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:''See: Catholic Church hierarchy#Equivalents of diocesan bishops in law'' A diocesan administrator is a provisional
ordinary Ordinary or The Ordinary often refer to: Music * Ordinary (EP), ''Ordinary'' (EP) (2015), by South Korean group Beast * Ordinary (Every Little Thing album), ''Ordinary'' (Every Little Thing album) (2011) * Ordinary (Two Door Cinema Club song), "O ...
of a
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman Catholic
particular church A particular church ( la, ecclesia particularis) is an ecclesiastical community of faithful headed by a Bishop (Catholic Church), bishop (or Hierarchy of the Catholic Church#Equivalents of diocesan bishops in law, equivalent), as defined by Catho ...
.


Diocesan administrators in canon law

The
college A college (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in rel ...
of
consultors A consultor is one who gives counsel, i.e., a counselor. In the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, wit ...
elects an administrator within eight days after the see is known to be
vacant Within the context of building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and functions, and have been ...

vacant
. The college must elect as administrator a
priest A priest is a religious leader Clergy are formal leaders within established religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social w ...
or
bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...
at least 35 years old. If the college of consultors fails to elect a priest of the required minimum age within the time allotted, the choice of diocesan administrator passes to the
metropolitan archbishop Metropolitan may refer to: * Metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative division, sharing indus ...

metropolitan archbishop
or, if the metropolitan see is vacant, to the senior by appointment of the
suffragan bishop A suffragan bishop is a type of bishop in some Christian denominations. In the Anglican Communion, a suffragan bishop is a bishop who is subordinate to a metropolitan bishop or diocesan bishop (bishop ordinary) and so is not normally jurisdictiona ...
s of the
ecclesiastical province
ecclesiastical province
. If a diocese has a
coadjutor bishop A coadjutor bishop (or bishop coadjutor) is a bishop in the Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek languag ...
, the coadjutor succeeds immediately to the episcopal see upon the previous bishop's death or resignation, and there is no vacancy of the see. The see also does not become vacant if the Pope appoints an
apostolic administrator An Apostolic administration in the Catholic Church is administrated by a prelate appointed by the pope to serve as the Ordinary (Catholic Church), ordinary for a specific area. Either the area is not yet a diocese (a stable 'pre-diocesan', usually ...
. Before the election of the diocesan administrator of a vacant see, the governance of the see is entrusted, with the powers of a
vicar general A vicar general (previously, archdeacon An archdeacon is a senior clergy position in the , , , , , and some other s, above that of most and below a . In the it was the most senior diocesan position below a bishop in the . An archdeacon is ...
, to the auxiliary bishop, if there is one, or to the senior among them, if there are several, otherwise to the college of consultors as a whole. The diocesan administrator has greater powers, essentially those of a bishop except for matters excepted by the nature of the matter or expressly by law. Canon law subjects his activity to various legal restrictions and to special supervision by the college of consultors (as for example canons 272 and 485). The diocesan administrator remains in charge until a new bishop takes possession of the see or until he presents his resignation to the college of consultors. Some Bishops ruled more than one bishopric for long. In any beside their primary bishopric, they would have to be called an ''administrator''. Nevertheless, in local tradition often they are called bishops in all their bishoprics. An
episcopal conference#REDIRECT Episcopal conference An episcopal conference, sometimes called a conference of bishops, is an official assembly of the Bishop (Catholic Church), bishops of the Catholic Church in a given territory. Episcopal conferences have long existed a ...
can transfer the functions of the consultors to the
cathedral chapter According to both and , a cathedral chapter is a of clerics () formed to advise a and, in the case of a of the in some countries, to govern the during the vacancy. In the their creation is the purview of the . They can be "numbered", in whic ...
. In those countries in which the episcopal conference has transferred the functions, the cathedral chapter, and not the consultors, elect the diocesan administrator. Capitular election was the default rule before the adoption of the
1983 Code of Canon Law The 1983 Code of Canon Law (abbreviated 1983 CIC from its Latin title ''Codex Iuris Canonici''), also called the Johanno-Pauline Code, is the "fundamental body of ecclesiastical laws for the Latin Church". It is the second and current comprehens ...
; this old default rule is reflected in the term for the equivalent of a diocesan administrator in the 1917 code: vicar capitular.


