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The will to power (german: der Wille zur Macht) is a concept in the
philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive ...
. The will to power describes what
Nietzsche Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (; or ; 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, writer, and philologist Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is the ...

Nietzsche
may have believed to be the main driving force in humans. However, the concept was never systematically defined in Nietzsche's work, leaving its interpretation open to debate.
Alfred Adler Alfred Adler (; ; 7 February 1870 – 28 May 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor, psychotherapist Psychotherapy (also psychological therapy or talking therapy) is the use of Psychology, psychological methods, particularly when based on regul ...

Alfred Adler
incorporated the will to power into his
individual psychology Individual psychology is the psychological method or science founded by the VienneseViennese may refer to: * Vienna en, Viennese , iso_code = AT-9 , registration_plate = Vehicle registration plates of A ...
. This can be contrasted to the other
Viennese Viennese may refer to: * Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian ) is the Capital city, national capital, largest city, and one of States of Austria, nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's List of ...

Viennese
schools of
psychotherapy Psychotherapy (also psychological therapy or talking therapy) is the use of methods, particularly when based on regular , to help a person change behavior, increase happiness, and overcome problems. Psychotherapy aims to improve an individual ...
:
Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud ( , ; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian and the founder of , a clinical method for treating through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud was born to (from ) parents ...

Sigmund Freud
's pleasure principle (will to pleasure) and
Viktor Frankl Viktor Emil Frankl (26 March 1905 – 2 September 1997) was an Austrian neurologist, psychiatrist, philosopher, author, and Holocaust survivors, Holocaust survivor. He was the founder of logotherapy, a school of psychotherapy which desc ...
's
logotherapy Logotherapy was developed by neurologist and psychiatrist Viktor Frankl Viktor Emil Frankl (26 March 1905 – 2 September 1997) was an Austrian neurologist, psychiatrist, philosopher, author, and Holocaust survivors, Holocaust survivor. ...
(will to meaning). Each of these schools advocates and teaches a very different essential driving force in human beings.


''Kraft'' vs. ''Macht''

Some of the misconceptions of the will to power, including Nazi appropriation of Nietzsche's philosophy, arise from overlooking Nietzsche's distinction between ''Kraft'' ("force" or "strength") and ''Macht'' ("power" or "might"). ''Kraft'' is primordial strength that may be exercised by anything possessing it, while ''Macht'' is, within Nietzsche's philosophy, closely tied to sublimation and "self-overcoming", the conscious channeling of ''Kraft'' for creative purposes.


Early influences

Nietzsche's early thinking was influenced by that of
Arthur Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer (; ; 22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citize ...
, whom he first discovered in 1865. Schopenhauer puts a central emphasis on will and in particular has a concept of the "
will to live The will to live or ''Wille zum Leben'' is a concept developed by the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer (; ; 22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a Germans, German philosopher. He is best known for his 1818 ...
". Writing a generation before Nietzsche, he explained that the
universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxy, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description of the development ...

universe
and everything in it is driven by a primordial will to live, which results in a desire in all living creatures to avoid death and to procreate. For Schopenhauer, this will is the most fundamental aspect of reality – more fundamental even than being. Another important influence was
Roger Joseph Boscovich Roger Joseph Boscovich ( hr, Ruđer Josip Bošković; ; it, Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich; la, Rogerius (Iosephus) Boscovicius; 18 May 1711 – 13 February 1787) was a physicist, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher, diplomat, poet, ...

Roger Joseph Boscovich
, whom Nietzsche discovered and learned about through his reading, in 1866, of
Friedrich Albert Lange's
Friedrich Albert Lange's
1865 ''
Geschichte des Materialismus ''History of Materialism and Critique of Its Present Importance'' (german: Geschichte des Materialismus und Kritik seiner Bedeutung in der Gegenwart) is a philosophical work by Friedrich Albert Lange Friedrich Albert Lange (; 28 September 1828 – ...
'' (''History of Materialism''). As early as 1872, Nietzsche went on to study Boscovich's book ''Theoria Philosophia Naturalis'' for himself. Nietzsche makes his only reference in his published works to Boscovich in ''
Beyond Good and Evil ''Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future'' (german: Jenseits von Gut und Böse: Vorspiel einer Philosophie der Zukunft) is a book by philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from ...
'', where he declares war on "soul-atomism". Boscovich had rejected the idea of "materialistic atomism", which Nietzsche calls "one of the best refuted theories there is". The idea of centers of force would become central to Nietzsche's later theories of "will to power".


