with the city of Delphi, Greece ** Making of predictions: *** Delphic ambiguity *** Of or related to the Delphic Oracle in any way * British ships: ** , lau ...
). He was contrasted with
Hermes Hermes (; grc-gre, Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian deity in ancient Greek religion and Greek mythology, mythology. Hermes is considered the herald of the gods. He is also considered the protector of human heralds, travellers, thieves, mercha ...

Hermes
, who was related to the sciences and technical wisdom, and, in the first centuries after Christ, was associated with
Thoth Thoth (; from grc-koi, Θώθ ', borrowed from cop, Ⲑⲱⲟⲩⲧ, the reflex of egy, ḏḥwtj " eis like the Ibis") is an ancient Egyptian deity Ancient Egyptian deities are the gods A deity or god is a supernatural being consider ...

Thoth
in an Egyptian syncretism, under the name Hermes Trimegistus. Greek tradition recorded the earliest introducers of wisdom in the
Seven Sages of Greece The Seven Sages (of Greece) or Seven Wise Men ( Greek: ''hoi hepta sophoi'') was the title given by classical Greek tradition to seven philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, ...
. To
Socrates Socrates (; ; –399 BC) was a Greek philosopher from Athens Athens ( ; el, Αθήνα, Athína ; grc, Ἀθῆναι, Athênai (pl.) ) is the capital city, capital and List of cities in Greece, largest city of Greece. Athens domi ...

Socrates
and
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thought and the Platoni ...

Plato
,
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such questio ...

philosophy
was literally the love of wisdom (
philo Philo of Alexandria (; grc, Φίλων, Phílōn; he, , Yedidia (Jedediah) HaCohen; ), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is t ...
-
sophia Sophia means "wisdom" in Greek language, Greek. It may refer to: *Sophia (wisdom) *Sophia (Gnosticism) *Sophia (given name) Places *Niulakita or Sophia, an island of Tuvalu *Sophia, North Carolina, an unincorporated community in Randolph County * ...
). This permeates Plato's
dialogue Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. ...

dialogue
; in '' The Republic'' the leaders of his proposed
utopia A utopia ( ) typically describes an imaginary community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Level of analysis" is distinct f ...

utopia
are
philosopher king According to Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in ...
s who understand the
Form of the Good "Form of the Good", or more literally "the idea of the good" () is a concept in the philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to ...
and possess the courage to act accordingly.
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ...

Aristotle
, in ''
Metaphysics Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that studies the first principles of being, identity and change, space and time, causality, necessity and possibility. It includes questions about the nature of consciousness and the relationship between ...
'', defined wisdom as understanding why things are a certain way (
causality Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is influence by which one Event (relativity), event, process, state or object (a ''cause'') contributes to the production of another event, process, state or object (an ''effect'') ...
), which is deeper than merely knowing things are a certain way. He was the first to make the distinction between ''phronesis'' and ''sophia''. According to Plato and
Xenophon Xenophon of Athens (; grc, Ξενοφῶν Xenophon of Athens (; grc-gre, Ξενοφῶν, , ''Xenophōn''; – 354 BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens mont ...

Xenophon
, the Pythia of the Delphic Oracle answered the question "who is the wisest man in Greece?" by stating Socrates was the wisest. According to Plato's ''Apology'', Socrates decided to investigate the people who might be considered wiser than him, concluding they lacked true knowledge: Thus it became popularly immortalized in the phrase "
I know that I know nothing "I know that I know nothing" is a saying derived from Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Πλάτων, Πλάτων ''Plátōn'', in Attic Greek, Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher ...
" that it is wise to recognize one's own ignorance and to value epistemic humility. The
ancient Romans In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who studi ...
also valued wisdom which was personified in
Minerva Minerva (; ett, Menrva) is the Roman goddess Roman mythology is the body of of as represented in the and . One of a wide variety of genres of , ''Roman mythology'' may also refer to the modern study of these representations, and to ...

Minerva
, or Pallas. She also represents skillful knowledge and the virtues, especially chastity. Her symbol was the owl which is still a popular representation of wisdom, because it can see in darkness. She was said to be born from Jupiter's forehead. Wisdom is also important within
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
.
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it ...