Administrators of prince-bishoprics

Since the
Investiture Controversy#REDIRECT Investiture Controversy The Investiture Controversy, also called Investiture Contest, was a conflict between church and state in medieval Europe over the ability to choose and install bishops ( investiture) and abbots of monasteries a ...
in 11th and 12th centuries the
cathedral chapter According to both and , a cathedral chapter is a of clerics () formed to advise a and, in the case of a of the in some countries, to govern the during the vacancy. In the their creation is the purview of the . They can be "numbered", in whic ...
s used to elect the Catholic bishops in the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
.
Prince-bishopric A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some Secularity, secular principality and sovereignty. Thus the principality or Hochstift, prince-bishopric ruled politically by a prince-bishop could wholly or largely overlap with his ...
s were elective monarchies of
imperial immediacy Imperial immediacy (german: Reichsfreiheit or ') was a privileged constitutional and political status rooted in German feudal law under which the Imperial state, Imperial estates of the Holy Roman Empire such as Free imperial city, Imperial cities, ...
within the Empire, with the monarch being the respective bishop usually elected by the chapter and confirmed by the Holy See, or exceptionally only appointed by the Holy See. Papally confirmed bishops were then invested by the emperor with the princely
regalia Regalia is a Latin plurale tantum A ''plurale tantum'' (Latin for "plural only"; ) is a noun that appears only in the plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form ...
, thus the title prince-bishop. However, sometimes the respective incumbent of the see never gained a papal confirmation, but was still invested with the princely power. Also the opposite occurred with a papally confirmed bishop, never invested as prince. Candidates elected, who lacked
canon law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device used in geometry and technical drawing, as well as the engineering and construction industries, to measure dis ...
prerequisites and/or papal confirmation, would officially only hold the title diocesan administrator (but nevertheless colloquially be referred to as prince-bishop). This was the case with Catholic candidates, who were elected for an
episcopal see The seat or ''cathedra'' of the Bishop of Rome in the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran An episcopal see is, in the usual meaning of the phrase, the area of a bishop's ecclesiastical jurisdiction. Phrases concerning actions occurring within o ...
with its revenues as a mere
appanage An appanage, or apanage (; french: apanage ), is the grant of an estate, title, office or other thing of value to a younger child of a sovereign, who would otherwise have no inheritance under the system of primogeniture Primogeniture ( ) i ...
and with all Protestant candidates, who all lacked either the necessary vocational training or the papal confirmation.


Protestant "elected bishops"

With many capitulars converting to
Lutheranism Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an , based on the and of . It is the , with about 2.5 billion followers. Its adherents, known as , make up a major ...
or
Calvinism Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Refor ...
during the
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Cit ...
, the majorities in many chapters consisted of Protestant capitulars. So they then also elected Protestants as bishops, who usually were denied papal confirmation. However, in the early years of Reformation, with the
schism A schism ( , , or, less commonly, ) is a division between people, usually belonging to an organization, movement, or religious denomination. The word is most frequently applied to a split in what had previously been a single religious body, s ...
not yet fully implemented, it was not always obvious, who tended to Protestantism, so that some candidates only turned out to be Protestants after they had been papally confirmed as bishop and imperially invested as prince. Later, when Protestants were usually denied papal confirmation, the emperors nevertheless invested the unconfirmed candidates as princes - by a so-called liege indult (german: Lehnsindult) - due to political coalitions and conflicts within the empire, in order to gain candidates as imperial partisans. Many Protestant candidates, elected by the capitulars, neither achieved papal confirmation nor a liege indult, but nevertheless, as a matter of fact held de facto princely power. This was because the emperor would have to use force to bar the candidates from ruling, with the emperors lacking the respective power or pursuing other goals. A similar situation was in a number of imperially immediate abbeys with their prince-abbots and princess-abbesses. Unconfirmed incumbents of the sees were called ''Elected Bishops'' or ''Elected Archbishops''. The information that Protestant clerical rulers would generally have been called administrators, as written in several encyclopedies, does not fit historically documented practice.Eike Wolgast: Hochstift und Reformation. Studien zur Geschichte der Reichskirche zwischen 1517 und 1648, Stuttgart 1995 In their dioceses as well as in their territories, they had almost the same power as Catholic prince-bishops. However, one common restriction was that administered prince-bishoprics were denied to emit their deputies to the diets of the Empire or of the
imperial circle During the Early Modern period the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western and Central Europe that develope ...
s (german: Reichstag, or Kreistag, respectively). This restriction was abandoned by the
Peace of Westphalia The Peace of Westphalia (german: Westfälischer Friede, ) is the collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück Osnabrück (; wep, Ossenbrügge; archaic ''Osnaburg'') is a city in the ...
in 1648, when the emperor accepted Protestant administrators as fully empowered rulers. However, the Peace also secularised many of the prior Protestant prince-bishoprics and transformed them into hereditary monarchies.


