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Viticulture (from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
word for ''
vine A vine (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation ...

vine
'') or winegrowing (wine growing) is the cultivation and harvesting of
grape A grape is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term ...

grape
s. It is a branch of the science of
horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists are agriculturists who grow flowers, fruits and nuts, vegetables and herbs, as well as or ...
. While the native territory of ''
Vitis vinifera ''Vitis vinifera'', the common grape vine, is a species of flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek ...

Vitis vinifera
'', the common grape vine, ranges from
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical r ...

Western Europe
to the
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...

Persian
shores of the
Caspian Sea The Caspian Sea (also known as Mazandaran Sea, Hyrcanian Ocean, or Khazar Sea), tk, Hazar deňzi, az, Xəzər Dənizi, russian: Каспийское море, script=Latn, fa, دریای مازندران، دریای خزر, script=Latn, tly, ...

Caspian Sea
, the vine has demonstrated high levels of
adaptability Adaptability ( la, adaptō "fit to, adjust") is a feature of a system or of a process. This word has been put to use as a specialised term in different disciplines and in business operations. Word definitions of adaptability as a specialised term di ...
to new environments, hence viticulture can be found on every continent except
Antarctica Antarctica ( or ) is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Oc ...

Antarctica
. Duties of the viticulturist include monitoring and controlling
pests Pest or The Pest may refer to: Science and medicine * Pest (organism), an animal or plant detrimental to humans or human concerns ** Weed, a plant considered undesirable * Infectious disease, an illness resulting from an infection ** Plague (diseas ...
and
diseases A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function (biology), function of all or part of an organism, and that is not due to any immediate external injury. Diseases are often known to be medical ...
,
fertilizing Fertilisation or fertilization (see American and British English spelling differences#-ise.2C -ize .28-isation.2C -ization.29, spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes ...

fertilizing
,
irrigation Irrigation is the agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in seden ...
,
canopy Canopy may refer to: Plants * Canopy (biology), aboveground portion of plant community or crop (including forests) * Canopy (grape), aboveground portion of grapevine Religion and ceremonies * Baldachin or canopy of state, typically placed over an ...
management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spok ...
, monitoring
fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the ...

fruit
development and
characteristics Characteristic (from the Greek word for a property, attribute or wikt:trait, trait of an wikt:entity, entity) may refer to: In physics and engineering, any characteristic curve that shows the relationship between certain input and output parameters ...
, deciding when to
harvest Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the field Field may refer to: Expanses of open ground * Field (agriculture), an area of land used for agricultural purposes * Airfield, an aerodrome that lacks the infrastructure of a ...
, and vine
pruning Pruning is a horticultural Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists grow flowers, fruits and nuts, vegetables and herbs, as wel ...

pruning
during the winter months. Viticulturists are often intimately involved with winemakers, because vineyard management and the resulting grape characteristics provide the basis from which
winemaking Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from Fermentation in winemaking, fermented grapes. Yeast in winemaking, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and ca ...
can begin. A great number of varieties are now approved in the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
as true grapes for winegrowing and viticulture.


History

The earliest evidence of grape vine cultivation and winemaking dates back 8,000 years. The history of viticulture is closely related to the
history of wine Wine has been produced for thousands of years, with evidence of ancient wine production in Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country), a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia * Georgia (U.S. state), one of the states of the ...
, with evidence that humans cultivated wild grapes to make wine as far back as the
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
period. Evidence suggests that some of the earliest
domestication Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that sec ...
of ''Vitis vinifera'' occurred in the area of the modern countries
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia (, ; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is a part of the Caucasus region, bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north and east by ...
and
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...

Armenia
. The oldest-known
winery A winery is a building or property that produces wine Wine is an alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substanc ...

winery
was discovered in the "Areni-1" cave in
Vayots Dzor Vayots Dzor ( hy, Վայոց Ձոր, ) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, firs ...

Vayots Dzor
,
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...

