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A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the
laws of war The law of war is the component of international law that regulates the conditions for war (''jus ad bellum'') and the conduct of warring parties (''jus in bello''). Laws of war define sovereignty and nationhood, states and territories, occupa ...
that gives rise to individual
criminal In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition,Farmer, Lindsay: "Crime, definitions of", in C ...
responsibility. Examples of crimes include intentionally killing civilians or prisoners,
torturing Torture (from Latin ''tortus'': to twist, to torment) is the act of deliberately inflicting severe physical or psychological suffering on someone by another as a punishment or in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or force some action ...
, destroying civilian property, taking
hostage A hostage is a person seized by a criminal abductor in order to compel another party such as a relative, employer, law enforcement or government to act, or refrain from acting, in a certain way, often under threat of serious physical harm to the h ...
s, performing a
perfidy In the context of war, perfidy is a form of deception in which one side promises to act in good faith (such as by raising a flag of truce) with the intention of breaking that promise once the unsuspecting enemy is exposed (such as by coming out of ...
,
raping Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent. The act may be carried out by physical force, coercion, abuse of authority, ...
, using child soldiers,
pillaging Looting is the act of stealing, or the taking of goods by force, in the midst of a military, political, or other social crisis, such as war, natural disasters (where law and civil enforcement are temporarily ineffective), or rioting. The proceed ...
, declaring that
no quarter A victor gives no quarter when the victor shows no clemency or mercy and refuses to spare the life in return for the surrender at discretion (unconditional surrender) of a vanquished opponent. It is against modern international humanitarian law t ...
will be given, and seriously violating the principles of distinction, proportionality, and
military necessity Military necessity, along with distinction, and proportionality, are three important principles of international humanitarian law governing the legal use of force in an armed conflict. Attacks Military necessity is governed by several constraints ...
. The concept of war crimes emerged at the turn of the twentieth century when the body of
customary international law Customary international law is an aspect of international law involving the principle of custom. Along with general principles of law and treaties, custom is considered by the International Court of Justice, jurists, the United Nations, and its memb ...
applicable to warfare between
sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government ...
s was codified. Such codification occurred at the national level, such as with the publication of the
Lieber Code The Lieber Code of April 24, 1863, issued as General Orders No. 100, Adjutant General's Office, 1863, was an instruction signed by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln to the Union Forces of the United States during the American Civil War that dictated ho ...
in the United States, and at the international level with the adoption of the treaties during the
Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 , The Second Hague Conference in 1907 The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands. Along with the Geneva Conventions ...
. Moreover, trials in national courts during this period further helped clarify the law. Following the end of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—forming two opposing milit ...
, major developments in the law occurred. Numerous trials of
Axis Axis may refer to: Politics *Axis of evil (first used in 2002), U.S. President George W. Bush's description of Iran, Iraq, and North Korea *Axis of Resistance (first used in 2002), the Shia alliance of Iran, Syria, and Hezbollah *Axis powers of W ...
war criminals established the
Nuremberg principles#REDIRECT Nuremberg principles#REDIRECT Nuremberg principles {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
, such as the notion that war crimes constituted crimes defined by international law. Additionally, the
Geneva Conventions upright=1.15, Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war. The singular term ' ...
in 1949 defined new war crimes and established that states could exercise
universal jurisdiction Universal jurisdiction allows states or international organizations to claim criminal jurisdiction over an accused person regardless of where the alleged crime was committed, and regardless of the accused's nationality, country of residence, or an ...
over such crimes. In the late 20th century and early 21st century, following the creation of several
international court International courts are formed by treaties between nations or under the authority of an international organization such as the United Nations and include ''ad hoc'' tribunals and permanent institutions but exclude any courts arising purely under na ...
s, additional categories of war crimes applicable to armed conflicts other than those between states, such as
civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country. The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independence for a region or t ...
s, were defined.


History


Early examples

The trial of
Peter von Hagenbach Peter von Hagenbach (or Pierre de Hagenbach or Pietro di Hagenbach or Pierre d’Archambaud or Pierre d'Aquenbacq, circa 1420 – May 9, 1474) was a Bourguignon knight from Alsace and German military and civil commander. He was born into an A ...
by an
ad hoc Ad hoc is a Latin phrase meaning literally 'to this'. In English, it generally signifies a solution designed for a specific problem or task, non-generalizable, and not intended to be adapted to other purposes (compare with ''a priori''). Common ...