Appearance of the concept in Nietzsche's work

As the 1880s began, Nietzsche began to speak of the "Desire for Power" (''Machtgelüst''); this appeared in ''
The Wanderer and his Shadow ''Human, All Too Human: A Book for Free Spirits'' (german: Menschliches, Allzumenschliches: Ein Buch für freie Geister) is a book by 19th-century philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, originally published in 1878. A second part, ''Assorted Opinions an ...
'' (1880) and '' Daybreak'' (1881). ''Machtgelüst'', in these works, is the pleasure of the feeling of
power Power most often refers to: * Power (physics) In physics, power is the amount of energy In , energy is the that must be to a or to perform on the body, or to it. Energy is a ; the law of states that energy can be in form, bu ...
and the hunger to overpower.
Wilhelm Roux Wilhelm Roux (9 June 1850 – 15 September 1924) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also ...
published his ''The Struggle of Parts in the Organism'' (''Der Kampf der Teile im Organismus'') in 1881, and Nietzsche first read it that year. The book was a response to Darwinian theory, proposing an alternative mode of evolution. Roux was a disciple of and influenced by
Ernst Haeckel Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (; 16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German zoologist Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is usually regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that stud ...

Ernst Haeckel
, who believed the struggle to survive occurred at the cellular level. The various cells and tissues struggle for finite resources, so that only the strongest survive. Through this mechanism, the body grows stronger and better adapted. Rejecting
natural selection Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype right , Here the relation between genotype and phenotype is illustrated, using a Punnett square, for the character of peta ...
, Roux's model assumed a neo-Lamarckian or
pangenetic
pangenetic
model of inheritance. Nietzsche began to expand on the concept of ''Machtgelüst'' in ''
The Gay Science ''The Gay Science'' (german: Die fröhliche Wissenschaft), sometimes translated as ''The Joyful Wisdom'' or ''The Joyous Science'', is a book by Friedrich Nietzsche Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (; or ; 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was ...
'' (1882), where in a section titled "On the doctrine of the feeling of power", he connects the desire for cruelty with the pleasure in the feeling of power. Elsewhere in ''The Gay Science'' he notes that it is only "in intellectual beings that pleasure, displeasure, and will are to be found", excluding the vast majority of organisms from the desire for power. Léon Dumont (1837–77), whose 1875 book ''Théorie scientifique de la sensibilité, le plaisir et la peine'' Nietzsche read in 1883, seems to have exerted some influence on this concept. Dumont believed that pleasure is related to increases in force. In ''The Wanderer'' and ''Daybreak'', Nietzsche had speculated that pleasures such as cruelty are pleasurable because of exercise of power. But Dumont provided a physiological basis for Nietzsche's speculation. Dumont's theory also would have seemed to confirm Nietzsche's claim that pleasure and pain are reserved for intellectual beings, since, according to Dumont, pain and pleasure require a coming to consciousness and not just a sensing. In 1883 Nietzsche coined the phrase ''Wille zur Macht'' in ''
Thus Spoke Zarathustra ''Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None'' (german: Also sprach Zarathustra: Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen), also translated as ''Thus Spake Zarathustra'', is a work of philosophical fiction written by German philosopher Friedrich Nietz ...
''. The concept, at this point, was no longer limited to only those intellectual beings that can actually experience the feeling of power; it now applied to all life. The phrase ''Wille zur Macht'' first appears in part 1, "1001 Goals" (1883), then in part 2, in two sections, "Self-Overcoming" and "Redemption" (later in 1883). "Self-Overcoming" describes it in most detail, saying it is an "unexhausted procreative will of life". There is will to power where there is life and even the strongest living things will risk their lives for more power. This suggests that the will to power is stronger than the will to survive. Schopenhauer's
will to live The will to live or ''Wille zum Leben'' is a concept developed by the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer (; ; 22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a Germans, German philosopher. He is best known for his 1818 ...
(''Wille zum Leben'') thus became a subsidiary to the will to power, which is the stronger will. Nietzsche thinks his notion of the will to power is far more useful than Schopenhauer's will to live for explaining various events, especially human behavior—for example, Nietzsche uses the will to power to explain both
ascetic Asceticism (; from the el, ἄσκησις ''áskesis'', "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals. Ascetics may withdraw from the world for their ...

ascetic
, life-denying impulses and strong, life-affirming impulses in the European tradition, as well as both: master and slave morality. He also finds the will to power to offer much richer explanations than
utilitarianism Utilitarianism is a family of normative Normative generally means relating to an evaluative standard. Normativity is the phenomenon in human societies of designating some actions or outcomes as good or desirable or permissible and others as ba ...
's notion that all people really want to be happy, or the
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thought and the Platoni ...