Armenia
. Dated to BC, the site contained a wine press, fermentation vats, jars, and cups. Archaeologists also found ''V. vinifera'' seeds and vines. Commenting on the importance of the find, McGovern said, "The fact that winemaking was already so well developed in 4000 BC suggests that the technology probably goes back much earlier." There is also evidence of grape domestication in the
Near East The Near East ( ar, الشرق الأدنى, al-Sharq al-'Adnā, he, המזרח הקרוב, arc, ܕܢܚܐ ܩܪܒ, fa, خاور نزدیک, Xāvar-e nazdik, tr, Yakın Doğu) is a geographical term which roughly encompasses a transcontinental ...
in the early
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
, around 3200 BC. Evidence of ancient viticulture is provided by
cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronze Age until the beginning of the Common Era. It is nam ...

cuneiform
sources (ancient writing on clay tablets), plant remains, historical geography, and archaeological excavations. The remnants of ancient wine jars have been used to determine the culture of wine consumption and cultivated grape species. In addition to winemaking, grapes have been grown for the production of
raisins A raisin is a dried grape. Raisins are produced in many regions of the world and may be eaten raw or used in cooking, baking, and brewing. In the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Ireland, New Zealand, and Australia, the word ''raisin'' is ...

raisins
. The earliest act of cultivation appears to have been the favoring of
hermaphroditic In reproductive biology, a hermaphrodite () is an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, properties of life ...
members of the ''Vitis vinifera'' species over the barren male vines and the female vines, which were dependent on a nearby male for
pollination Pollination is the transfer of pollen Pollen is a powdery substance consisting of pollen grains which are Sporophyte, microsporophytes of spermatophyta, seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells). Pollen grains have a hard coat ...

pollination
. With the ability to pollinate itself, over time the hermaphroditic vines were able to sire
offspring In biology, offspring are the young creation of living organisms, produced either by a Asexual reproduction, single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms. Collective offspring may be known as a brood or progeny in a more ...

offspring
that were consistently hermaphroditic. At the end of the 5th century BC, the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...

Greek
historian
Thucydides Thucydides (; grc-gre, Θουκυδίδης ; BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the app ...
wrote: Thucydides was most likely referencing the time between 3000 BC and 2000 BC, when viticulture emerged in force in
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of ...

Asia Minor
,
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...
, and the of the
Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated Bay, embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between Europe's Geography of Europe, Balkan peninsula and Asia's Anatolia peninsula. The sea has an area of some 215,000 square kilometres. In ...

Aegean Sea
. During this period, grape cultivation developed from an aspect of to an important component of international
economies An economy (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 m ...
and
trade Trade involves the transfer of goods from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of r ...

trade
.


Roman

From 1200 BC to 900 BC, the
Phoenicia Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3 ...
ns developed viticulture practices that were later used in
Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading hub of the Ancient Mediterranean and one of the most affluent cities of the . The city developed from a n colony ...

Carthage
. Around 500 BC, the Carthaginian writer
MagoMago may refer to: Places *Mago Island, an island in Fiji *Mago, Minorca, a Carthaginian and later Roman town in Menorca *Mago, Russia, a rural locality (a settlement) in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia *Mago National Park, in Ethiopia **Mount Mago a mount ...
recorded such practices in a two-volume work that was one of the few artifacts to survive the
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...
destruction of Carthage during the
Third Punic War The Third Punic War (149–146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars The Punic Wars were a series of wars (taking place between 264 and 146BC) that were fought between the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūbli ...
. The Roman statesman
Cato the Elder Marcus Porcius Cato (; 234–149 BC), also known as Cato the Censor ( la, Censorius), the Elder and the Wise, was a Roman soldier, senator A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicam ...
was influenced by these texts, and around 160 BC he wrote '' De Agricultura'', which expounded on Roman viticulture and agriculture. Around 65 AD, the Roman writer
Columella Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella (; Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of ...
produced the most detailed work on Roman viticulture in his twelve-volume text ''De Re Rustica''. Columella's work is one of the earliest to detail trellis systems for raising vines off the ground. Columella advocated the use of stakes versus the previously accepted practice of
training vines Image:Christer Fuglesang underwater EVA simulation for STS-116.jpg, An astronaut in training for an extravehicular activity mission using an underwater simulation environment on Earth. Training is teaching, or developing in oneself or others, any ...
to grow up along
tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only wood plants with se ...