Jesus
emphasized it.
Paul the Apostle Paul; el, Παῦλος, translit=Paulos; cop, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; he, פאולוס השליח, name=, group= (born Saul of Tarsus;; ar, بولس الطرسوسي; el, Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, Saũlos Tarseús; tr, Tarsuslu Pavlus AD ...
, in his
first epistle to the Corinthians The First Epistle to the Corinthians ( grc, Α΄ ᾽Επιστολὴ πρὸς Κορινθίους), usually referred to as First Corinthians or 1 Corinthians is a Pauline epistle The Pauline epistles, also known as Epistles of Paul or Letter ...
, argued that there is both secular and divine wisdom, urging Christians to pursue the latter.
Prudence Prudence ( la, prudentia, contracted from meaning "seeing ahead, sagacity") is the ability to govern and discipline oneself by the use of reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field ...
, which is intimately related to wisdom, became one of the four
cardinal virtues Cardinal virtues are four virtues Virtue ( la, virtus) is morality, moral excellence. A virtue is a trait or quality that is deemed to be morally good and thus is Value (ethics), valued as a foundation of principle and good moral being. In ot ...
of
Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...
. The Christian philosopher
Thomas Aquinas Thomas Aquinas (; it, Tommaso d'Aquino, lit=Thomas of Aquino, Italy, Aquino; 1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican Order, Dominican friar, Philosophy, philosopher, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church. An immensely influential ...

Thomas Aquinas
considered wisdom to be the "father" (i.e. the cause, measure, and form) of all virtues. In Buddhist traditions, developing wisdom plays a central role where comprehensive guidance on how to develop wisdom is provided. In the
Inuit Inuit (; iu, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, , dual: Inuuk, ) are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, ...
tradition, developing wisdom was one of the aims of teaching. An Inuit
Elder An elder is someone with a degree of seniority or authority. Elder or elders may refer to: Positions Administrative * Elder (administrative title), a position of authority Cultural * American Indian elder, a person who has and transmits cul ...
said that a person became wise when they could see what needed to be done and did it successfully without being told what to do. In many cultures, the name for third molars, which are the last teeth to grow, is etymologically linked with wisdom, e.g., as in the English ''
wisdom tooth A third molar, commonly called wisdom tooth, is one of the three per of the . It is the most of the three. The age at which wisdom teeth come through () is variable, but this generally occurs between late teens and early twenties. Most adults ...
.'' It has its nickname originated from the classical tradition, which in the Hippocratic writings has already been called ''sóphronistér'' (in
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
, related to the meaning of moderation or teaching a lesson), and in
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
''dens sapientiae'' (wisdom tooth), since they appear at the age of maturity in late adolescence and early adulthood.


Educational perspectives

Public schools have an approach to character education. Eighteenth century thinkers such as
Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin ( April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States that was negotiated on behalf of the United States by John Adams, Benjamin Franklin and John Jay The Founding Fathers of the United States, or simp ...

Benjamin Franklin
, referred to this as training wisdom and virtue. Traditionally, schools share the responsibility to build character and wisdom along with parents and the community. Nicholas Maxwell, a contemporary philosopher in the United Kingdom, advocates that
academia An academy (Attic Greek Attic Greek is the Greek language, Greek dialect of the regions of ancient Greece, ancient region of Attica, including the ''polis'' of classical Athens, Athens. Often called classical Greek, it was the prestige (sociol ...

academia
ought to alter its focus from the acquisition of knowledge to seeking and promoting wisdom. This he defines as the capacity to realize what is of value in life, for oneself and others. He teaches that new knowledge and technological
know-how Know-how (or knowhow, or procedural knowledge) is a term for practical knowledge on how to accomplish something, as opposed to "know-what" (facts), "know-why" (science), or "know-who" (communication). It is also often referred to as street smarts ...
increase our power to act. Without wisdom though, Maxwell claims this new knowledge may cause human harm as well as human good. He argues that the pursuit of knowledge is indeed valuable and good, but that it should be considered apart of the broader task of improving wisdom.


Psychological perspectives

Psychologists have begun to gather data on commonly held beliefs or folk theories about wisdom. Initial analyses indicate that although "there is an overlap of the implicit theory of wisdom with intelligence, perceptiveness, spirituality and shrewdness, it is evident that wisdom is an expertise in dealing with difficult questions of life and adaptation to the complex requirements." Such implicit theories stand in contrast to the explicit theories and empirical research on resulting psychological processes underlying wisdom. Opinions on the exact psychological definitions of wisdom vary, but there is some consensus that critical to wisdom are certain processes affording life reflection and judgment about critical life matters. These processes include recognizing the limits of one's own knowledge, acknowledging uncertainty and change, attention to context and the bigger picture, and integrating different perspectives of a situation. Cognitive scientists suggest that wisdom requires coordinating such reasoning processes, as they may provide insightful solutions for managing one's life. Notably, such reasoning is both theoretically and empirically distinct from general intelligence.
Robert Sternberg Robert J. Sternberg (born December 8, 1949) is an American psychologist A psychologist is a person who studies normal and abnormal mental states, perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by experimenting with, an ...
has suggested that wisdom is not to be confused with general (fluid or crystallized) intelligence. In line with this idea, researchers have shown empirically that wise reasoning is distinct from IQ. Several more nuanced characterizations of wisdom are listed below. Baltes and colleagues in ''Wisdom: its structure and function in regulating lifespan successful development'' defined wisdom as "the ability to deal with the contradictions of a specific situation and to assess the consequences of an action for themselves and for others. It is achieved when in a concrete situation, a balance between intrapersonal, inter- personal and institutional interests can be prepared". Balance itself appears to be a critical criterion of wisdom. Empirical research started to provide support to this idea, showing that wisdom-related reasoning is associated with achieving balance between intrapersonal and interpersonal interests when facing personal life challenges, and when setting goals for managing interpersonal conflicts. Researchers in the field of
positive psychology Positive psychology is the scientific study of what makes life most worth living, focusing on both individual and societal well-being. It studies "positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions...it aims t ...
have defined wisdom as the coordination of "knowledge and experience" and "its deliberate use to improve well being." Under this definition, wisdom is further defined with the following facets: * Problem Solving with self-knowledge and sustainable actions. * Contextual
sincerity Sincerity is the virtue Virtue ( la, virtus ''Virtus'' () was a specific virtue in Ancient Rome. It carries connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin ''vir'' ...
to the circumstances with knowledge of its negative (or constraints) and positive aspects. * Value based consistent actions with knowledge of diversity in ethical
opinion An opinion is a judgement Judgement (or US spelling judgment) is also known as ''adjudication'' which means the evaluation of evidence to make a decision. Judgement is also the ability to make considered decisions. The term has four dist ...