Plato
nist's notion that people want to be unified with the Good. Nietzsche read William Rolph’s ''Biologische Probleme'' around mid-1884, and it clearly interested him, for his copy is heavily annotated. He made many notes concerning Rolph. Rolph was another
evolution Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, ...

evolution
ary anti-Darwinist like Roux, who wished to argue for evolution by a different mechanism than natural selection. Rolph argued that all life seeks primarily to expand itself. Organisms fulfill this need through assimilation, trying to make as much of what is found around them into part of themselves, for example by seeking to increase intake and nutriment. Life forms are naturally insatiable in this way. Nietzsche's next published work was ''
Beyond Good and Evil ''Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future'' (german: Jenseits von Gut und Böse: Vorspiel einer Philosophie der Zukunft) is a book by philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from ...
'' (1886), where the influence of Rolph seems apparent. Nietzsche writes, ''Beyond Good and Evil'' has the most references to "will to power" in his published works, appearing in 11 aphorisms. The influence of Rolph and its connection to "will to power" also continues in book 5 of ''Gay Science'' (1887) where Nietzsche describes "will to power" as the instinct for "expansion of power" fundamental to all life. Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli's 1884 book ''Mechanisch-physiologische Theorie der Abstammungslehre'', which Nietzsche acquired around 1886 and subsequently read closely, also had considerable influence on his theory of will to power. Nietzsche wrote a letter to Franz Overbeck about it, noting that it has "been sheepishly put aside by Darwinists". Nägeli believed in a "perfection principle", which led to greater complexity. He called the seat of heritability the idioplasma, and argued, with a military metaphor, that a more complex, complicatedly ordered idioplasma would usually defeat a simpler rival. In other words, he is also arguing for internal evolution, similar to Roux, except emphasizing complexity as the main factor instead of strength. Thus, Dumont's pleasure in the expansion of power, Roux's internal struggle, Nägeli's drive towards complexity, and Rolph's principle of insatiability and assimilation are fused together into the biological side of Nietzsche's theory of will to power, which is developed in a number of places in his published writings. Having derived the "will to power" from three anti-Darwin evolutionists, as well as Dumont, it seems appropriate that he should use his "will to power" as an anti-Darwinian explanation of evolution. He expresses a number of times the idea that adaptation and the struggle to survive is a secondary drive in the evolution of animals, behind the desire to expand one's power – the "will to power". Nonetheless, in his notebooks he continues to expand the theory of the will to power. Influenced by his earlier readings of Boscovich, he began to develop a physics of the will to power. The idea of matter as centers of force is translated into matter as centers of will to power. Nietzsche wanted to slough off the theory of matter, which he viewed as a relic of the metaphysics of substance. These ideas of an all-inclusive
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...

physics
or
metaphysics Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that studies the first principles of being, identity and change, space and time, causality, necessity and possibility. It includes questions about the nature of consciousness and the relationship between ...

metaphysics
built upon the will to power do not appear to arise anywhere in his published works or in any of the final books published posthumously, except in the above-mentioned aphorism from ''Beyond Good & Evil'', where he references Boscovich (section 12). It does recur in his notebooks, but not all scholars treat these ideas as part of his thought.


Will to power and eternal recurrence

Throughout the 1880s, in his notebooks, Nietzsche developed a theory of the "eternal recurrence of the same" and much speculation on the physical possibility of this idea and the mechanics of its actualization occur in his later notebooks. Here, the will to power as a potential physics is integrated with the postulated eternal recurrence. Taken literally as a theory for how things are, Nietzsche appears to imagine a physical universe of perpetual struggle and force that repeatedly completes its cycle and returns to the beginning. Some scholars believe that Nietzsche used the concept of eternal recurrence metaphorically. But others, such as Paul Loeb, have argued that "Nietzsche did indeed believe in the truth of cosmological eternal recurrence." By either interpretation the acceptance of eternal recurrence raises the question of whether it could justify a trans-valuation of one's life, and be a necessary precursor to the overman in his/her perfect acceptance of all that is, for the love of life itself and amor fati.


