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A vocational school is a type of educational institution, which, depending on the country, may refer to either
secondary Secondary is an adjective meaning "second" or "second hand". It may refer to: * Secondary (chemistry), term used in organic chemistry to classify various types of compounds * The group of (usually at least four) defensive backs in gridiron football ...
or
post-secondary Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, moral ...
education designed to provide
vocational education Vocational education is education that prepares people to work as a technician or to take up employment in a skilled craft or trade as a tradesman, tradesperson or artisan. Vocational education is sometimes referred to as ''career and technica ...
or technical skills required to complete the tasks of a particular and specific job. In the case of secondary education, these schools differ from academic high schools which usually prepare students who aim to pursue tertiary education, rather than enter directly into the workforce. With regard to post-secondary education, vocational schools are traditionally distinguished from four-year
colleges A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an educational institution or a University system, constituent part of one. A college may be a academic degree, degree-awarding Tertiary education, tertiary educational institution, a part of a collegiate un ...

colleges
by their focus on job-specific training to students who are typically bound for one of the
skilled trade A tradesman, skilled tradesman, or tradie refers to a skilled worker who specializes in a particular occupation that requires work experience, on-the-job training, and often formal vocational education Vocational education is education th ...
s, rather than providing academic training for students pursuing careers in a
professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns a living from a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standards of education and training that prepare members of the profession with the particular knowled ...
discipline. While many schools have largely adhered to this convention, the purely vocational focus of other trade schools began to shift in the 1990s "toward a broader preparation that develops the academic" as well as technical skills of their students.


Terminology

This type of institution may also be called a trade school, career center, career college, or vocational college.


Australia

Vocational schools were called "technical colleges" in Australia, and there were more than 20 schools specializing in vocational educational training (VET). Only four technical colleges remain, and these are now referred to as "trade colleges". At these colleges, students complete a modified year 12 certificate and commence a school-based apprenticeship in a trade of their choice. There are two trade colleges in Queensland; Brisbane, the Gold Coast, Australian Industry Trade College and one in Adelaide, St. Patrick's Technical College, and another in Perth, Australian Trades College. In Queensland, students can also undertake VET at private and public high schools instead of studying for their overall position (OP), which is a tertiary entrance score. However these students usually undertake more limited vocational education of one day per week whereas in the trade colleges the training is longer.


Canada

Education in Canada is a provincial responsibility, and education evolved independently in each province, much like separate countries. Vocational School is an old antiquated term that was previously used until the late 1960s when the education system evolved from basic primary education to include High School and then technical schools or colleges in the mid 1960s. In the past (pre mid 1960s) some provinces Vocational schools in Western Canada were sometimes called "
college A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an educational institution or a University system, constituent part of one. A college may be a academic degree, degree-awarding Tertiary education, tertiary educational institution, a part of a collegiate un ...
s" in Canada. However, a college may also refer to an institution that offers part of a university degree, or credits that may be transferred to a university. In Ontario Technical schools like Central Technical School in Toronto, which was started in the late 1800s to train workers in the evening, eventually evolved into high schools when the education system was extended to high school level. When the public education system was expanded in the by the early 1920s high school level education was provided in Technical / Commercial Schools or Collegiate Institutes in a hybrid high school/ college level like situation. In Ontario prior to the mid 1960s a Vocational School was a trades or job training school that provided training in a very focused trades related area, and these were started in the early 1950s, and the few that existed were merged as departments of the Community colleges that were established starting in the mid 1960s . Secondary schools had evolved into three separated streams: technical schools, commercial and collegiates (the academic schools). By the mid 1960s in suburban areas purpose built High Schools for slow learners or individuals that were being trained for jobs after high school was also termed "vocational schools". By the early late 1960s many of the technical and commercial school programs in large populated areas like around Toronto, were being merged or had purpose built combined schools were being built. While the schools still exist, the curriculum has changed so that no matter which type of school one attends, they can still attend any post-secondary institution and still study a variety of subjects and others (either academic or practical). In Ontario, the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities divided post-secondary education into universities, community colleges and private career colleges. In the Province of Quebec, there are some vocational programs offered at institutions called
CEGEP A CEGEP ( or ; ), also written cégep, CÉGEP and cegep, is a Public school (government funded), publicly funded College education in Quebec, college providing technical, academic, vocational or a mix of programs; they are exclusive to the provi ...
s (''collège d'enseignement général et professionnel''), but these too may function as an introduction to university. Generally, students complete two years at a CEGEP directly out of high school, and then complete three years at a university (rather than the usual four), to earn an undergraduate degree. Alternatively, some CEGEPs offer vocational training, but it is more likely that vocational training will be found at institutions separate from the academic institutions, though they may still be called colleges. Although many (if not most) vocational programs are in high school.