opinion
s. * Tolerance towards uncertainty in life with unconditional acceptance. * Empathy with oneself to understand one's own emotions (or to be emotionally oriented), morals...etc. and others feelings including the ability to see oneself as part of a larger whole. This theoretical model has not been tested empirically, with an exception of a broad link between wisdom-related reasoning and well-being. Grossmann and colleagues have synthesized prior psychological literature, indicating that in the face of ill-defined life situations wisdom involves certain cognitive processes affording
unbiased Bias is a disproportionate weight ''in favor of'' or ''against'' an idea or thing, usually in a way that is closed-minded, prejudicial, or unfair. Biases can be innate or learned. People may develop biases for or against an individual, a group, ...
, sound
judgment Judgement (or US spelling judgment) is also known as ''adjudication Adjudication is the legal process by which an arbitration, arbiter or judge reviews evidence (law), evidence and argumentation, including legal reasoning set forth by opposing ...
: (i) intellectual humility or recognition of limits of own knowledge; (ii) appreciation of perspectives broader than the issue at hand; (iii) sensitivity to the possibility of change in social relations; and (iv) compromise or integration of different perspectives. Grossmann found that habitual speaking and thinking of oneself in the third person increases these characteristics, which means that such a habit makes a person wiser. Importantly, Grossmann highlights the fundamental role of contextual factors, including the role of culture, experiences, and social situations for understanding, development, and propensity of showing wisdom, with implications for training and educational practice. This situated account of wisdom ushered a novel phase of wisdom scholarship, using rigorous evidence-based methods to understand contextual factors affording sound judgment. For instance, Grossmann and Kross have identified a phenomenon they called "the Solomon's paradox" - wiser reflections on other people's problems as compared to one's own. It is named after
King Solomon of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg, Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco (altepetl), Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female eq ...

King Solomon
, the third leader of the Jewish Kingdom, who has shown a great deal of wisdom when making judgments about other people's dilemmas but lacked insight when it came to important decisions in his own life. Empirical scientists have also begun to focus on the role of emotions in wisdom. Most researchers would agree that emotions and emotion regulation would be key to effectively managing the kinds of complex and arousing situations that would most call for wisdom. However, much empirical research has focused on the cognitive or meta-cognitive aspects of wisdom, assuming that an ability to reason through difficult situations would be paramount. Thus, although emotions would likely play a role in determining how wisdom plays out in real events and on reflecting on past events, only recently has empirical evidence started to provide robust evidence on how and when different emotions improve or harm a person's ability to deal wisely with complex events. One notable finding concerns the positive relationship between diversity of emotional experience and wise reasoning, irrespective of emotional intensity.