Prince-bishoprics ruled by Protestant bishops

Prince-bishoprics, which were ruled by Protestants, were the following: * Prince-Bishopric of Brandenburg, Lutheran bishops and administrators since 1539, secularised and merged into the
Electorate of Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska) is a state in the northeast of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_typ ...
in 1571. *
Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen The Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen (german: Fürsterzbistum Bremen), also Archbishopric of Bremen (german: Erzstift Bremen or Erzbistum Bremen), — not to be confused with the former Archdiocese of Bremen, and the modern Roman Catholic Archdioces ...
, Lutheran administrators since 1567, secularised as hereditary
Duchy of Bremen ), which is a public-law corporation established in 1865 succeeding the Estates of the Realm, estates of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen (established in 1397), now providing the local fire insurance in the shown area and supporting with its surpl ...
in 1648 *
Prince-Bishopric of Cammin The Bishopric of Cammin (also Kammin, Kamień Pomorski) was both a former Roman Catholic diocese in the Duchy of Pomerania from 1140 to 1544, and a secular territory of the Holy Roman Empire (Prince-Bishopric) in the Kołobrzeg, Kolberg (Kołobrze ...
, Lutheran bishops and administrators since 1544, secularised and merged into the
Duchy of Pomerania The Duchy of Pomerania (german: Herzogtum Pommern, pl, Księstwo Pomorskie, 12th century – 1637) was a duchy in Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark De ...
in 1650 * Prince-Bishopric of Halberstadt, Lutheran administrators 1566–1628, after the rule of the last, however, Catholic administrator, secularised as
Principality of Halberstadt The Principality of Halberstadt (german: link=no, Fürstentum Halberstadt) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories i ...
in 1648 * Prince-Bishopric of Havelberg, Lutheran bishops and administrators since 1558, secularised and merged into the
Electorate of Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska) is a state in the northeast of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_typ ...
in 1598. * Prince-Bishopric of Lebus, Lutheran bishop and administrators since 1555, secularised and merged into the
Electorate of Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska) is a state in the northeast of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_typ ...
in 1598. *
Prince-Bishopric of Lübeck A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some Secularity, secular principality and sovereignty. Thus the principality or Hochstift, prince-bishopric ruled politically by a prince-bishop could wholly or largely overlap with his ...
, Lutheran bishops and administrators in 1535 and from 1555 on, secularised as Principality of Lübeck in 1803 * Prince-Archbishopric of Magdeburg, Lutheran administrators between 1566 and 1631 and again since 1638, secularised as hereditary
Duchy of Magdeburg The Duchy of Magdeburg (german: Herzogtum Magdeburg) was a province of Margraviate of Brandenburg from 1680 to 1701 and a province of the German Kingdom of Prussia The Kingdom of Prussia (german: Königreich Preußen) was a German Monarchy, k ...
in 1680 * Prince-Bishopric of Merseburg, Lutheran administrators since 1544, secularised and merged into the
Electorate of Saxony The Electorate of Saxony (german: Kurfürstentum Sachsen, also ') was a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (news ...
in 1565 *
Prince-Bishopric of Minden The Prince-Bishopric of Minden (german: Fürstbistum Minden; Bistum Minden; Hochstift Minden; Stift Minden) was an Hochstift, ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire. It was progressively secularized following the Protestant Reformat ...
, Lutheran administrators between 1554 and 1631, after the rule of the last, however, Catholic prince-bishop, secularised as
Principality of Minden The Prince-Bishopric of Minden (german: Fürstbistum Minden; Bistum Minden; Hochstift Minden; Stift Minden) was an ecclesiastical principality A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchy, monarchical feudatory or a sovere ...
in 1648 * Prince-Bishopric of Naumburg, Lutheran bishop and administrators between 1542 and 1547 and from 1562 on, secularised and merged into the
Electorate of Saxony The Electorate of Saxony (german: Kurfürstentum Sachsen, also ') was a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (news ...
in 1615 *
Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück The Prince-Bishopric of OsnabrückAlso known as the Prince-Bishopric of Osnaburg) (german: link=no, Hochstift Osnabrück; Fürstbistum Osnabrück, Bistum Osnabrück) was an ecclesiastical principality A principality (or sometimes princedom) can ...
, Lutheran bishops and administrators between 1574 and 1623, and Lutheran administrators and Catholic bishops in alternate succession since 1634, secularised and merged into the Electorate of Brunswick and Lunenburg in 1803 * Prince-Bishopric of Ratzeburg, Lutheran administrators since 1554, secularised as the
Principality of Ratzeburg The Principality of Ratzeburg was a former state, existing from 1648 to 1918. It belonged to the imperial immediacy, imperially immediate territory of Mecklenburg, Duchy of Mecklenburg and was part of the Holy Roman Empire. Mecklenburg was split up ...
in 1648 * Prince-Bishopric of Schwerin, Lutheran administrators since 1533, secularised as the Principality of Schwerin in 1648 *
Prince-Bishopric of Verden The historic territory of Verden () emerged from the Monarchs of the Frankish Diocese of Verden in the area of present-day central and northeastern Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is a ...
, Lutheran bishop and administrators between 1574 and 1630, and, after the rule of the last, however, Catholic prince-bishop, from 1631 on, secularised as
Principality of Verden The historic territory of Verden () emerged from the Monarchs A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of sta ...
in 1648


References

{{Reflist


External links


Out-of-date article in the Catholic Encyclopedia, written before the Codes of Canon Law of 1917 and 1983 altered the conditions
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