Central and Eastern Europe

In
Central and Eastern Europe Central and Eastern Europe is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories that are sometimes also considered parts of Western Europe, Southe ...
, a vocational education is represented in forms of (professional) vocational technical schools often abbreviated as PTU, technical colleges (technikum) and technical high school. ;Vocational school (college) Vocational school or Vocational college is considered a post-secondary education type school, but combines coursework of a
high school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a ...

high school
and
junior college A junior college (sometimes referred to colloquially as a juco or JuCo) is a post-secondary Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of ...
stretching for six years. In Ukraine, the term is used mostly for sports schools sometimes interchangeably with the term college. Such college could be a separate entity or a branch of bigger university. Successful graduates receive a
specialist degree The specialist degree is an academic degree An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic d ...
. ;PTU PTUs are usually a preparatory
vocational education Vocational education is education that prepares people to work as a technician or to take up employment in a skilled craft or trade as a tradesman, tradesperson or artisan. Vocational education is sometimes referred to as ''career and technica ...
and are equivalent to the general education of the third degree in the former Soviet education, providing a lower level of vocational education (apprenticeship). It could be compared to a trade
high school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a ...

high school
. In the 1920-30s, such PTUs were called schools of factory and plant apprenticeship, and later 1940s - vocational schools. Sometime after 1959, the name PTU was established, however, with the reorganization of the Soviet educational system these vocational schools renamed into lyceums. There were several types of PTUs such as middle city PTU and rural PTU. ;Technicum Technical college (technicum) is becoming an obsolete term for a college in different parts of Central and Eastern Europe. Technicums provided a middle level of vocational education. Aside of technicums and PTU there also were vocational schools (
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
: Профессиональные училища) that also provided a middle level of vocational education. In 1920-30s Ukraine, technicums were a (technical) vocational
institute An institute is an organisation An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English; American and British English spelling differences#-ise, -ize (-isation, -ization), see spelling differences), ...

institute
s, however, during the 1930-32s Soviet educational reform they were degraded in their accreditation. ;Institute Institutes were considered a higher level of education; however, unlike universities, they were more oriented to a particular trade. With the reorganization of the Soviet education system, most institutes have been renamed as technical universities.


Southeast Europe

In ex-Yugoslavian countries (Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, Montenegro and North Macedonia) there are technical high schools that can have three or four years courses. If a person finishes three year course he will get a trade degree, or technician degree if he finishes four. After technical high school a person can go to university. In Croatia there are two types of universities where people can continue their education: Classical universities (Sveučilište) and Universities of applied sciences (Veleučilište). In Universities of applied sciences, after three years students get a bachelors degree like in classical university, and after 5 years they get a professional specialist degree.


Finland

The Finnish system is divided between vocational and academic paths. Currently about 47 percent of Finnish students at age 16 go to vocational school. The vocational school is a secondary school for ages 16–21, and prepares the students for entering the workforce. The curriculum includes little academic general education, while the practical skills of each trade are stressed. The education is divided into eight main categories with a total of about 50 trades. The basic categories of education are * Humanist and educational branch (typical trade: youth- and free-time director) * Cultural branch (typical trade: artisan, media-assistant) * The branch of social sciences, business and merchandise (typical trade: vocational qualification in business and administration ( fi, merkonomi)) * Natural science (typical trade: IT worker ( fi, datanomi)) * Technology and traffic (typical trades: machinist, electrician, process worker) * The branch of natural resources and environment (typical trade: rural entrepreneur, forest worker) * The branch of social work, health care and physical exercise (typical trade: practical nurse ( fi, lähihoitaja)) * The branch of travel, catering and domestic economics (typical trade: institutional catering worker) The vocational schools are usually owned by the municipalities, but in special cases, private or state vocational schools exist. The state grants aid to all vocational schools on the same basis, regardless of the owner. On the other hand, the vocational schools are not allowed to operate for profit. The Ministry of Education issues licences to provide vocational education. In the licence, the municipality or a private entity is given permission to train a yearly quota of students for specific trades. The licence also specifies the area where the school must be located and the languages used in the education. The vocational school students are selected by the schools on the basis of criteria set by the Ministry of Education. The basic qualification for the study is completed nine-year comprehensive school. Anyone may seek admission in any vocational school regardless of their domicile. In certain trades, bad health or invalidity may be acceptable grounds for refusing admission. The students do not pay tuition and they must be provided with health care and a free daily school lunch. However, the students must pay for the books, although the tools and practice material are provided to the students for free. In tertiary education, there are higher vocational schools (''
ammattikorkeakoulu An ammattikorkeakoulu (yrkeshögskola in , polytechnic or university of applied sciences in English), abbreviated ''AMK'', is a . The term literally means "school of higher ". Although the term is often translated into English as "", the Finnish ...
'' which is translated to "polytechnic" or "university of applied sciences"), which give three- to four-year degrees in more involved fields, like engineering (see insinööri (amk)) and nursing. In contrast to the vocational school, an academically orientated upper secondary school, or senior high school ( fi, lukio) teaches no vocational skills. It prepares students for entering the university or a higher vocational school.