Measuring wisdom

Measurement of wisdom often depends on a researcher's theoretical position about the nature of wisdom. A major distinction exists between viewing wisdom as a stable personality trait or a context-bound process. The former approach often capitalizes on single-shot questionnaires. However, recent studies indicate that such single-shot questionnaires produce biased responses, something that is antithetical to the wisdom construct and neglects the notion that wisdom is best understood in the contexts where it is most relevant, namely, in complex life challenges. In contrast, the latter approach advocates for measuring wisdom-related features of cognition, motivation, and emotion on the level of a specific situation. Use of such state-level measures provides less biased responses as well as greater power in explaining meaningful psychological processes. Furthermore, a focus on the level of the situation has allowed wisdom researchers to develop a fuller understanding of the role of context itself for producing wisdom. Specifically, studies have shown evidence of cross-cultural and within-cultural variability, and systematic variability in reasoning wisely across contexts and in daily life. Many, but not all, studies find that adults' self-ratings of perspective and wisdom do not depend on age. This belief stands in contrast to the popular notion that wisdom increases with age. The answer to the question of age–wisdom association depends on how one defines wisdom and the methodological framework used to evaluate theoretical claims. Most recent work suggests that the answer to this question also depends on the degree of experience in a specific domain, with some contexts favoring older adults, others favoring younger adults, and some not differentiating age groups. Notably, rigorous longitudinal work is necessary to fully unpack the question of age–wisdom relationship, and such work is still outstanding, with most studies relying on cross-sectional observations. The Jeste-Thomas Wisdom Index is based on a 28-question survey (SD-WISE-28) created by researchers at the
University of California San Diego The University of California, San Diego (UC San Diego or, colloquially, UCSD) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality ...
to determine how wise a person is. In 2021 Dr. Dilip V. Jeste and his colleages created a much shorter 7-question test (SD-WISE-7) consisting of seven components: acceptance of diverse perspectives, decisiveness, emotional regulation, prosocial behaviors,
self-reflection Self-reflection is the capacity of humans to exercise introspection and to attempt to learn more about their fundamental nature and essence. This capacity is thought to be an essential feature of self-awareness and depends on a variety of cognitive ...
, social advising, and (to a lesser degree)
spirituality The meaning of spirituality has developed and expanded over time, and various connotations can be found alongside each other. Traditionally, spirituality referred to a Religion, religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the origin ...

spirituality
.


Sapience

Sapience is closely related to the term "''sophia''" often defined as "transcendent wisdom", "ultimate reality", or the ultimate truth of things. Sapiential perspective of wisdom is said to lie in the heart of every religion, where it is often acquired through intuitive knowing. This type of wisdom is described as going beyond mere practical wisdom and includes self-knowledge, interconnectedness, conditioned origination of mind-states and other deeper understandings of subjective experience. This type of wisdom can also lead to the ability of an individual to act with appropriate
judgment Judgement (or US spelling judgment) is also known as ''adjudication Adjudication is the legal process by which an arbitration, arbiter or judge reviews evidence (law), evidence and argumentation, including legal reasoning set forth by opposing ...

judgment
, a broad understanding of situations and greater appreciation/compassion towards other living beings. The word ''sapience'' is derived from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
''sapientia'', meaning "wisdom". The corresponding verb ''sapere'' has the original meaning of "to taste", hence "to perceive, to discern" and "to know"; its present participle ''sapiens'' was chosen by
Carl Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement Ennoblement is the conferring of nobility—the induction of an individual into the noble social class, class. Currently only a few kingdoms still grant nob ...

Carl Linnaeus
for the Latin binomial for the human species, ''
Homo sapiens Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species of primate, characterized by bipedality, bipedalism and large, complex brains. This has enabled the development of advanced tools, culture, and language. Humans are highl ...

Homo sapiens
''.


Religious perspectives


Ancient Near East

In Mesopotamian religion and mythology,
Enki , image = Enki(Ea).jpg , caption = Detail of Enki from the Adda Seal, an ancient Akkadian cylinder seal dating to circa 2300 BC , deity_of = God of creation, intelligence, crafts, water, seawater, lakewater, fertility Fertility is the ca ...
, also known as Ea, was the God of wisdom and intelligence. Divine Wisdom allowed the provident designation of functions and the ordering of the cosmos, and it was achieved by humans in following me-s (in , order, rite, righteousness), restoring the balance. In addition to hymns to Enki or Ea dating from the
third millennium BC Third or 3rd may refer to: Numbers * 3rd, the ordinal form of the cardinal number 3 *fraction (mathematics) A fraction (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European ...
., there is amongst the
clay tablet In the Ancient Near East The ancient Near East was the home of early civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characterized by urban development, social stratification, a form of government, and sym ...
s of
Abu Salabikh The low tell (archaeology), tells at Abu Salabikh, around northwest of the site of ancient Nippur in Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate, Iraq mark the site of a small History of Sumer, Sumerian city state of the mid third millennium BCE, with cultural co ...
from 2600 BC, considered as being the oldest dated texts, an "Hymn to
Shamash Utu, later worshipped by the East Semitic Akkadian language, Akkadian-speaking Babylonians as Shamash, ''šmš'', syc, ܫܡܫܐ ''šemša'', he, שֶׁמֶשׁ ''šemeš'', ar, شمس ''šams'', Ashurian Aramaic: 𐣴𐣬𐣴 ''š'meš(ā)'' ...
", in which it is recorded written: The concept of
Logos ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος, lógos; from , , ) is a term in Western philosophy Western philosophy refers to the philosophy, philosophical thought and work of the W ...