tree
trunks. The benefits of using stakes over trees was largely to minimize the dangers associated with climbing trees, which was necessary to prune the dense
foliage A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia art ...

foliage
in order to give the vines sunlight, and later to harvest them.
Roman expansion From its origin as a city-state on the peninsula of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a I ...
across Western Europe brought Roman viticulture to the areas that would become some of the world's best-known winegrowing regions: the Spanish Rioja, the German Mosel, and the French
Bordeaux Bordeaux ( , ; Gascon language, Gascon oc, Bordèu ) is a port city on the river Garonne in the Gironde Departments of France, department in Southwestern France. The municipality (Communes of France, commune) of Bordeaux proper has a popula ...

Bordeaux
,
Burgundy Burgundy (; french: link=no, Bourgogne ) is a historical territory and a former administrative region Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organizati ...
and
Rhône The Rhône ( , ) is a major river in France and Switzerland, arising in the Alps and flowing west and south through Lake Geneva and southeastern France before discharging into the Mediterranean Sea. At Arles, near its mouth, the river divides in ...
. Roman viticulturists were among the first to identify steep hillsides as one of the better locations to plant vines, because cool air runs downhill and gathers at the bottom of valleys. While some cool air is beneficial, too much can rob the vine of the heat it needs for
photosynthesis Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert Conversion or convert may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Conversion (Doctor Who audio), "Conversion" (''Doctor Who'' audio), an episode of the audio drama ' ...

photosynthesis
, and in winter it increases the risk of
frost Frost is a thin layer of ice Ice is water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). It is ...

frost
.


Medieval

Catholic
monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (f ...

monk
s (particularly the
Cistercians The Cistercians, () officially the Order of Cistercians ( la, (Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis, abbreviated as OCist or SOCist), are a Catholic religious order In the , a religious order is a community of with members that profess s. According ...
) were the most prominent viticulturists of the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
. Around this time, an early system of '' Metayage'' emerged in France with laborers (''
PrendeurA prendeur, a French term, is a labourer working as part of an early Middle Age sharecropping system known as ''complant'', a precursor to the métayage system. Under this system, the ''prendeur'' would cultivate land owned by a bailleur. In exchange ...
'') working the vineyards under contractual agreements with the landowners (''
BailleurA bailleur, a French term, is a land owner who outsourced uncultivated parcels of land as part of an early Middle Age sharecropping system known as ''complant'' — a precursor to the métayage system. Under this system, a laborer known as a pren ...
''). In most cases, the ''prendeurs'' were given flexibility in selecting their crop and developing their own vineyard practice. In northern Europe, the weather and
climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a la ...

climate
posed difficulties for grape cultivation, so certain species were selected that better suited the environment. Most vineyards grew white varieties of grape, which are more resistant to the damp and cold climates. A few species of red grape, such as the Pinot Noir, were also introduced. Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry dates back to 1416 and depicts horticulture and viticulture in France. The images illustrate peasants bending down to prune grapes from vines behind castle walls. Additional illustrations depict grape vines being harvested, with each vine being cut to three spurs around knee height. Many of the viticultural practices developed in this time period would become staples of European viticulture until the 18th century.
Varietal A varietal wine is a wine Wine is an alcoholic drink typically made from fermented grape juice. Yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom. The first yeast originated hun ...
s were studied more intently to see which vines were the most suitable for a particular area. Around this time, an early concept of ''
terroir (, ; from ''terre'', "land") is a French term used to describe the environmental factors that affect a crop's phenotype In genetics Genetics is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and livin ...

terroir
'' emerged as wines from particular places began to develop a reputation for uniqueness. The concept of pruning for quality over quantity emerged, mainly through Cistercian labors, though it would create conflict between the rich landowners who wanted higher quality wines and the
peasant A peasant is a pre-industrial Pre-industrial society refers to social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the tra ...
laborers whose livelihood depended on the quantity of wine they could sell. The
Riesling Riesling (, ; ) is a white grape variety This list of grape varieties includes cultivated grape A grape is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of bio ...