India

In
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
vocational schools are mainly run by the government under the guidance of the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship. Courses offered by the Government of India are Udaan, Polytechnics, Parvaaz, National Rural Livelihood Mission, Industrial Training Institutes, Aajeevika mission of national rural livelihood, Craftsmen Training Scheme. The Skill India movement has empowered the standards of all these institutions. Apart from these the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has included many vocational subjects in their senior secondary education.


Ireland

A vocational school in
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
is a type of
secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a statistical framework for organizing information on education Educatio ...
school which places a large emphasis on
vocational A vocation () is an job, occupation to which a person is especially drawn or for which they are suited, trained, or qualified. People can be given information about a new occupation through student orientation. Though now often used in non-religi ...
and
technical education In the United States, a technical school is a two-year college that covers fields such as business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). ...
; this led to some conflict in the 1960s when the
Regional Technical College An Institute of Technology or IT is a type of higher education college found in the Republic of Ireland Ireland ( ga, Éire ), also known as the Republic of Ireland ('), is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 Counties of Ir ...
system was in development. Since 2013 the schools have been managed by
Education and Training BoardAn Education and Training Board (ETB) ( ga, Bord Oideachais agus Oiliúna) is one of sixteen statutory local education bodies that deliver a wide range of education services in the Republic of Ireland Ireland ( ga, Éire ), also known as the ...
s, which replaced
Vocational Education Committee A Vocational Education Committee (VEC) ( ga, Coiste Gairmoideachais) was a statutoryA statute reffers to the body of law that are made by legislature of the nation with instrument which govern the state, country or any nation. it includes laws, rul ...
s which were largely based on
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...
or
county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ...

county
boundaries. Establishment of the schools is largely provided by the state; funding is through block grant system providing about 90% of necessary funding requirements. Vocational schools typically have
further education Further education (often abbreviated FE) in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a s ...
courses in addition to the traditional courses at secondary level. For instance, post
leaving certificateA secondary school leaving qualification is a document signifying that the holder has fulfilled any secondary education requirements of their locality, often including the passage of a final qualification examination. For each leaving certificate ...
courses which are intended for school leavers and pre- third level education students. Until the 1970s the vocational schools were seen as inferior to the other schools then available in Ireland. This was mainly because traditional courses such as the leaving certificate were not available at the schools, however this changed with the ''Investment in Education'' (1962) report which resulted in an upgrade in their status. Currently about 25% of secondary education students attend these schools.


Greece

In Greece vocational school is known as Vocational Lyceum (2006–Present), it was named Technical Vocational Lyceum (1985-1998). It is an upper secondary education school (high school) of Greece, with three-year duration. Some have a wide range of majors, others only a few majors. Vocational majors are in Electrical Installation, Electronics and Automation, Meganotronics, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Cooling, Nursing, Hairdressing, Graphic Design, Dental Technology, Aesthetic and Makeup, and others.


Japan

In
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
vocational schools are known as . They are a part of Japan's
higher education Higher education is tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge ...
system. There are two-year schools that many students study at after finishing high school (although it is not always required that students graduate from high school). Some have a wide range of majors, others only a few majors. Some examples are
computer technology Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithm of an algorithm (Euclid's algorithm) for calculating the greatest common divisor (g.c.d. ...
,
fashion Fashion is a form of self-expression and autonomy at a particular period and place and in a specific context, of clothing Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are items worn on the body. Typically, clothing is made of fab ...

fashion
and
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
.