Logos
or manifest word of the divine thought, a concept also present in the philosophy and hymns of Egypt and
Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 600). This era wa ...
Uždavinys, Algis. Philosophy as a Rite of Rebirth: From Ancient Egypt to Neoplatonism. The Prometheus Trust. 2008. . https://themathesontrust.org/publications-files/MTexcerpt-PhilosophyRebirth.pdf (being central to the thinker
Heraclitus Heraclitus of Ephesus (; grc-gre, Ἡράκλειτος ; , ) was an Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), ...

Heraclitus
), and substantial in the
Abrahamic traditions The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, be ...

Abrahamic traditions
, seems to have been derived from Mesopotamian culture. Sia represents the personification of perception and thoughtfulness in the traditional mythology adhered to in
Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

Ancient Egypt
.
Thoth Thoth (; from grc-koi, Θώθ ', borrowed from cop, Ⲑⲱⲟⲩⲧ, the reflex of egy, ḏḥwtj " eis like the Ibis") is an ancient Egyptian deity Ancient Egyptian deities are the gods A deity or god is a supernatural being consider ...

Thoth
, married to
Maat Maat or Maʽat (Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Africa ** Egyptian culture, a complex and stable culture ...

Maat
(in
ancient Egyptian Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile, Nile River, situated in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistori ...
, meaning order, righteousness, truth), was also important and regarded as a national introducer of wisdom.


Zoroastrianism

In the
Avesta The Avesta () is the primary collection of religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious traditions consider to be sacred, or of central importance to ...

Avesta
hymns traditionally attributed to
Zoroaster Zoroaster (, ; el, Ζωροάστρης, ''Zōroastrēs''), also known as Zarathustra (, ; ae, , ''Zaraθuštra''), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra (Modern fa, زرتشت, ''Zartosht''), was an ancient Iranian Iranian may refer t ...

Zoroaster
, the
Gathas The Gathas ()"Gatha"
''
Ahura Mazda Ahura Mazda (; ae, , translit=Ahura Mazdā also known as Oromasdes, Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, and Hurmuz) is the creator deity A creator deity or creator god (often called the Creator) is a deity A deity or god is a su ...

Ahura Mazda
means "Lord" (Ahura) and "Wisdom" (Mazda), and it is the central deity who embodies goodness, being also called "Good Thought" (
Vohu Manah Vohu Manah (Avestan Avestan , also known historically as Zend, comprises two languages: Old Avestan (spoken in the 2nd millennium BCE) and Younger Avestan (spoken in the 1st millennium BCE). The languages are known only from their use as the la ...
). In
Zoroastrianism Zoroastrianism or Mazdayasna is an Iranian religions, Iranian religion and one of the world's oldest continuously-practiced organized faiths, based on the teachings of the Iranian peoples, Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster (also known as ''Za ...
in general, the order of the universe and morals is called
Asha Asha (; also arta ; Avestan Avestan , also known historically as Zend, comprises two languages: Old Avestan (spoken in the 2nd millennium BCE) and Younger Avestan (spoken in the 1st millennium BCE). The languages are known only from their use ...

Asha
(in
Avestan Avestan , also known historically as Zend, comprises two languages: Old Avestan (spoken in the 2nd millennium BCE) and Younger Avestan (spoken in the 1st millennium BCE). The languages are known only from their use as the language of Zoroastrian ...
, truth, righteousness), which is determined by the designations of this
omniscient Omniscience () is the capacity to know everything. In monotheistic religions, such as Sikhism and the Abrahamic religions, this is an God#Specific attributes, attribute of God. In Jainism, omniscience is an attribute that any individual can ev ...

omniscient
Thought and also considered a deity emanating from Ahura (
Amesha Spenta In Zoroastrianism, the ae, 𐬀𐬨𐬆𐬱𐬀 𐬯𐬞𐬆𐬧𐬙𐬀, aməša spəṇta ( Avestan: ', sa, Amrita Spanda literally "Immortal (which is) holy/bounteous/furthering") are a class of seven divine entities emanating from Ahura Maz ...
); it is related to another ahura deity,
Spenta Mainyu In Zoroastrianism Zoroastrianism or Mazdayasna is one of the world's oldest continuously practiced religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, b ...
(active Mentality). It says in Yazna 31:


Hebrew Bible and Judaism

The word wisdom (חכם) is mentioned 222 times in the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites ...

Hebrew Bible
. It was regarded as one of the highest virtues among the Israelites along with kindness (חסד) and justice (צדק). Both the books of
Proverbs A proverb (from la, proverbium) is a simple and insightful, traditional saying A saying is any concisely written or spoken expression (linguistics), expression that is especially memorable because of its meaning or style. Sayings are categorize ...
and
Psalms The Book of Psalms ( or ; he, תְּהִלִּים, , lit. "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms, the Psalter or "the Psalms", is the first book of the ("Writings"), the third section of the Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh ...