Riesling
is the famous example for higher quality of wine. In 1435 Count John IV. of Katzenelnbogen started this successful tradition. In
Burgundy Burgundy (; french: link=no, Bourgogne ) is a historical territory and a former administrative region Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organizati ...

Burgundy
, the
Cistercian The Cistercians, () officially the Order of Cistercians ( la, (Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis, abbreviated as OCist or SOCist), are a Catholic religious order of monks and nuns that branched off from the Benedictines and follow the Rule of Saint Be ...
monks developed the concept of '' cru'' vineyards as
homogeneous Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the sciences Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about th ...
pieces of land that consistently produce wines each
vintage File:The Vintagers after a Miniature of the Dialogues de Saint Gregoire Thirteenth Century Manuscript of the Royal Library of Brussels.png, ''The Vintagers'', after a miniature of the "Dialogues de Saint Gregoire" (thirteenth century)—manuscript ...

vintage
that are similar. In areas like the
Côte-d'Or Côte-d'Or (; literally, "Golden Slope" or "Golden Coast") is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country s ...
, the monks divided the land into separate vineyards, many of which still exist today, like Montrachet and La Romanée.


In mythology

In
Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psyc ...
, the demigod
Dionysus Dionysus (; grc-gre, Διόνυσος) is the god of the grape-harvest, winemaking, fertility, orchards and fruit, vegetation, insanity, ritual madness, religious ecstasy, festivity and theatre in Religion in ancient Greece, ancient Greek rel ...

Dionysus
(
Bacchus Dionysus (; grc-gre, Διόνυσος) is the god of the grape-harvest, winemaking, fertility, orchards and fruit, vegetation, insanity, ritual madness, religious ecstasy Religious ecstasy is a type of altered state of consciousness chara ...

Bacchus
in
Roman mythology Roman mythology is the body of myths of ancient Rome as represented in the Latin literature, literature and Roman art, visual arts of the Romans. One of a wide variety of genres of Roman folklore, ''Roman mythology'' may also refer to the moder ...
), son of
Zeus Zeus or , , ; grc, Δῐός, ''Diós'', label=genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Ling ...

Zeus
, invented the grapevine and the winepress. When his closest
satyr In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A be ...

satyr
friend died trying to bring him a vine Dionysus deemed important, Dionysus forced the vine to bear fruit. His fame spread, and he finally became a god. The
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
makes numerous references to wine, and grapevine, both symbolically and literally.
grapes A grape is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term ...

grapes
are first mentioned when Noah grows them on his farm (Genesis 9:20–21). References to wine are made in the book of Proverbs (20:1) and the book of Isaiah (5:1–25). Deuteronomy (18:3–5, 14:22–27, 16:13–15) reports the use of wine during Jewish festivals. In
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
wine is the symbol of the
Last Supper Image:The Last Supper - Leonardo Da Vinci - High Resolution 32x16.jpg, 500px, alt=''The Last Supper'' by Leonardo da Vinci - Clickable Image, Depictions of the Last Supper in Christian art have been undertaken by artistic masters for centuries, ...

Last Supper
, represents the
blood of Christ Blood of Christ in Christian theology #REDIRECT Christian theology Christian theology is the theology of Christianity, Christian belief and practice. * help them better understand Christian tenets * make comparative religion, comparisons betw ...
. It is mentioned several times in the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
. We have the parable of the kingdom of heaven likened to the father starting to engage laborers for his vineyard. The vine is used as symbol of Jesus Christ based on his own statement, “I am the true vine (John 15:1).” In that sense, a vine is placed as sole symbol on the tomb of .