ad hoc
tribunal of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 180 ...
in 1474 was the first "international" war crimes trial, and also of
command responsibility Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard or the Medina standard, and also known as superior responsibility, is the legal doctrine of hierarchical accountability for war crimes.
.The evolution of individual criminal responsibility under international law
By Edoardo Greppi, Associate Professor of International Law at the
University of Turin The University of Turin (Italian: ''Università degli Studi di Torino'', or often abbreviated to UNITO) is a university in the city of Turin in the Piedmont region of north-western Italy. It is one of the oldest universities in Europe (one of the ...
, Italy,
International Committee of the Red Cross The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC; french: Comité international de la Croix-Rouge) is a humanitarian organization based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate. State parties (signatories) to the Geneva Con ...
No. 835, p. 531–553, October 30, 1999.
highlights the first international war crimes tribunal
by Linda Grant, Harvard Law Bulletin.
He was convicted and beheaded for crimes that "he as a knight was deemed to have a duty to prevent", although he had argued that he was "just following orders". In 1865,
Henry Wirz Heinrich Hartmann "Henry" Wirz (November 25, 1823 – November 10, 1865) was a Swiss-American officer of the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. Wirz was the commandant of the stockade of Camp Sumter, a Confederate prisoner-of-war cam ...
, a
Confederate States Army The Confederate States Army, also called the Confederate Army or simply the Southern Army, was the military land force of the Confederate States of America (commonly referred to as the Confederacy) during the American Civil War (1861–1865), ...
officer, was held accountable by a
military tribunal Military justice (or military law) is the body of laws and procedures governing members of the armed forces. Many nation-states have separate and distinct bodies of law that govern the conduct of members of their armed forces. Some states use ...
and
hanged Hanging is the suspension of a person by a noose or ligature around the neck.Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. Hanging as method of execution is unknown, as method of suicide from 1325. The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' states that hanging in ...
for the appalling conditions at
Andersonville Prison The Andersonville National Historic Site, located near Andersonville, Georgia, preserves the former Andersonville Prison (also known as Camp Sumter), a Confederate prisoner-of-war camp during the final fourteen months of the American Civil War. Mo ...

Andersonville Prison
, where many Union
prisoners of war A prisoner of war (POW) is a non-combatant—whether a military member, an irregular military fighter, or a civilian—who is held captive by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict. The earliest recorded usage of the ...
died during the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865, fought between northern states loyal to the Union and southern states that had seceded to form the Confederate States of America. Th ...
.


Hague Conventions

The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at
The Hague The Hague (; nl, Den Haag or ) is a city and municipality on the western coast of the Netherlands on the North Sea, the administrative and royal capital of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland. It is also the seat o ...
, Netherlands, in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the
laws of war The law of war is the component of international law that regulates the conditions for war (''jus ad bellum'') and the conduct of warring parties (''jus in bello''). Laws of war define sovereignty and nationhood, states and territories, occupa ...
and war crimes in the nascent body of secular
international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relations between nations. It establishes normative guidelines and a common conceptual framework to guide ...
.


Geneva Conventions

The
Geneva Conventions upright=1.15, Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war. The singular term ' ...
are four related treaties adopted and continuously expanded from 1864 to 1949 that represent a legal basis and framework for the conduct of war under international law. Every single member state of the United Nations has currently ratified the conventions, which are universally accepted as
customary international law Customary international law is an aspect of international law involving the principle of custom. Along with general principles of law and treaties, custom is considered by the International Court of Justice, jurists, the United Nations, and its memb ...
, applicable to every situation of armed conflict in the world. However, the Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions adopted in 1977 containing the most pertinent, detailed and comprehensive protections of
international humanitarian law International humanitarian law (IHL), also referred to as the laws of armed conflict, is the law that regulates the conduct of war (''jus in bello''). It is a branch of international law which seeks to limit the effects of armed conflict by protec ...
for persons and objects in modern warfare are still not ratified by a number of States continuously engaged in armed conflicts, namely the United States, Israel, India, Pakistan, Iraq, Iran, and others. Accordingly, states retain different codes and values with regard to wartime conduct. Some signatories have routinely violated the Geneva Conventions in a way which either uses the ambiguities of law or political maneuvering to sidestep the laws' formalities and principles. Three conventions were revised and expanded with the fourth one added in 1949: *
First Geneva Convention The First Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field, held on 22 August 1864, is the first of four treaties of the Geneva Conventions. It defines "the basis on which rest the rules of internation ...
''for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field'' (Convention ''for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field'' was adopted in 1864, significantly revised and replaced by the 1906 version, the 1929 version, and later the First Geneva Convention of 1949). *
Second Geneva Convention The Second Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions. The Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Conditio ...
''for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea'' (Convention ''for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea'' was adopted in 1906, significantly revised and replaced by the Second Geneva Convention of 1949). *
Third Geneva Convention The Third Geneva Convention, relative to the treatment of prisoners of war, is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions. The Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War was first adopted in 1929, but significantly r ...
''relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War'' ( Convention ''relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War'' was adopted in 1929, significantly revised and replaced by the Third Geneva Convention of 1949). *
Fourth Geneva Convention The Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, more commonly referred to as the Fourth Geneva Convention and abbreviated as GCIV, is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions. It was adopted in August ...
''relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War'' (first adopted in 1949, based on parts of the 1907 Hague Convention IV). Two Additional Protocols were adopted in 1977 with the third one added in 2005, completing and updating the Geneva Conventions: *
Protocol I 500px, Protocol I is a 1977 amendment protocol to the Geneva Conventions relating to the protection of victims of ''international conflicts'', where "armed conflicts in which peoples are fighting against colonial domination, alien occupation or ...
(1977) ''relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts.'' *
Protocol II Protocol II is a 1977 amendment protocol to the Geneva Conventions relating to the protection of victims of ''non-international'' armed conflicts. It defines certain international laws that strive to provide better protection for victims of ' ...
(1977) ''relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts.'' *
Protocol III Protocol III is a 2005 amendment protocol to the Geneva Conventions relating to the Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem. Under the protocol, the protective sign of the Red Crystal may be displayed by medical and religious personnel a ...
(2005) ''relating to the Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem.''


Leipzig War Crimes Trial

A small number of German military personnel of the
First World War World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "the war to end all wars", i ...
were tried in 1921 by the German Supreme Court for alleged war crimes.