Psalms
urge readers to obtain and to increase in wisdom. In the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites ...

Hebrew Bible
, wisdom is represented by
Solomon Solomon (; he, , ), ''Šlēmūn''; : سُلَيْمَان ', also : ' or '; el, Σολομών ''Solomōn''; : Salomon) also called Jedidiah (, ), was, according to the and Christian , a fabulously wealthy and wise monarch of the who suc ...

Solomon
, who asks God for wisdom in . Much of the
Book of Proverbs #REDIRECT Book of Proverbs The Book of Proverbs (Hebrew: מִשְלֵי, ''Míshlê (Shlomoh)'', "Proverbs (of Solomon)") is a book in the third section (called Ketuvim) of the Hebrew Bible and a book of the Christianity, Christian Old Testament. ...
, which is filled with , is attributed to Solomon. In , the fear of the Lord is called the beginning of wisdom. In , there is also reference to wisdom personified in female form, "Wisdom calls aloud in the streets, she raises her voice in the marketplaces." In , this personified wisdom is described as being present with God before creation began and even taking part in creation itself. The
Talmud The Talmud (; he, תַּלְמוּד ''Tálmūḏ'') is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law (''halakha'') and Jewish theology. Until the advent of modernity, in nearly all Jewish communities, the ...

Talmud
teaches that a wise person is a person who can foresee the future. ''Nolad'' is a Hebrew word for "future," but also the Hebrew word for ''birth'', so one rabbinic interpretation of the teaching is that a wise person is one who can foresee the consequences of his/her choices (i.e. can "see the future" that he/she "gives birth" to).


Hellenistic religion and Gnosticism


Christian theology

In
Christian theology #REDIRECT Christian theology #REDIRECT Christian theology Christian theology is the theology of Christianity, Christian belief and practice. * help them better understand Christian tenets * make comparative religion, comparisons between Christia ...
, "wisdom" (From
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as one of the spoken languages of the Israelites and their longest-survivi ...
: '' חכמה'' transliteration: chokmâh pronounced: khok-maw',
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
: ''Sophia'',
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...
: ''Sapientia'') describes an aspect of God, or the
theological Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine and, more broadly, of religious belief. It is taught as an academic discipline An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity ...
concept regarding the wisdom of
God In monotheism, monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, creator deity, creator, and principal object of Faith#Religious views, faith.Richard Swinburne, Swinburne, R.G. "God" in Ted Honderich, Honderich, Ted. (ed)''The Oxfo ...

God
. There is an oppositional element in Christian thought between
secular Secularity, also the secular or secularness (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through t ...

secular
wisdom and Godly wisdom.
Paul the Apostle Paul; el, Παῦλος, translit=Paulos; cop, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; he, פאולוס השליח, name=, group= (born Saul of Tarsus;; ar, بولس الطرسوسي; el, Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, Saũlos Tarseús; tr, Tarsuslu Pavlus AD ...
states that worldly wisdom thinks the claims of
Christ Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew/Aramaic ( AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity, the Major religious groups, world's largest ...