The grape vine

The vast majority of the world's wine-producing regions are found between the temperate latitudes of 30° and 50° in each Earth, hemisphere. Within these bands, the annual mean temperatures are between . The presence of large Body of water, bodies of water and mountain ranges can have positive effects on the climate and vines. Nearby lakes and rivers can serve as protection for drastic temperature drops at night by releasing the heat that the water has stored during the day to warm the vines.


The grape

The
grape A grape is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term ...

grape
is classified as a Berry (botany), berry. On the vine, grapes are organized through systems known as clusters. Grape clusters can vary in compactness which can result in long clusters (resulting in the grapes spreading out) or short clusters (resulting in grapes packed together). In some grape species, clusters ripen collectively, which allows them to be harvested together. For others, grapes may ripen individually within a cluster. Each grape berry contains a pedicel (botany), pedicel which attaches to the rachis. The main function of the rachis is to allow the grapes to receive their water and nutrients. The pollination and fertilization of grapes results in one to four seeds within each berry. When fertilization does not occur, seedless grapes are formed, which are sought after for the production of
raisins A raisin is a dried grape. Raisins are produced in many regions of the world and may be eaten raw or used in cooking, baking, and brewing. In the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Ireland, New Zealand, and Australia, the word ''raisin'' is ...

raisins
. Regardless of pollination and fertilization, most plants will produce around 100 to 200 grapes. The skin of the grape accounts for 5 to 20% of the total weight of a grape depending on the variety. When grape skin ripens, it contains the majority of the aromatic substances and tannin. These factors become important in winemaking for methods including color extraction or aroma dissolution. Although the skin contains the majority of the tannin, small percentages can be found throughout the grape and during all of its developmental stages. However, the tannin's most important role is during the grape's ripening stage as its function is to formulate color and body shape.


Growing vines

Although many factors can affect the overall quality of a grape vine, the three most important are climate, slope, and soil, often collectively referred to as the Terroir#Influences of viticulture and winemaking, ''terroir''.


Climate

Climate is the most significant external factor in determining a grape's inherent qualities. Each grape variety has a uniquely preferred environment for ideal growing. Because climates vary from region to region, selecting the best strain is an important decision in grape cultivation. Additionally, because climatic factors such as temperature and rain can be unpredictable and uncontrollable, each year will produce unique qualities and yields of grapes. Wine grapes are also especially susceptible to climate change and temperature variation. Grape vines need approximately 1300–1500 hours of sunshine during the growing season and around of rainfall throughout the year in order to produce grapes suitable for winemaking. In ideal circumstances, the vine will receive most of the rainfall during the winter and spring months: rain at harvesttime can create many hazards, such as fungus, fungal diseases and berry splitting. The optimum weather during the growing season is a long, warm summer that allows the grapes the opportunity to ripen fully and to develop a balance between the levels of acids and sugars in the grape. Hot and sunny climates have a frost-free growing season of 200 days or more. These climates allow grapes to ripen faster with higher sugar levels and lower acidity. Cooler climates have a frost-free growing season of around 150–160 days. Cooler seasons force the grapes to ripen earlier, which produces a fresher and more acidic harvest. In general, the average yearly temperature for most crops should average around in order to achieve the highest quality in each grape. Summer: Ideal temperatures in summer average around . Ideal summer temperatures enable fruits to ripen. Temperature and sunshine are the most important factors in ripening. Winter: Ideal temperatures in winter average around . Ideal winter temperatures are necessary to allow grape vines to enter their resting phase. If temperatures fall too low, the crops can be injured. Spring and Fall: Spring and fall are critical seasons for grape development, because the plants are susceptible to frost damage, which can injure the fruiting buds. Wet weather in spring can increase the odds of mildew formation. To prevent mildew, some farms introduce devices such as heaters or large fans in vineyards. However, such solutions can be costly.


