Vegetation is an assemblage of plant
species and the ground cover
It is a general term, without specific reference to particular taxa
, life forms, structure, spatial
extent, or any other specific botanical
or geographic characteristics. It is broader than the term ''flora
'' which refers to species
composition. Perhaps the closest synonym
is plant community
, but ''vegetation'' can, and often does, refer to a wider range of spatial scales than that term does, including scales as large as the global. Primeval redwood forest
s, coastal mangrove
stands, sphagnum bog
s, desert soil crust
weed patches, wheat fields, cultivated garden
s and lawns; all are encompassed by the term ''vegetation''.
The vegetation type
is defined by characteristic dominant species, or a common aspect of the assemblage, such as an elevation range or environmental commonality. The contemporary use of ''vegetation'' approximates that of ecologist Frederic Clements'
term earth cover, an expression still used by the Bureau of Land Management
History of definition
The distinction between vegetation (the general appearance of a community) and flora
(the taxonomic composition of a community) was first made by Jules Thurmann
(1849). Prior to this, the two terms (vegetation and flora) were used indiscriminately,
[Martins, F. R. & Batalha, M. A. (2011). Formas de vida, espectro biológico de Raunkiaer e fisionomia da vegetação. In: Felfili, J. M., Eisenlohr, P. V.; Fiuza de Melo, M. M. R.; Andrade, L. A.; Meira Neto, J. A. A. (Org.). ''Fitossociologia no Brasil: métodos e estudos de caso.'' Vol. 1. Viçosa: Editora UFV. p. 44-85. . Earlier version, 2003, .]
and still are in some contexts. Augustin de Candolle
(1820) also made a similar distinction, but he used the terms "station" (habitat
type) and "habitation" (botanical region
). Later, the concept of vegetation would influence the usage of the term biome
, with the inclusion of the animal element.
[Coutinho, L. M. (2006). O conceito de bioma. ''Acta Bot. Bras.'' 20(1): 13-23, .]
Other concepts similar to vegetation are "physiognomy
of vegetation" (Humboldt
, 1805, 1807) and "formation" (Grisebach
, 1838, derived from "''Vegetationsform''", Martius
Departing from Linnean taxonomy
, Humboldt established a new science, dividing plant geography
between taxonomists who studied plants as taxa and geographers who studied plants as vegetation. The physiognomic approach in the study of vegetation is common among biogeographers working on vegetation on a world scale, or when there is a lack of taxonomic knowledge of someplace (e.g., in the tropics, where biodiversity is commonly high).
[Beard J.S. (1978). The Physiognomic Approach. In: R. H. Whittaker (editor). ''Classification of Plant Communities'', pp 33-64]
The concept of "vegetation type
" is more ambiguous. The definition of a specific vegetation type may include not only physiognomy but also floristic and habitat aspects. Furthermore, the phytosociological
approach in the study of vegetation relies upon a fundamental unit, the plant association
, which is defined upon flora.
An influential, clear and simple classification scheme for types of vegetation was produced by Wagner
& von Sydow
[Wagner, H. & von Sydow, E. 1888. ''Sydow-Wagners methodischer Schulatlas''. Gotha: Perthes, . 23th (last) ed., 1944]
Other important works with a physiognomic approach includes Grisebach (1872), Eugenius Warming|Warming
(1895, 1909), Schimper
(1926), Rübel (1930), Burtt Davy
(1944, 1955), André Aubréville (1956, 1957), Trochain (1955, 1957), Küchler
and Mueller-Dombois (1967) (see vegetation classification
There are many approaches for the classification of vegetation (physiognomy, flora, ecology, etc.).
[Mueller-Dombois, D. 1984. Classification and Mapping of Plant Communities: a Review with Emphasis on Tropical Vegetation. In: G. M. Woodwell (ed.) ''The Role of Terrestrial Vegetation in the Global Carbon Cycle: Measurement by Remote Sensing'', J. Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 21-88, .]
Much of the work on vegetation classification comes from European and North American ecologists, and they have fundamentally different approaches. In North America, vegetation types are based on a combination of the following criteria: climate pattern, plant habit
and/or growth form, and dominant species. In the current US standard
(adopted by the Federal Geographic Data Committee
(FGDC), and originally developed by UNESCO
and The Nature Conservancy
), the classification is hierarchical
and incorporates the non-floristic criteria into the upper (most general) five levels and limited floristic criteria only into the lower (most specific) two levels. In Europe, classification often relies much more heavily, sometimes entirely, on floristic (species) composition alone, without explicit reference to climate, phenology or growth forms. It often emphasizes indicator or diagnostic species
which may distinguish one classification from another.
In the FGDC standard, the hierarchy levels, from most general to most specific, are: ''system, class, subclass, group, formation, alliance, ''and'' association''. The lowest level, or association, is thus the most precisely defined, and incorporates the names of the dominant one to three (usually two) species of a type. An example of a vegetation type defined at the level of class might be "''Forest, canopy cover > 60%''"; at the level of a formation as "''Winter-rain, broad-leaved, evergreen, sclerophyllous, closed-canopy forest''"; at the level of alliance as "''Arbutus menziesii'' forest"; and at the level of association as "''Arbutus menziesii-Lithocarpus dense flora'' forest", referring to Pacific madrone-tanoak forests which occur in California and Oregon, USA. In practice, the levels of the alliance and/or an association are the most often used, particularly in vegetation mapping, just as the Latin binomial is most often used in discussing particular species in taxonomy and in general communication.