Netherlands

In the Middle Ages boys learned a vocation through an
apprenticeship An apprenticeship is a system for training a new generation of practitioners of a trade Trade involves the transfer of goods from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system A system is a ...

apprenticeship
. They were usually 10 years old when they entered service, and were first called ''leerling'' (
apprentice An apprenticeship is a system for training a new generation of practitioners of a trade Trade involves the transfer of goods from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system A system is a gr ...

apprentice
), then ''gezel'' (
journeyman A journeyman is a worker, skilled in a given building trade or craft A craft or trade is a pastime or an occupation that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. In a historical sense, particularly the Middle Ages ...

journeyman
) and after an exam - sometimes with an example of workmanship called a ''meesterproef'' (
masterpiece Masterpiece, ''magnum opus'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...

masterpiece
) - they were called ''meester'' (
master craftsman A master craftsman or master tradesman A tradesman, skilled tradesman, or tradie refers to a skilled worker who specializes in a particular occupation that requires work experience, on-the-job training, and often formal vocational education ...
). In 1795, all of the
guilds A guild is an association of s and s who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area. The earliest types of guild formed as organizations of tradesmen, belonging to: a , a , a , and/or a . They sometimes depended on grants ...
in the Netherlands were disbanded by
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
, and with them the guild vocational schooling system. After the French occupation, in the 1820s, the need for quality education caused more and more cities to form day and evening schools for various trades. In 1854, the society ''Maatschappij tot verbetering van den werkenden stand'' (society to improve the working class) was founded in Amsterdam, that changed its name in 1861 to the ''Maatschappij voor de Werkende Stand'' (Society for the working class). This society started the first public vocational school ('' De Ambachtsschool'') in
Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the City Region of Amsterdam, urban ar ...

Amsterdam
, and many cities followed. At first only for boys, later the ''Huishoudschool'' (housekeeping) was introduced as vocational schooling for girls. Housekeeping education began in 1888 with the Haagsche Kookschool in
The Hague The Hague ( ; nl, Den Haag or ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd ed ...

The Hague
. In 1968 the law called the ''Mammoetwet'' changed all of this, effectively dissolving the Ambachtsschool and the Huishoudschool. The name was changed to LTS (''lagere technische school'', lower technical school), where mainly boys went because of its technical nature, and the other option, where most girls went, was LBO (''lager beroepsonderwijs'', lower vocational education). In 1992 both LTS and LBO changed to VBO (''voorbereidend beroepsonderwijs'', preparatory vocational education) and since 1999 VBO together with MAVO (''middelbaar algemeen voortgezet onderwijs'', intermediate general secondary education) changed to the current VMBO (''voorbereidend middelbaar beroepsonderwijs'', preparatory intermediate vocational education).


United States

In the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, there is a very large difference between career college and vocational college. The term ''career college'' is generally reserved for post-secondary for-profit institutions. Conversely, vocational schools are government-owned or at least government-supported institutions, requiring two full years of study, and their credits are usually accepted elsewhere in the academic world. In some instances, charter academies or
magnet school In education in the United States, the U.S. education system, magnet schools are State school, public schools with specialized Course (education), courses or Curriculum, curricula. "Magnet" refers to how the schools draw students from across the ...
s may take the place of the final years of
high school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a ...

high school
. Career colleges on the other hand are generally not government supported in any capacity, occupy periods of study less than a year, and their training and certifications are rarely recognized by the larger academic world. In addition, as most career colleges are
private school Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United ...
s, this group may be further subdivided into non-profit schools and proprietary schools, operated for the sole economic benefit of their owners. As a result of this emphasis on the commercialization of education, a widespread poor reputation for quality was retained by a great number of career colleges for over promising what the job prospects for their graduates would actually be in their field of study upon completion of their program, and for emphasizing the number of careers from which a student could choose. Even though the popularity of career colleges has exploded in recent years, the number of government-sponsored vocational schools in the United States has decreased significantly. The Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE) is the largest American national education association dedicated to the advancement of career and technical education or vocational education that prepares youth and adults for careers. Earlier vocational schools such as
California Institute of Technology The California Institute of Technology (Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such a"Cal Tech" and "CalTech" are incorrect. The Institute is also occasionally referred to as "CIT", most notably ...
and
Carnegie Mellon University Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence ...
have gone on to become full degree-granting institutions.


See also

*


References


External links


Career College Association website
* Barry Yeoman

''Good Housekeeping''
Association of Career and Technical Education (ACTE)




{{Authority control Educational stages Tertiary education Types of university or college Types of vocational school *