London Charter / Nuremberg Trials 1945

The modern concept of war crime was further developed under the auspices of the
Nuremberg Trials#REDIRECT Nuremberg trials {{redirect category shell, {{R from other capitalisation{{R from move ...
based on the definition in the
London Charter The Charter of the International Military Tribunal – Annex to the Agreement for the prosecution and punishment of the major war criminals of the European Axis (usually referred to as the Nuremberg Charter or London Charter) was the decree issued ...
that was published on August 8, 1945. (Also see
Nuremberg Principles#REDIRECT Nuremberg principles#REDIRECT Nuremberg principles {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
.) Along with war crimes the charter also defined crimes against peace and crimes against humanity, which are often committed during wars and in concert with war crimes.


International Military Tribunal for the Far East 1946

Also known as the Tokyo Trial, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal or simply as the Tribunal, it was convened on May 3, 1946 to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for three types of crimes: "Class A" (crimes against peace), "Class B" (war crimes), and "Class C" (crimes against humanity), committed during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—forming two opposing milit ...
.


International Criminal Court 2002

On July 1, 2002, the
International Criminal Court The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague, Netherlands. The ICC is the first and only permanent international court with jurisdiction to prosecute individ ...
, a treaty-based court located in
The Hague The Hague (; nl, Den Haag or ) is a city and municipality on the western coast of the Netherlands on the North Sea, the administrative and royal capital of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland. It is also the seat o ...
, came into being for the prosecution of war crimes committed on or after that date. Several nations, most notably the United States, China, Russia, and Israel, have criticized the court. The United States still participates as an observer. Article 12 of the Rome Statute provides jurisdiction over the citizens of non-contracting states in the event that they are accused of committing crimes in the territory of one of the state parties. War crimes are defined in the statute that established the International Criminal Court, which includes: # Grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions, such as: ## Willful killing, or causing great suffering or serious injury to body or health ##
Torture Torture (from Latin ''tortus'': to twist, to torment) is the act of deliberately inflicting severe physical or psychological suffering on someone by another as a punishment or in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or force some action ...
or inhumane treatment ## Unlawful wanton destruction or appropriation of property ## Forcing a
prisoner of war A prisoner of war (POW) is a non-combatant—whether a military member, an irregular military fighter, or a civilian—who is held captive by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict. The earliest recorded usage of the ...
to serve in the forces of a hostile power ## Depriving a prisoner of war of a
fair trial Fair Trial (1932–1958) was a British Thoroughbred racehorse and champion sire. He was bred and raced by John Arthur Dewar, who also bred and raced Tudor Minstrel. The leading sire in Great Britain and Ireland in 1950, during his career Fair Tr ...
## Unlawful
deportation Deportation is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country. The term ''expulsion'' is often used as a synonym for deportation, though expulsion is more often used in the context of international law, while deportation is ...
, confinement or transfer ## Taking
hostage A hostage is a person seized by a criminal abductor in order to compel another party such as a relative, employer, law enforcement or government to act, or refrain from acting, in a certain way, often under threat of serious physical harm to the h ...
s ## Directing attacks against civilians ## Directing attacks against humanitarian workers or UN peacekeepers ## Killing a surrendered combatant ## Misusing a flag of truce ## Settlement of occupied territory ## Deportation of inhabitants of occupied territory ## Using poison weapons ## Using civilians as shields ## Using
child soldiers Children in the military are children (defined by the Convention on the Rights of the Child as people under the age of 18) who are associated with military organisations, such as state armed forces and non-state armed groups. Throughout history ...
## Firing upon a
Combat Medic In the United States Armed Forces, the Combat Medic/Healthcare Specialist is responsible for providing emergency medical treatment at a point of wounding in a combat or training environment, as well as primary care, and health protection and ev ...
with clear insignia. # The following acts as part of a non-international conflict: ## Murder, cruel or degrading treatment and torture ## Directing attacks against civilians, humanitarian workers or UN peacekeepers # The following acts as part of an international conflict: ## Taking hostages ##
Summary execution A summary execution is an execution in which a person is accused of a crime and immediately killed without the benefit of a full and fair trial. Executions as the result of summary justice (such as a drumhead court-martial) are sometimes included, ...
##
Pillage Looting is the act of stealing, or the taking of goods by force, in the midst of a military, political, or other social crisis, such as war, natural disasters (where law and civil enforcement are temporarily ineffective), or rioting. The proceed ...
## Rape,
sexual slavery Sexual slavery and sexual exploitation is attaching the right of ownership over one or more people with the intent of coercing or otherwise forcing them to engage in sexual activities. This includes forced labor, reducing a person to a servile ...
, forced prostitution or forced pregnancy However the court only has jurisdiction over these crimes where they are "''part of a plan or policy or as part of a large-scale commission of such crimes''".


Prominent indictees


Heads of state and government

To date, the present and former
heads of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a stateFoakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international persona." in its unity and legitim ...
and
heads of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other government who often presides over a cabinet, a gro ...
that have been charged with war crimes include: * German
Großadmiral Grand admiral is a historic naval rank, the highest rank in the several European navies that used it. It is best known for its use in Germany as . A comparable rank in modern navies is that of Admiral of the fleet. Grand admirals in individual nav ...
and
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...
Karl Dönitz Karl Dönitz (sometimes spelled Doenitz; ; 16 September 1891 24 December 1980) was a German admiral during the Nazi era who briefly succeeded Adolf Hitler as the German head of state in 1945. As Supreme Commander of the Navy beginning in 1943, he ...
and Japanese
Prime Ministers#REDIRECT Prime minister {{R from other capitalisation ...
and Generals
Hideki Tōjō Hideki Tojo (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a Japanese politician and general of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) who served as Prime Minister of Japan and President of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association for most of World ...
and
Kuniaki Koiso was a Japanese general in the Imperial Japanese Army, Governor-General of Korea and Prime Minister of Japan from 1944 to 1945. After Japan's defeat in World War II, he was convicted of war crimes and sentenced to life imprisonment. Early life K ...