Interpretations

In contemporary Nietzschean scholarship, some interpreters have emphasized the will to power as a psychological principle because Nietzsche applies it most frequently to human behavior. However, in Nietzsche's unpublished notes (later published by his sister as "The Will to Power"), Nietzsche sometimes seemed to view the will to power as a more (metaphysical) general force underlying ''all'' reality, not just human behavior—thus making it more directly analogous to Schopenhauer's will to live. For example, Nietzsche claims the "''world is the will to power—and nothing besides!''". Nevertheless, in relation to the entire body of Nietzsche's published works, many scholars have insisted that Nietzsche's principle of the will to power is less metaphysical and more pragmatic than Schopenhauer's will to live: while Schopenhauer thought the will to live was what was most real in the universe, Nietzsche can be understood as claiming only that the will to power is a particularly useful principle for his purposes. Some interpreters also upheld a biological interpretation of the ''Wille zur Macht'', making it equivalent with some kind of
social Darwinism Social Darwinism refers to various societal practices around the world and defined by scholars in Western Europe and North America in the 1870s that applied biological concepts of natural selection Natural selection is the differential ...
. For example, the concept was appropriated by some
Nazi Nazism ( ), officially National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus, ), is the ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about th ...
s such as Alfred Bäumler, who may have drawn influence from it or used it to justify their expansive quest for power. This reading was criticized by
Martin Heidegger Martin Heidegger (; ; 26 September 188926 May 1976) was a key German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, ...
in his 1930s courses on Nietzsche—suggesting that raw physical or political power was not what Nietzsche had in mind. This is reflected in the following passage from Nietzsche's notebooks: Opposed to a biological and voluntary conception of the ''Wille zur Macht'', Heidegger also argued that the will to power must be considered in relation to the ''
Übermensch The (; "Overhuman") is a concept Concepts are defined as abstract ideas A mental representation (or cognitive representation), in philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and nature of th ...
'' and the '' thought of eternal recurrence''—although this reading itself has been criticized by
Mazzino Montinari Mazzino Montinari (4 April 1928 – 24 November 1986) was an Italy, Italian scholar of Germanistics. A native of Lucca, he became regarded as one of the most distinguished researchers on Friedrich Nietzsche, and harshly criticized the edition of '' ...
as a "macroscopic Nietzsche".
Gilles Deleuze Gilles Deleuze (; ; 18 January 1925 – 4 November 1995) was a French philosopher who, from the early 1950s until his death in 1995, wrote on philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such a ...

Gilles Deleuze
also emphasized the connection between the will to power and eternal return. Both Jacques Derrida and Gilles Deleuze were careful to point out that the primary nature of will to power is unconscious. This means that the drive to power is always already at work unconsciously, perpetually advancing the will of the one over the other. This thus creates the state of things in the observable or conscious world still operating through the same tension. Derrida is careful not to confine the will to power to human behavior, the mind, metaphysics, nor physical reality individually. It is the underlying life principle inaugurating all aspects of life and behavior, a self-preserving force. A sense of entropy and the eternal return, which are related, is always indissociable from the will to power. The eternal return of all memory initiated by the will to power is an entropic force again inherent to all life. Opposed to this interpretation, the "will to power" can be understood (or misunderstood) to mean a struggle against one's surroundings that culminates in personal growth, self-overcoming, and self-perfection, and assert that the power held over others as a result of this is coincidental. Thus Nietzsche wrote: It would be possible to claim that rather than an attempt to 'dominate over others', the "will to power" is better understood as the tenuous equilibrium in a system of forces' relations to each other. While a rock, for instance, does not have a conscious (or unconscious) "will", it nevertheless acts as a site of resistance within the "will to power" dynamic. Moreover, rather than 'dominating over others', "will to power" is more accurately positioned in relation to the subject (a mere
synecdoche A synecdoche ( , from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10. ...
, both fictitious and necessary, for there is "no doer behind the deed," (see ''
On the Genealogy of Morals ''On the Genealogy of Morality: A Polemic'' (german: Zur Genealogie der Moral: Eine Streitschrift) is an 1887 book by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (; or ; 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German ...
'') and is an idea behind the statement that words are "seductions" within the process of self-mastery and self-overcoming. The "will to power" is thus a "cosmic" inner force acting in and through both animate and inanimate objects. Not just instincts but also higher level behaviors (even in humans) were to be reduced to the ''will to power''. This includes both such apparently harmful acts as physical
violence Violence is the use of physical force so as to injure, abuse, damage, or destroy. Other definitions are also used, such as the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations ...