Christ
to be foolishness. However, to those who are "on the path to salvation" Christ represents the wisdom of God (). Wisdom is considered one of the
seven gifts of the Holy Spirit The seven gifts of the Holy Spirit are an enumeration of seven spiritual gifts originating from patristic authors, later elaborated by five intellectual virtues and four other groups of ethical characteristics. They are: wisdom, understanding, ...
according to Anglican, Catholic, and Lutheran belief. gives an alternate list of nine virtues, among which wisdom is one. The book of Proverbs in the Old Testament of the Bible primarily focuses on wisdom, and was primarily written by one of the wisest kings according to Jewish history, King Solomon. Proverbs is found in the Old Testament section of the Bible and gives direction on how to handle various aspects of life; one's relationship with God, marriage, dealing with finances, work, friendships and persevering in difficult situations faced in life. According to King Solomon, wisdom is gained from God, "For the Lord gives wisdom; from His mouth come knowledge and understanding" Proverbs 2:6. And through God's wise aide, one can have a better life: "He holds success in store for the upright, he is a shield to those whose walk is blameless, for he guards the course of the just and protects the way of his faithful ones" Proverbs 2:7-8. "Trust in the LORD with all your heart and lean not on your own understanding; in all your ways submit to him, and he will make your paths straight" Proverbs 3:5-6. Solomon basically states that with the wisdom one receives from God, one will be able to find success and happiness in life. There are various verses in Proverbs that contain parallels of what God loves, which is wise, and what God does not love, which is foolish. For example, in the area of good and bad behaviour Proverbs states, "The way of the wicked is an abomination to the Lord, But He loves him who pursues righteousness (Proverbs 15:9). In relation to fairness and business it is stated that, "A false balance is an abomination to the Lord, But a just weight is His delight" (Proverbs 11:1; cf. 20:10,23). On the truth it is said, "Lying lips are an abomination to the Lord, But those who deal faithfully are His delight" (12:22; cf. 6:17,19). These are a few examples of what, according to Solomon, are good and wise in the eyes of God, or bad and foolish, and in doing these good and wise things, one becomes closer to God by living in an honorable and kind manner. King Solomon continues his teachings of wisdom in the book of Ecclesiastes, which is considered one of the most depressing books of the Bible. Solomon discusses his exploration of the meaning of life and fulfillment, as he speaks of life's pleasures, work, and materialism, yet concludes that it is all meaningless. "'Meaningless! Meaningless!" says the Teacher olomon 'Utterly meaningless! Everything is meaningless'...For with much wisdom comes much sorrow, the more knowledge, the more grief" (Ecclesiastes 1:2,18) Solomon concludes that all life's pleasures and riches, and even wisdom, mean nothing if there is no relationship with God. The book of James, written by the apostle James, is said to be the New Testament version of the book of Proverbs, in that it is another book that discusses wisdom. It reiterates Proverbs message of wisdom coming from God by stating, "If any of you lacks wisdom, you should ask God, who gives generously to all without finding fault, and it will be given to you." James 1:5. James also explains how wisdom helps one acquire other forms of virtue, "But the wisdom that comes from heaven is first of all pure; then peace-loving, considerate, submissive, full of mercy and good fruit, impartial and sincere." James 3:17. In addition, throug
wisdom for living
James focuses on using this God-given wisdom to perform acts of service to the less fortunate. Apart from Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and James, other main books of wisdom in the Bible are Job, Psalms, and 1 and 2 Corinthians, which give lessons on gaining and using wisdom through difficult situations.


Indian religions

In the Indian philosophy, Indian traditions, wisdom can be called Prajñā (Buddhism), prajña or Vijñāna, vijñana. Developing wisdom is of central importance in Buddhism, Buddhist traditions, where the ultimate aim is often presented as "seeing things as they are" or as gaining a "penetrative understanding of all phenomena", which in turn is described as ultimately leading to the "complete freedom from suffering". In Buddhism, developing wisdom is accomplished through an understanding of what are known as the Four Noble Truths and by following the Noble Eightfold Path. This path lists mindfulness as one of eight required components for cultivating wisdom. Buddhist scriptures teach that a wise person is usually endowed with good and maybe bodily conduct, and sometimes good verbal conduct, and good mental conduct.(''Anguttara Nikaya, AN 3:2'') A wise person does actions that are unpleasant to do but give good results, and doesn't do actions that are pleasant to do but give bad results (''AN 4:115''). Wisdom is the antidote to the self-chosen Kleshas (Buddhism), poison of ignorance. The Gautama Buddha, Buddha has much to say on the subject of wisdom including: * He who arbitrates a case by force does not thereby become just (established in Dhamma). But the wise man is he who carefully discriminates between right and wrong. * He who leads others by nonviolence, righteously and equitably, is indeed a guardian of justice, wise and righteous. * One is not wise merely because he talks much. But he who is calm, free from hatred and fear, is verily called a wise man. * By quietude alone one does not become a Wise old man, sage (muni) if he is foolish and ignorant. But he who, as if holding a pair of scales, takes the good and shuns the evil, is a wise man; he is indeed a muni by that very reason. He who understands both good and evil as they really are, is called a true sage. To recover the original supreme wisdom of self-nature (Buddha-nature or Tathāgata, Tathagata) covered by the self-imposed three dusty poisons (the Kleshas (Buddhism), kleshas: greed, anger, ignorance) Buddha taught to his students the threefold training by turning greed into generosity and discipline, anger into kindness and meditation, ignorance into wisdom. As the Sixth Patriarch of Chan Buddhism, Chán Buddhism, Huineng, said in his Platform Sutra,"Mind without dispute is self-nature discipline, mind without disturbance is self-nature meditation, mind without ignorance is self-nature wisdom." In Mahayana and Vajrayana, esoteric buddhist lineages, Manjushri, Mañjuśrī is considered as an embodiment of Buddha wisdom. In Hinduism, wisdom is considered a state of mind and soul where a person achieves Moksha, liberation. The god of wisdom is Ganesha and the goddess of knowledge is Saraswati. The Sanskrit verse to attain knowledge is:
:"Lead me from the unreal to the real. :Lead me from darkness to light. :Lead me from death to immortality. :May there be peace, peace, and peace". ::Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 1.3.28. Wisdom in Hinduism is knowing oneself as the truth, basis for the entire Creation, i.e., of ''Shristi''. In other words, wisdom simply means a person with Self-awareness as the one who witnesses the entire creation in all its facets and forms. Further it means realization that an individual through right conduct and right living over an unspecified period comes to realize their true relationship with the creation and the ''Paramatma''.