Kuniaki Koiso
in the aftermath of World War II. * Former
Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refer to: ** Serbian language ...
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...
Slobodan Milošević Slobodan Milošević ( sr-Cyrl, Слободан Милошевић, ; 20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was a Yugoslav and Serbian politician who served as the President of Serbia (originally the Socialist Republic of Serbia, a constituen ...
was brought to trial charges with, genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes in three republics. The tribunal found the prosecution had according to its rules and procedures; enough evidence was tailored, prior to the defense presentation, that, "a reasonable trier of fact, could conclude, the accused was responsible for the crimes charged." This pertained to superior responsibility for the Bosnia and Croatia indictments, and individual responsibility for the Kosovo indictment. No conviction was established however, as he died in custody in 2006, before the trial could be concluded. * Former Liberian President Charles G. Taylor was also brought to The Hague charged with war crimes; his trial stretched from 2007 to March 2011. He was convicted in April 2012 of Aiding and Abbetting and planning the commission of Crimes against Humanity, committed during the war under individual and command responsibility. * Former Bosnian Serb President
Radovan Karadžić Radovan Karadžić ( sr-cyr, Радован Караџић, ; born 19 June 1945) is a Bosnian Serb former politician who served as the president of Republika Srpska during the Bosnian War, and was later convicted of genocide, crimes again ...
was arrested in Belgrade on July 18, 2008 and brought before Belgrade's War Crimes Court a few days after. He was extradited to the Netherlands, and is currently in The Hague, in the custody of the
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars, and to try their perpetrators. The tribunal was an ad hoc court loca ...
. The trial began in 2010. On March 24, 2016, he was found guilty of
genocide Genocide is the intentional action to destroy a people—usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group—in whole or in part. A term coined by Raphael Lemkin in his 1944 book ''Axis Rule in Occupied Europe'', the hybrid wo ...
in
Srebrenica Srebrenica ( sr-cyrl, Сребреница, ), known by the Romans as Argentaria, is a town and municipality located in the easternmost part of Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is a small mountain town, with its main indus ...

Srebrenica
, war crimes and
crimes against humanity Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are purposely committed as part of a widespread or systematic policy, directed against civilians, in times of war or peace. They differ from war crimes because they are not isolated acts committed by i ...
, 10 of the 11 charges in total, and sentenced to 40 years' imprisonment. He was sentenced to life on appeal. *
Omar al-Bashir#REDIRECT Omar al-Bashir#REDIRECT Omar al-Bashir {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
, former head of state of
Sudan Sudan (; ar, السودان, as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan ( ar, جمهورية السودان, link=no, Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, Libya to the northwest, ...
, is charged with three counts of genocide, crimes against humanity and other war crimes regarding the 2003– War in the Darfur region of Sudan. The first head of state charged with genocide by the International Criminal Court with current warrants of arrest actions in Darfur. * Former
Libyan Libyans (ليبيون) and their population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the Libyan population. No complete population or vital statistics registration e ...

Libyan
leader
Muammar Gaddafi Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi, Modern Standard . Due to the lack of standardization of transcribing written and regionally pronounced Arabic, Gaddafi's name has been romanized in various ways. A 1986 column by ''The Straight Dope'' li ...
was indicted for allegedly ordering the killings of protesters and civilians and Crimes against Humanity, during the
2011 Libyan civil war The First Libyan Civil War was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya which was fought between forces which were loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and foreign supported groups which were seeking to oust his government. It ...
, however he was killed before he could stand trial in October 2011.


Other prominent indictees

*
Yoshijirō Umezu (January 4, 1882 – January 8, 1949) was a Japanese general in World War II and Chief of the Army General Staff during the final years of the conflict. He was convicted of war crimes and sentenced to life imprisonment. Biography Early career Ume ...
, a general in the
Imperial Japanese Army Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may also refer to: Places United States * Imperial, California * Imperial, Missouri * Imperial, Nebraska * Imperial, Pennsylvania * Imperial, Texas * ...
*
Seishirō Itagaki was a Japanese military officer and politician who served as a general in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II and War Minister from 1938 to 1939. Itagaki was a main conspirator behind the Mukden Incident and held prestigious chief of st ...