Slope

Hillsides and slopes are preferred over flatter terrain: vines growing on a slope can receive a greater intensity of the sun's rays, with sunshine falling on an angle perpendicular to the hillside. In flatter terrain, the intensity of the sunlight is diluted as it spreads out across a wider surface area. Small slopes that are elevated above surrounding ground are the best and safest places for crops, because these small elevations are less prone to frost. Additionally, a slope affords better drainage, obviating the possibility that the vine might sit in overly moist soil. In cooler regions of the northern hemisphere, south-facing slopes receive more hours of sunlight and are preferred; in warmer climes, north-facing slopes are preferred. In the southern hemisphere, these orientations are reversed.


Soil

Quality soil is important to allow plants to have better root systems. The growth and health of a vine can be affected if the soil quality is poor. Different grape species prefer various soil conditions, although there are general quality factors. Favorable soil conditions include: aeration, loose texture, good drainage and moderate fertility. Drainage factors are cited as the most important soil characteristic to affect grape vine growth. When root growth is restricted due to bad soil, vine growth and fruit yields lessen and plant survival rates can dip to only a few years.


Hazards

A viticulturist faces many hazards that can have an adverse effect on the wine produced from the grape or kill the vine itself. *When the vine is flowering, it is very susceptible to strong winds and hail. Cold temperatures during this period can lead to the onset of ''millerandage'', which produces clusters with no seeds and varying sizes. Hot conditions can produce ''coulure'' that causes grape clusters to either drop to the ground or not fully develop. *Uncinula necator, Oidium is a powdery mildew that can attack all green parts of the vine. If left untreated, oidium can be terminal for the plant. It thrives in cooler temperatures and in the shade. Some North American vine species have evolved to show resistance to the mildew (3:37). *Downy mildew (''Peronospora'') thrives in high temperatures and humidity and produces stains on leaves. It can be treated by spraying plants with copper sulphate. Most American vines are resistant, excluding ''Vitis vinifera''. *Fanleaf virus is spread by nematodes that breed in the vine stem. It can lead to deformity, yellowing of leaves, and smaller crop yields. There is no cure for the plant; the best course of action is to remove infected plants and leave the remaining roots to rot. *Frost *Phylloxera *Plant virus *Pest (organism), Pests


Green harvest

A green harvest is the removal of immature grape bunches, typically for the purpose of decreasing yield. The removal of the bunches while they are still green induces the vine to put all its energy into developing the remaining grapes. In theory this results in better ripening and the development of more numerous and mature flavour compounds. In the absence of a green harvest, a healthy, vigorous vine can produce dilute, unripe grapes. In Europe, many appellations restrict the yield permitted from a given area, so there is even more incentive to perform green harvesting when presented with excess crop. Often, the excess must be sold for a pittance and used for industrial alcohol production rather than wine. While the concept of thinning or sacrificing part of the grape crop, i.e. green harvesting, with the aim of improving the quality of the remaining grapes, predates modern critics, the practice has increased in recent times in vineyards found in California and areas where the grapes grow easily. (McCoy)


Field blend

A field blend is a wine that is produced from two or more different grape varieties interplanted in the same vineyard. In the days before precise varietal identification, let alone rigorous clonal selection, a vineyard might be planted by taking Cutting (vine), cuttings from another vineyard and therefore approximately copying its genetic makeup. This meant that one vine could be Zinfandel and the next Carignan. When making wine with little equipment to spare for separate vinification of different varieties, field blends allowed effortless, though inflexible, blending. Fermentation tanks are now cheap enough that the field blend is an anachronism, and almost all wines are assembled by blending from smaller, individual lots. However, in California some of the oldest (and lowest-yielding) Zinfandel comes from vineyards that are field-blended. Ridge Vineyards owns the Lytton Springs vineyards in Sonoma County, which were planted from 1900 to 1905 in what Ridge calls "a traditional field blend of about seventy percent Zinfandel, twenty percent Petite Sirah, and ten percent Grenache and Carignan." :de:Gemischter Satz, Gemischter Satz (''Mixed set'') is a wine term in German language, German equivalent to a field blend, which means that grapes of different varieties are planted, harvested and vinified together. In older times, this was common, but the practice has almost stopped. It is, however, a specialty of Vienna.