Islam

The Islamic term for wisdom is ''hikmah''. Prophets of Islam are believed by Muslims to possess high wisdom. The term occurs a number of times in the Quran, notably in Sura 2, Chapter 2:269, Sura 22, Chapter 22:46: as well as Sura 6, Chapter 6:151. The Sufi philosopher Ibn Arabi considers ''al-Hakim'' ("The Wise") as one of the names of the Creator. Wisdom and truth, considered divine attributes, were concepts related and valued in the Science in the medieval Islamic world, Islamic sciences and Islamic philosophy, philosophy since their beginnings, and the first Arab philosopher, Al-Kindi says at the beginning of his book:


Chinese religion

The Buddhist term ''Prajñā (Buddhism), Prajñā'' was translated Chinese Buddhism, into Chinese as (pinyin ''zhìhuì'', characters :wikt:智, 智 "knowledge" and :wikt:慧, 慧 "bright, intelligent"). According to the ''Doctrine of the Mean'', Confucius said:
"Love of learning is akin to wisdom. To practice with vigor is akin to humanity. To know to be shameful is akin to courage (zhi, ren, yong.. three of Mencius, Mengzi's sprouts of virtue)."
Compare this with the Confucian classic ''Great Learning'', which begins with: "The Way of learning to be great consists in manifesting the clear character, loving the people, and abiding in the highest good." One can clearly see the correlation with the Roman virtue prudence, especially if one interprets "clear character" as "clear conscience". (From Chinese Chán, Chan's Sources of Chinese Philosophy). In Taoism, wisdom is construed as adherence to the Three Treasures (Taoism): charity, simplicity, and humility. "He who knows other men is discerning [智]; he who knows himself is intelligent [明]." (Tao Te Ching 33)


Others

In Norse mythology, the god Odin is especially known for his wisdom, often acquired through various hardships and ordeals involving pain and self-sacrifice. In one instance he plucked out an eye and offered it to Mímir, guardian of the well of knowledge and wisdom, in return for a drink from the well.Faulkes, Anthony (transl. and ed.) (1987). ''Prose Edda, Edda'' (Snorri Sturluson). Everyman's Library, Everyman. In another famous account, Odin hanged himself for nine nights from Yggdrasil, the World Tree that unites all the Norse cosmology, realms of existence, suffering from hunger and thirst and finally wounding himself with a spear until he gained the knowledge of runic alphabet, runes for use in casting powerful magic (paranormal), magic. He was also able to acquire the mead of poetry from the Jötunn, giants, a drink of which could grant the power of a scholar or skald, poet, for the benefit of Æsir, gods and mortals alike. In Baháʼí Faith scripture, "The essence of wisdom is the fear of God, the dread of His scourge and punishment, and the apprehension of His justice and decree." Wisdom is seen as a light, that casts away darkness, and "its dictates must be observed under all circumstances". One may obtain knowledge and wisdom through God, his Word, and his Manifestation of God (Baháʼí Faith), Divine Manifestation and the source of all learning is the knowledge of God. In the Star Wars universe, wisdom is valued in the narrative of the films, in which George Lucas figured issues of
spirituality The meaning of spirituality has developed and expanded over time, and various connotations can be found alongside each other. Traditionally, spirituality referred to a Religion, religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the origin ...

spirituality
and morals, recurrent in mythological and philosophical themes; one of his inspirations was Joseph Campbell's The Hero with a Thousand Faces, The Hero of a Thousand Faces. Yoda, Master Yoda is generally considered a popular figure of wisdom, evoking the image of an "Oriental Monk", and he is frequently quoted, analogously to Chinese thinkers or Eastern sages in general. Psychologist D. W. Kreger's book "''The Tao of Yoda''" adapts the wisdom of the Tao Te Ching in relation to Yoda's thinking. Knowledge is canonically considered one of the pillars of the Jedi, which is also cited in the non-canon book ''The Jedi Path'', and wisdom can serve as a tenet for Jediism. The Jedi, Jedi Code also states: "Ignorance, yet knowledge." In a psychology populational study published by Grossmann and team in 2019, master Yoda is considered wiser than Spock, another fictional character (from the Star Trek series), due to his emodiversity trait, which was positively associated to wise reasoning in people: "Yoda embraces his emotions and aims to achieve a balance between them. Yoda is known to be emotionally expressive, to share a good joke with others, but also to recognize sorrow and his past mistakes". Wisdom is learning how to understand, who to be and how to live


See also

* * * * * * * * * * * Sapiens (disambiguation) * * *


Notes


References


External links

* * *
Center for Practical Wisdom at the University of Chicago
{{Authority control Wisdom, Virtue