Seishirō Itagaki
,
War minister A defence minister or minister of defence is a cabinet official position in charge of a ministry of defense, which regulates the armed forces in sovereign states. The role of a defence minister varies considerably from country to country; in some ...
of the
Empire of Japan The was a historical nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II 1947 constitution and subsequent formation of modern Japan. It encompassed the Japanese archipelago and severa ...
*
Hermann Göring Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering; ; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader and a convicted war criminal. He was one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party, which ruled Germany from 1933 t ...
, Commander in Chief of the
Luftwaffe The ''Luftwaffe'' () was the aerial warfare branch of the ''Wehrmacht'' during World War II. Germany's military air arms during World War I, the ''Luftstreitkräfte'' of the Imperial Army and the ''Marine-Fliegerabteilung'' of the Imperial ...
. *
Ernst Kaltenbrunner Ernst Kaltenbrunner (4 October 190316 October 1946) was a high-ranking Austrian SS official during the Nazi era and a major perpetrator of the Holocaust. He was Chief of the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA), which included the offices of Gestapo ...
and
Adolf Eichmann Otto Adolf Eichmann ( ,"Eichmann"
''
, high-ranking members of the
SS The ''Schutzstaffel'' (SS; also stylized as ''ᛋᛋ'' with Armanen runes ; 'Protection Squadron') was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe durin ...
. *
Wilhelm Keitel Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel (; 22 September 188216 October 1946) was a German field marshal and war criminal who held office as Chief of the ''Oberkommando der Wehrmacht'' (OKW), the high command of Nazi Germany's Armed Forces, during t ...

Wilhelm Keitel
,
Generalfeldmarschall ''Generalfeldmarschall'' ( en, general field marshal, field marshal general, or field marshal; ; abbreviated to ''Feldmarschall'') was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire (''Reichsgeneralfeldmarschall''); in the ...
, head of the
Oberkommando der Wehrmacht The (; ''OKW'', , ) was the High Command of the Wehrmacht (armed forces) of Nazi Germany. Created in 1938, the OKW replaced the Reich War Ministry and had nominal oversight over the Heer (army), the Kriegsmarine (navy), and the Luftwaffe (air f ...
. *
Erich Raeder Erich Johann Albert Raeder (24 April 1876 – 6 November 1960) was a German admiral who played a major role in the naval history of World War II. Raeder attained the highest possible naval rank, that of Grand Admiral, in 1939, becoming the firs ...
,
Großadmiral Grand admiral is a historic naval rank, the highest rank in the several European navies that used it. It is best known for its use in Germany as . A comparable rank in modern navies is that of Admiral of the fleet. Grand admirals in individual nav ...
, Commander in Chief of the
Kriegsmarine The ''Kriegsmarine'' (, ) was the navy of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It superseded the Imperial German Navy of the German Empire (1871–1918) and the inter-war ''Reichsmarine'' (1919–1935) of the Weimar Republic. The ''Kriegsmarine'' w ...
. *
Albert Speer Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer (; ; March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) served as the Minister of Armaments and War Production in Nazi Germany during most of World War II. A close ally of Adolf Hitler, he was convicted at the Nure ...
, Minister of Armaments and War Production in
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich. until 1943 and Greater German Reich. from 1943 to 1945, was the German state ...

Nazi Germany
1942–45. *
William Calley William Laws Calley Jr. (born June 8, 1943) is an American war criminal and a former United States Army officer convicted by court-martial for the premeditated killings of 22 unarmed South Vietnamese civilians in the Mỹ Lai massacre on March 16, ...
, former U.S. Army officer found guilty of murder for his role in the My Lai Massacre * Ali Hassan Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti, more commonly known by his nickname "Chemical Ali", executed by post-Ba'athist Iraq for his leadership of the gassing of
Kurd Kurds ( ku, کورد ,Kurd, italic=yes, rtl=yes) or Kurdish people are an Iranic ethnic group native to a mountainous region of Western Asia known as Kurdistan, which spans southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, and northern Syria ...
ish villages during the Iran-Iraq War; also governor of illegally occupied
Kuwait Kuwait (; ar, الكويت ', or ), officially the State of Kuwait ( ar, دولة الكويت '), is a country in Western Asia. It is situated in the northern edge of Eastern Arabia at the tip of the Persian Gulf, bordering Iraq to the north ...
during the
First Gulf War The Gulf War was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait arising from oil pricing and production disputes. It was codenamed Operation Deser ...
*
Ratko Mladić Ratko Mladić ( sr-Cyrl, Ратко Младић, ; born 12 March 1942) is a convicted war criminal and a Bosnian Serb colonel-general who led the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) during the Yugoslav Wars. In 2017, he was found guilty of committing ...
, indicted for
genocide Genocide is the intentional action to destroy a people—usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group—in whole or in part. A term coined by Raphael Lemkin in his 1944 book ''Axis Rule in Occupied Europe'', the hybrid wo ...
amongst other violations of humanitarian law during the
Bosnian War The Bosnian War ( sh, Rat u Bosni i Hercegovini / Рат у Босни и Херцеговини) was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995. The war is commonly seen as having started o ...
; he was captured in Serbia in May 2011 and was extradited to face trial in The Hague, wherein he was found guilty and sentenced to life in prison. *
Joseph Kony Joseph Rao Kony (; likely born 1961) is a Ugandan insurgent and the leader of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), a guerrilla group that formerly operated in Uganda. While initially purporting to fight against government oppression, the LRA alle ...
, leader of the
Lord's Resistance Army The Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), also known as the Lord's Resistance Movement, is a rebel group and heterodox Christian group which operates in northern Uganda, South Sudan, the Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of the Cong ...
, guerrilla group which used to operate in Uganda.