violence
, lying, and domination, on one hand, and such apparently non-harmful acts as gift-giving,
love Love encompasses a range of strong and positive emotion Emotions are mental state, psychological states brought on by neurophysiology, neurophysiological changes, variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioural responses, and ...

love
, and
praise Praise as a form of social interaction In social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of pla ...

praise
on the other—though its manifestations can be altered significantly, such as through art and aesthetic experience. In ''
Beyond Good and Evil ''Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future'' (german: Jenseits von Gut und Böse: Vorspiel einer Philosophie der Zukunft) is a book by philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from ...
'', he claims that philosophers' "will to truth" (i.e., their apparent desire to dispassionately seek objective, absolute truth) is actually nothing more than a manifestation of their will to power; this will can be life-affirming or a manifestation of
nihilism Nihilism (; ) is a philosophy, or family of views within philosophy, expressing some form of towards life or towards fundamental concepts such as knowledge, existence, and the meaning of life. Different nihilist positions hold variously th ...
, but it is the will to power all the same. Other Nietzschean interpreters dispute the suggestion that Nietzsche's concept of the will to power is merely and only a matter of narrow, harmless, humanistic self-perfection. They suggest that, for Nietzsche, power means self-perfection ''as well as'' outward,
political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of res ...

political
,
elitist Elitism is the belief or notion that individuals who form an elite In Political philosophy, political and sociology, sociological theory, the elite (French ''élite'', from Latin ''eligere'', to select or to sort out) are a small group of po ...
,
aristocratic Aristocracy ( grc-gre, ἀριστοκρατία , from 'excellent', and , 'rule') is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: A ...
domination Domination or dominant may refer to: Society * World domination, which is mainly a conspiracy theory * Colonialism in which one group (usually a nation) invades another region for material gain or to eliminate competition * Chauvinism in which a p ...
. Nietzsche, in fact, explicitly and specifically defined the egalitarian state-idea as the embodiment of the will to power in decline:


Individual psychology

Alfred Adler Alfred Adler (; ; 7 February 1870 – 28 May 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor, psychotherapist Psychotherapy (also psychological therapy or talking therapy) is the use of Psychology, psychological methods, particularly when based on regul ...

Alfred Adler
borrowed heavily from Nietzsche's work to develop his second Viennese school of psychotherapy called individual psychology. Adler (1912) wrote in his important book ''Über den nervösen Charakter (The Neurotic Constitution)'': Adler's adaptation of the will to power was and still is in contrast to Sigmund Freud's pleasure principle or the "will to pleasure", and to
Viktor Frankl Viktor Emil Frankl (26 March 1905 – 2 September 1997) was an Austrian neurologist, psychiatrist, philosopher, author, and Holocaust survivors, Holocaust survivor. He was the founder of logotherapy, a school of psychotherapy which desc ...
's
logotherapy Logotherapy was developed by neurologist and psychiatrist Viktor Frankl Viktor Emil Frankl (26 March 1905 – 2 September 1997) was an Austrian neurologist, psychiatrist, philosopher, author, and Holocaust survivors, Holocaust survivor. ...
or the "will to meaning". Adler's intent was to build a movement that would rival, even supplant, others in psychology by arguing for the holistic integrity of psychological well-being with that of
social equality Social equality is a state of affairs in which all individuals within a specific society A society is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, ...
. His interpretation of Nietzsche's will to power was concerned with the individual patient's overcoming of the superiority-
inferiority In psychology, an inferiority complex is an intense personal feeling of inadequacy, often resulting in the belief that one is in some way deficient, or inferior, to others. According to Alfred Adler, a feeling of inferiority may be brought abo ...
dynamic. In ''Man's Search for Meaning'', Frankl compared his third Viennese school of psychotherapy with Adler's psychoanalytic interpretation of the will to power:


In fiction and popular culture

The 1999 4x strategy game
Sid Meier's Alpha Centauri ''Sid Meier's Alpha Centauri'' is a 4X video game, considered a spiritual sequel to the Civilization (series), ''Civilization'' series. Set in a science fiction depiction of the 22nd century, the game begins as seven competing ideological factions ...
refers to the will to power by naming one of its available technologies by that name. A quote from ''
Thus Spoke Zarathustra ''Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None'' (german: Also sprach Zarathustra: Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen), also translated as ''Thus Spake Zarathustra'', is a work of philosophical fiction written by German philosopher Friedrich Nietz ...
'' is given when the technology is discovered by the player. The character of 'The Jackal' in the 2008 Ubisoft game Far Cry 2 quotes from Beyond Good and Evil and the Will to Power. The 2016 4x strategy game Stellaris also includes a technology with this name. Bob Rosenberg, founder of
freestyle music Latin freestyle or simply freestyle music is a form of electronic dance music Electronic dance music (EDM), also known as dance music, club music, or simply dance, is a broad range of percussive electronic music Electronic music is music ...
group
Will to Power The will to power (german: der Wille zur Macht) is a prominent concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. The will to power describes what Friedrich Nietzsche, Nietzsche may have believed to be the main driving force in humans. However, the ...
chose the name for the group as an homage to German philosopher
Friedrich Nietzsche Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (; or ; 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as thos ...

Friedrich Nietzsche
's theory of an individual's fundamental "will to power". Bronson, Fred (2003). ''The Billboard Book of No. 1 Hits'', 5th Edition (Billboard Publications), page 715. The first title in the ''
Xenosaga ''Xenosaga'' is a role-playing video game series developed by Monolith Soft and primarily published by Namco. Forming part of the wider ''Xeno (series), Xeno'' metaseries, ''Xenosaga'' is set in a science fiction universe and follows a group of ch ...
'' trilogy is ''Xenosaga Episode I: Der Wille zur Macht''. On September 8, 2017, melodic death metal band
Arch Enemy Arch Enemy is a Swedish melodic death metal band, originally a Supergroup (music), supergroup, from Halmstad, formed in 1995. Its members were in bands such as Carcass (band), Carcass, Armageddon (Swedish band), Armageddon, Carnage (band), Carn ...
released an album entitled ''
Will to Power The will to power (german: der Wille zur Macht) is a prominent concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. The will to power describes what Friedrich Nietzsche, Nietzsche may have believed to be the main driving force in humans. However, the ...
''.Arch Enemy: Discography
/ref> The book makes an appearance in the 1933 Barbara Stanwyck movie ''
Baby FaceBabyface or Baby Face can refer to: Nicknames * Lester Joseph Gillis a.k.a. Baby Face Nelson Lester Joseph Gillis (December 6, 1908 – November 27, 1934), known by the alias George Nelson and Baby Face Nelson, was an American bank robber. He be ...
''. In ''
Smallville ''Smallville'' is an American Superhero fiction, superhero television series that debuted on The WB and it was developed by writer-producers Alfred Gough and Miles Millar, based on the DC Comics character Superman created by Jerry Siegel and J ...
'' (Season 1, Episode 17), the Lex Luthor character reveals that his father gave him a copy of the book for his tenth birthday. In The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim the dragon Paarthurnax tells the player character that the dragons were made to dominate: "The will to power is in our blood." Only through meditation has he been able to overcome his dominating compulsion.


See also

*
Aggression Aggression is overt or covert, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other harm upon another individual. It may occur either reactively or without provocation. In humans, aggression can be caused by various ...
*
Heinz Ansbacher Heinz Ludwig Ansbacher (October 21, 1904 – June 22, 2006) was a German-American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United Sta ...
* Maximum power principle *
True Will True Will is a term found within the mystical Mysticism is popularly known as becoming one with God or the Absolute, but may refer to any kind of ecstasy Ecstasy may refer to: * Ecstasy (emotion), a trance or trance-like state in which a per ...
* ''The Will to Power'' (manuscript)


References


External links


''Der "Wille zur Macht" – ''kein'' Buch von Friedrich Nietzsche''
a selection of texts from Nietzsche's estate related to his philosophical concept and book projects "Wille zur Macht" ("Will to Power"), edited by Bernd Jung based on th
''Digital Critical Edition of Nietzsche’s Works''
2012/13
"Nietzsche – Will to Power"
a video explication of the will to power concept. {{Nietzsche Concepts in metaphysics Concepts in the philosophy of mind Free will Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche Motivation Nihilism Power (social and political) concepts