See also

*Ampelography *Annual growth cycle of grapevines *Diurnal temperature variation *Global warming and wine *List of vineyard soil types *Oenology *Precision viticulture


References

39. Goldammer, T. (2015). ''Grape Growers Handbook: A Guide To Viticulture for Wine Production''.


Further reading

* *Echikson, Tom. ''Noble Rot''. NY: Norton, 2004. *McCoy, Elin. ''The Emperor of Wine''. NY: HarperCollins, 2005. *Abu-Hamdeh, N.H. 2003. Compaction and subsoiling effects on corn growth and soil bulk density. Soil Society of America Journal. 67:1213–1219. *Conradie, W.J., J.L. Van Zyl, P.A. Myburgh. 1996. Effect of soil preparation depth on nutrient leaching and nutrient uptake by young Vitis vinifera L.cv Pinot noir. South African Journal of Enol. Vitic. 17:43–52. *Dami, I.E., B. Bordelon, D.C. Ferree, M. Brown, M.A. Ellis, R.N. William, and D. Doohan. 2005. Midwest Grape Production Guide. The Ohio State Univ. Coop. Extension. Service. Bulletin. 919–5. *Gil, Emilio; Arnó, Jaume; Llorens, Jordi; Sanz, Ricardo; Llop, Jordi; Rosell-Polo, Joan; Gallart, Montserrat; Escolà, Alexandre (2014).
Advanced Technologies for the Improvement of Spray Application Techniques in Spanish Viticulture: An Overview
. Sensors, 14 (1): 691–708. ISSN 1424-8220. PMC PMC3926582 *Kurtural, S.K. 2007. Desired Soil Properties for Vineyard Site Selection. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service. HortFact – 31 – 01. *Kurtural, S.K. 2007. Vineyard Design. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service. HortFact – 3103. *Kurtural, S.K. 2007. Vineyard Site Selection. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service. HortFact – 31–02. * Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Escolà, Alexandre 2011
Ultrasonic and LIDAR Sensors for Electronic Canopy Characterization in Vineyards: Advances to Improve Pesticide Application Methods
Sensors. 11 (2), pp. 2177–2194. doi:10.3390/s110202177. ISSN 1424-8220. * Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Queraltó, Meritxell (2011-06-09).
Georeferenced LiDAR 3D Vine Plantation Map Generation
. Sensors 11 (6): 6237–6256. ISSN 1424–8220. *John Phin, Phin, John. 1862 (still in print). Open Air Grape Culture : A Practical Treatise On the Garden and Vineyard Culture of the Vine, and the Manufacture of Domestic Wine Designed For the Use of Amateurs and Others. *Schonbeck, M.W. 1998. Cover Cropping and Green Manuring on Small Farms in New England and New York. Research Report #10, New Alchemy Institute, 237 Hatchville Rd. Falmouth, MA 02536. *Tesic, Dejan, M. Keller, R.J. Hutton. 2007. Influence of Vineyard Floor Management Practices on Grapevine Vegetative Growth, Yield, and Fruit Composition. American Journal of Enol. Vitic. 58:1:1–11. *Zabadal, J.T. Anderson, J.A. Vineyard Establishment I – Preplant Decisions. MSU Extension Fruit Bulletins – 26449701. 1999. *Tesic, Dejan, M. Keller, R.J. Hutton. Influence of Vineyard Floor Management Practices on Grapevine Vegetative Growth, Yield, and Fruit Composition. American Journal of Enol. Vitic. 58:1:1–11. 2007.


External links


AJEV
– American Journal of Enology and Viticulture

UC IPM Online Pest

*[https://web.archive.org/web/20110810123821/http://www.grovesnurseries.co.uk/Uploads/Downloads/23/DownloadFile_FILE/Groves_Guide_to_Grape_Vines_Dormant.pdf Guide to Grape Vines]
Viticulture on www.extension.org
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