Definition

War crimes are serious violations of the rules of customary and treaty law concerning
international humanitarian law International humanitarian law (IHL), also referred to as the laws of armed conflict, is the law that regulates the conduct of war (''jus in bello''). It is a branch of international law which seeks to limit the effects of armed conflict by protec ...
that have become accepted as criminal offenses for which there is individual responsibility. Colloquial definitions of ''war crime'' include violations of established protections of the ''laws of war'', but also include failures to adhere to norms of procedure and rules of battle, such as attacking those displaying a peaceful
flag of truce White flags have had different meanings throughout history and depending on the locale. The white flag The white flag is an internationally recognized protective sign of truce or ceasefire, and for negotiation. It is also used to symbolize sur ...
, or using that same flag as a ruse to mount an attack on enemy troops. The use of
chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some references add that chemical substance cannot be separated into its constituent elements by physical separation methods, i.e., witho ...
and
biological weapons A culture of ''Bacillus anthracis'', the causative agent of anthrax.">anthrax.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Bacillus anthracis'', the causative agent of anthrax">Bacillus anthracis'', the causative agent of a ...
in warfare are also prohibited by numerous chemical arms control agreements and the
Biological Weapons Convention The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), or Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC), is a disarmament treaty that effectively bans biological and toxin weapons by prohibiting their development, production, acquisition, transfer, stockpilin ...
. Wearing enemy uniforms or civilian clothes to infiltrate enemy lines for
espionage Espionage or spying is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information or divulging of the same without the permission of the holder of the information. A person who commits espionage is called an ''espionage agent'' or ''spy''. Spies ...
or
sabotage Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity, effort, or organization through subversion, obstruction, disruption, or destruction. One who engages in sabotage is a ''saboteur''. Saboteurs typically try to conceal their identities ...
missions is a legitimate
ruse of war The French , sometimes literally translated as ruse of war, is a non-uniform term; generally what is understood by "ruse of war" can be separated into two groups. The first classifies the phrase purely as an act of military deception against one's ...
, though fighting in
combat Combat (French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapons) or unarmed (not using weapons). Combat is sometimes resorted to as a method of self-defense, or ca ...
or assassinating individuals behind enemy lines while so disguised is not, as it constitutes unlawful
perfidy In the context of war, perfidy is a form of deception in which one side promises to act in good faith (such as by raising a flag of truce) with the intention of breaking that promise once the unsuspecting enemy is exposed (such as by coming out of ...
. Attacking enemy troops while they are being deployed by way of a parachute is not a war crime. However, Protocol I, Article 42 of the
Geneva Conventions upright=1.15, Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war. The singular term ' ...
explicitly forbids attacking parachutists who eject from disabled aircraft and surrendering parachutists once landed.''Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of August 12, 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflict'', International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva, Switzerlan
(Protocol I)
Article 30 of the 1907 Hague Convention ''IV – The Laws and Customs of War on Land'' explicitly prohibits
belligerent A belligerent is an individual, group, country, or other entity that acts in a hostile manner, such as engaging in combat. The term comes from the Latin ''bellum gerere'' ("to wage war"). Unlike the use of ''belligerent'' as an adjective meaning "ag ...
s to punish enemy spies without previous
trial In law, a trial is a coming together of parties to a dispute, to present information (in the form of evidence) in a tribunal, a formal setting with the authority to adjudicate claims or disputes. One form of tribunal is a court. The tribunal, ...
. The rule of war, also known as the
Law of Armed Conflict International humanitarian law (IHL), also referred to as the laws of armed conflict, is the law that regulates the conduct of war (''jus in bello''). It is a branch of international law which seeks to limit the effects of armed conflict by protec ...
, permit belligerents to engage in combat. A war crime occurs when superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering is inflicted upon an enemy. War crimes also include such acts as mistreatment of
prisoners of war A prisoner of war (POW) is a non-combatant—whether a military member, an irregular military fighter, or a civilian—who is held captive by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict. The earliest recorded usage of the ...
or
civiliansIn general use, a civilian is "a person who is not a member of the police, the armed forces, or a fire department." This use distinguishes from persons whose duties involve risking their lives to protect the public at large from hazardous situations ...
. War crimes are sometimes part of instances of
mass murder Mass murder is the act of murdering a number of people, typically simultaneously or over a relatively short period of time and in close geographic proximity. The FBI defines mass murder as murdering four or more people during an event with no " ...
and
genocide Genocide is the intentional action to destroy a people—usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group—in whole or in part. A term coined by Raphael Lemkin in his 1944 book ''Axis Rule in Occupied Europe'', the hybrid wo ...
though these crimes are more broadly covered under
international humanitarian law International humanitarian law (IHL), also referred to as the laws of armed conflict, is the law that regulates the conduct of war (''jus in bello''). It is a branch of international law which seeks to limit the effects of armed conflict by protec ...
described as
crimes against humanity Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are purposely committed as part of a widespread or systematic policy, directed against civilians, in times of war or peace. They differ from war crimes because they are not isolated acts committed by i ...
. In 2008, the
U.N. Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), charged with ensuring international peace and security, recommending the admission of new UN members to the General Assembly, and approv ...
adopted Resolution 1820, which noted that "rape and other forms of sexual violence can constitute war crimes, crimes against humanity or a constitutive act with respect to genocide"; see also
war rape Wartime sexual violence is rape or other forms of sexual violence committed by combatants during armed conflict, war, or military occupation often as spoils of war; but sometimes, particularly in ethnic conflict, the phenomenon has broader sociolog ...