Like all the biological systems, plant communities are temporally and spatially dynamic; they change at all possible scales. Dynamism in vegetation is defined primarily as changes in species composition and/or vegetation structure.
Temporally, a large number of processes or events can cause change, but for sake of simplicity, they can be categorized roughly as either abrupt or gradual. Abrupt changes are generally referred to as disturbances
; these include things like wildfire
s, high winds
s and the like. Their causes are usually external (exogenous
) to the community—they are natural processes occurring (mostly) independently of the natural processes of the community (such as germination, growth, death, etc.). Such events can change vegetation structure and composition very quickly and for long time periods, and they can do so over large areas. Very few ecosystems are without some type of disturbance as a regular and recurring part of the long term system
and wind disturbances are particularly common throughout many vegetation types worldwide. Fire is particularly potent because of its ability to destroy not only living plants, but also the seeds, spores, and living meristem
s representing the potential next generation, and because of fire's impact on fauna populations, soil
characteristics and other ecosystem elements and processes (for further discussion of this topic see fire ecology
Temporal change at a slower pace is ubiquitous; it comprises the field of ecological succession
. Succession is the relatively gradual change in structure and taxonomic composition that arises as the vegetation itself modifies various environmental variables over time, including light, water and nutrient
levels. These modifications change the suite of species most adapted to grow, survive and reproduce in an area, causing floristic changes. These floristic changes contribute to structural changes that are inherent in plant growth even in the absence of species changes (especially where plants have a large maximum size, i.e. trees), causing slow and broadly predictable changes in the vegetation. Succession can be interrupted at any time by disturbance, setting the system either back to a previous state, or off on another trajectory
altogether. Because of this, successional processes may or may not lead to some static, final state
. Moreover, accurately predicting the characteristics of such a state, even if it does arise, is not always possible. In short, vegetative communities are subject to many variables that together set limits on the predictability of future conditions.
As a general rule, the larger an area under consideration, the more likely the vegetation will be heterogeneous across it. Two main factors are at work. First, the temporal dynamics of disturbance and succession are increasingly unlikely to be in synchrony across any area as the size of that area increases. That is, different areas will be at different developmental stages due to different local histories, particularly their times since last major disturbance. This fact interacts with inherent environmental variability (e.g. in soils, climate, topography, etc.), which is also a function of area. Environmental variability constrains the suite of species that can occupy a given area, and the two factors together interact to create a mosaic of vegetation conditions across the landscape. Only in agricultural
systems does vegetation ever approach perfect uniformity. In natural systems, there is always heterogeneity, although its scale and intensity will vary widely..
* Ecological succession
* Plant cover
* Tropical vegetation
* Vegetation and slope stability
* Archibold, O. W. ''Ecology of World Vegetation''. New York
: Springer Publishing, 1994.
* Barbour, M. G. and W. D. Billings (editors). ''North American Terrestrial Vegetation''. Cambridge
: Cambridge University Press
* Barbour, M.G, J.H. Burk, and W.D. Pitts. "Terrestrial Plant Ecology". Menlo Park: Benjamin Cummings, 1987.
* Box, E. O. 1981. ''Macroclimate and Plant Forms: An Introduction to Predictive Modeling in Phytogeography. Tasks for Vegetation Science'', vol. 1. The Hague: Dr. W. Junk BV. 258 pp.
* Breckle, S-W. ''Walter's Vegetation of the Earth.'' New York: Springer Publishing, 2002.
* Burrows, C. J. ''Processes of Vegetation Change''. Oxford
: Routledge Press, 1990.
* Ellenberg, H. 1988. ''Vegetation ecology of central Europe''. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
* Feldmeyer-Christie, E., N. E. Zimmerman, and S. Ghosh. ''Modern Approaches In Vegetation Monitoring''. Budapest
: Akademiai Kiado, 2005.
* Gleason, H.A. 1926. The individualistic concept of the plant association. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 53:1-20.
* Grime, J.P. 1987. ''Plant strategies and vegetation processes''. Wiley Interscience, New York NY.
* Kabat, P., et al. (editors). ''Vegetation, Water, Humans and the Climate: A New Perspective on an Interactive System''. Heidelberg
* MacArthur, R.H.
and E. O. Wilson
. ''The theory of Island Biogeography''. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1967
* Mueller-Dombois, D., and H. Ellenberg. ''Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology.'' New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1974. The Blackburn Press, 2003 (reprint).
* UNESCO. 1973. ''International Classification and Mapping of Vegetation''. Series 6, Ecology and Conservation, Paris
* Eddy van der Maarel|Van der Maarel, E.
''Vegetation Ecology''. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2004.
* Vankat, J. L. ''The Natural Vegetation of North America''. Krieger Publishing Co., 1992.
Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States Volume I – The National Vegetation Classification System: Development, Status, and Applications
Federal Geographic Data Committee Vegetation SubcommitteeVegetation Classification StandardGDC-STD-005, June 1997
Classifying Vegetation Condition: Vegetation Assets States and Transitions (VAST)
USGS - NPS Vegetation Mapping ProgramVEGETATION image processing and archiving centre at VITOSpot-VEGETATION programme web page
Provides climate diagrams for more than 3000 weather stations and for different climate periods from all over the world. Users can also create their own diagrams with their own data.
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