. In 2016, the
International Criminal Court The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague, Netherlands. The ICC is the first and only permanent international court with jurisdiction to prosecute individ ...
convicted someone of sexual violence for the first time; specifically, they added rape to a war crimes conviction of Congo Vice President Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo. War crimes also included deliberate attacks on
citizens Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the law of a country (and/or local jurisdiction) of belonging to thereof. In international law it is membership to a sovereign state (a country). Each state is free to determine the condit ...
and
property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the abstract is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing. In the context of this article, it is one or more components (rather than attributes), whether physic ...
of neutral states, such as the Japanese
attack on Pearl Harbor The Attack on Pearl HarborAlso known as the Battle of Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States (a neutral country at the time) against the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Ho ...
. As the attack on Pearl Harbor happened while the U.S. and Japan were at peace and without a just cause for self-defense, the attack was declared by the
Tokyo Trials The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trial or the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, was a military trial convened on April 29, 1946, to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for joint conspiracy to start ...
to go beyond justification of
military necessity Military necessity, along with distinction, and proportionality, are three important principles of international humanitarian law governing the legal use of force in an armed conflict. Attacks Military necessity is governed by several constraints ...
and therefore constituted a war crime. War crimes are significant in international humanitarian law because it is an area where international tribunals such as the
Nuremberg Trials#REDIRECT Nuremberg trials {{redirect category shell, {{R from other capitalisation{{R from move ...
and
Tokyo Trials The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trial or the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, was a military trial convened on April 29, 1946, to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for joint conspiracy to start ...
have been convened. Recent examples are the
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars, and to try their perpetrators. The tribunal was an ad hoc court loca ...
and the
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda International is an adjective (also used as a noun) meaning "between nations". International may also refer to: Music Albums * ''International'' (Kevin Michael album), 2011 * ''International'' (New Order album), 2002 * ''International'' (The Three ...
, which were established by the
UN Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), charged with ensuring international peace and security, recommending the admission of new UN members to the General Assembly, and approv ...
acting under Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter, UN Charter. Under the
Nuremberg Principles#REDIRECT Nuremberg principles#REDIRECT Nuremberg principles {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
, ''war crimes'' are different from crimes against peace. Crimes against peace include planning, preparing, initiating, or waging a war of aggression, or a war in violation of international treaties, agreements, or assurances. Because the definition of a state of "war" may be debated, the term "war crime" itself has seen different usage under different systems of international and military law. It has some degree of application outside of what some may consider to be a state of "war", but in areas where conflicts persist enough to constitute social instability. The legalities of war have sometimes been accused of containing favoritism toward the winners ("Victor's justice"), as some controversies have not been ruled as war crimes. Some examples include the Allies of World War II, Allies' destruction of Axis Powers, Axis cities during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—forming two opposing milit ...
, such as the Bombing of Dresden in World War II, firebombing of Dresden, the Bombing of Tokyo (10 March 1945), ''Operation Meetinghouse'' raid on Tokyo (the most destructive single bombing raid in history), and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In regard to the strategic bombing during World War II, there was no international treaty or instrument protecting a civilian population specifically from attack by aircraft, therefore the aerial attacks on civilians were not officially war crimes. The Allies at the trials in Nuremberg and Tokyo never prosecuted the Germans, including
Luftwaffe The ''Luftwaffe'' () was the aerial warfare branch of the ''Wehrmacht'' during World War II. Germany's military air arms during World War I, the ''Luftstreitkräfte'' of the Imperial Army and the ''Marine-Fliegerabteilung'' of the Imperial ...
commander-in-chief
Hermann Göring Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering; ; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader and a convicted war criminal. He was one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party, which ruled Germany from 1933 t ...
, for the bombing raids on Bombing of Warsaw in World War II, Warsaw, Rotterdam Blitz, Rotterdam, and British cities during the Blitz as well as the indiscriminate attacks on Allied cities with V-1 flying bombs and V-2 rockets, nor the Japanese for the aerial attacks on crowded Chinese cities. Although there are no treaties specific to aerial warfare, Protocol 1, Article 51 of the Geneva Conventions explicitly prohibits the bombardment of cities where civilian population might be concentrated regardless of any method. (see Aerial bombardment and international law). Controversy arose when the Allies re-designated German POWs (under the protection of the Geneva Convention (1929), 1929 Geneva Convention on Prisoners of War) as Disarmed Enemy Forces (allegedly unprotected by the 1929 Geneva Convention on Prisoners of War), many of which then were used for forced labor such as clearing Land mine, minefields.S. P. MacKenzie "The Treatment of Prisoners of War in World War II" ''The Journal of Modern History'', Vol. 66, No. 3. (Sep. 1994), pp. 487–520. By December 1945, six months after the war had ended, it was estimated by French authorities that 2,000 German prisoners were still being killed or maimed each month in mine-clearing accidents. The wording of the 1949
Third Geneva Convention The Third Geneva Convention, relative to the treatment of prisoners of war, is one of the four treaties of the Geneva Conventions. The Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War was first adopted in 1929, but significantly r ...
was intentionally altered from that of the 1929 convention so that soldiers who "fall into the power" following surrender or mass capitulation of an enemy are now protected as well as those taken prisoner in the course of fighting.


Legality of civilian casualties

Under the law of armed conflict (LOAC), the death of non-combatants is not necessarily a violation; there are many things to take into account. Civilians ''cannot'' be made the object of an attack, but the death/injury of civilians while conducting an attack on a military objective are governed under principles such as of proportionality and
military necessity Military necessity, along with distinction, and proportionality, are three important principles of international humanitarian law governing the legal use of force in an armed conflict. Attacks Military necessity is governed by several constraints ...
and can be permissible. Military necessity "permits the destruction of life of ... persons whose destruction is incidentally unavoidable by the armed conflicts of the war; ... it does not permit the killing of innocent inhabitants for purposes of revenge or the satisfaction of a lust to kill. The destruction of property to be lawful must be imperatively demanded by the necessities of war." For example, conducting an operation on ammunition depot or a terrorist training camp would not be prohibited because a farmer is plowing a field in the area; the farmer is not the object of attack and the operations would adhere to proportionality and military necessity. On the other hand, an extraordinary military advantage would be necessary to justify an operation posing risks of collateral death or injury to thousands of civilians. In "grayer" cases the legal question of whether the expected incidental harm is excessive may be very subjective. For this reason, States have chosen to apply a "clearly excessive" standard for determining whether a criminal violation has occurred. When there is no justification for military action, such as civilians being made the object of attack, a proportionality analysis is unnecessary to conclude that the attack is unlawful.


International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia

For aerial strikes, pilots generally have to rely on information supplied external sources (headquarters, ground troops) that a specific position is in fact a military target. In the case of former Yugoslavia, NATO pilots hit a civilian object (the United States bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade, Chinese embassy in Belgrade) that was of no military significance, but the pilots had no idea of determining it aside from their orders. The committee ruled that "the aircrew involved in the attack should not be assigned any responsibility for the fact they were given the wrong target and that it is inappropriate to attempt to assign criminal responsibility for the incident to senior leaders because they were provided with wrong information by officials of another agency". The report also notes that "Much of the material submitted to the OTP consisted of reports that civilians had been killed, often inviting the conclusion to be drawn that crimes had therefore been committed. Collateral casualties to civilians and collateral damage to civilian objects can occur for a variety of reasons."


Rendulic Rule

The Rendulic Rule is a standard by which commanders are judged. German General Lothar Rendulic was charged for ordering extensive destruction of civilian buildings and lands while retreating from a suspected enemy attack in what is called scorched earth policy for the military purpose of denying the use of ground for the enemy. He overestimated the perceived risk but argued that Hague IV Convention, Hague IV authorized the destruction because it was necessary to war. He was acquitted of that charge. Under the "Rendulic Rule" persons must assess the military necessity of an action based on the information available to them at that time; they cannot be judged based on information that subsequently comes to light.


See also


Country listings

* List of war crimes * 1971 Bangladesh atrocities * Allied war crimes during World War II * British war crimes * German war crimes ** Consequences of German Nazism ** Holocaust ** War crimes of the Wehrmacht * International Military Tribunal for the Far East * Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant#Human rights abuse and war crime findings, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant war crimes findings * Italian war crimes * Japanese war crimes * Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen * :Korean War crimes, Korean War crimes * Soviet war crimes * United States Senate Committee on the Philippines * United States war crimes


Legal issues

* American Service-Members' Protection Act * Command responsibility * Law of war * Rule of Law in Armed Conflicts Project (RULAC) * Russell Tribunal * Special Court for Sierra Leone * The International Criminal Court and the 2003 invasion of Iraq * War Crimes Law (Belgium) * War Crimes Act of 1996 – incorporation of War Crimes into United States law


Miscellaneous

* Chronicles of Terror * Civilian internee * Commando Order, Commando order * Commissar Order, Commissar order * Crimes against humanity * Crime against peace * Crime of aggression * Doctors' trial, Doctors' Trial * Forensic archaeology * Human shield * International Criminal Court investigations * Katyn massacre * List of denaturalized former citizens of the United States, including those denaturalized for concealing involvement in war crimes to obtain American citizenship, that country's citizenship * Looting * Mass Atrocity crimes * Mass killing * Military use of children * Nazi human experimentation * NKVD prisoner massacres * No quarter *
Nuremberg Principles#REDIRECT Nuremberg principles#REDIRECT Nuremberg principles {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
* Perfidy * Razakars (Pakistan) * Satellite Sentinel Project * Srebrenica massacre * State terrorism * Terror bombing * Transitional justice * Unlawful combatant * Wartime sexual violence * Winter Soldier Investigation


References


Further reading

* * * Hagopian, Patrick (2013). ''American Immunity: War Crimes and the Limits of International Law.'' Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press. * * *


See also

*Crimes Against Humanity *
International Criminal Court The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague, Netherlands. The ICC is the first and only permanent international court with jurisdiction to prosecute individ ...
*Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court *Rule of Law


External links


Australian Bunker And Military Museum - abmm.org
* * * *
War Crimes: Responsibility and the Psychology of Atrocity
* Human Rights First
Command's Responsibility: Detainee Deaths in U.S. Custody in Iraq and Afghanistan

TheRule of Law in Armed Conflicts Project



Crimes of War Project

Rome Treaty of the International Criminal Court

Special Court for Sierra Leone

UN International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia

UN International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda



CBC Digital Archives -Fleeing Justice: War Criminals in Canada

A Criminological Analysis of the Invasion and Occupation of Iraq By Ronald C. Kramer and Raymond J. Michalowski
*
Investigating Human Rights – Reaching Out to Diaspora Communities in U.S. for War Crimes Tips
(FBI)

UK's Geneva Conventions (Amendment) Act 1995 – which bans War Crimes {{DEFAULTSORT:War Crime Aftermath of war International criminal law Laws of war Violence against men War crimes, Warfare, crimes Violence against women