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In
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department ...

government
, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliament'' or ''unicameral legislature'' is a
legislature A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure i ...
which consists of a single chamber or house.


Concept

Unicameral legislatures exist when there is no widely perceived need for
multicameralism In contrast to unicameralism In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliament'' or ''unicameral legis ...
. Many multicameral legislatures were created to give separate voices to different sectors of society. Multiple chambers allowed, for example, for a guaranteed representation of different social classes (as in the
Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the of the , the and the . It alone possesses and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and the overseas territories. Parliament is but has three parts, consisting of the ...
or the
French States-General In France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territorie ...
). Sometimes, as in
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 List of islands of New Zealand, smaller islands, coveri ...

New Zealand
and
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe. It is the most populous and politically central Constituent state, constituent of the Danish Realm, Kingdom of Denmark, da, Kongeriget Danmark, a constitutio ...

Denmark
, unicameralism comes about through the abolition of one of two bicameral chambers, or, as in
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's fo ...

Sweden
, through the merger of the two chambers into a single one, while in others a second chamber has never existed from the beginning. The principal advantage of a unicameral system is more democratic and efficient lawmaking, as the legislative process is simpler and there is no possibility of
deadlock File:Deadlock at a four-way-stop.gif, thumbnail, Four processes (blue lines) compete for one resource (grey circle), following a right-before-left policy. A deadlock occurs when all processes lock the resource simultaneously (black lines). The ...
between two chambers. Proponents of unicameralism have also argued that it reduces costs, even if the number of legislators stays the same, since there are fewer institutions to maintain and support financially. Proponents of bicameral legislatures say that this offers the opportunity to re-debate and correct errors in either chamber in parallel, and in some cases to introduce legislation in either chamber. The main weakness of a unicameral system can be seen as alleged lack of restraint on the
majority A majority, also called a simple majority to distinguish it from similar terms (see the "Related terms" section below), is the greater part, or more than half, of the total.See dictionary definitions of "majority" aMerriam-Webster
, particularly noticeable in
parliamentary system A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' an ...
s where the leaders of the parliamentary majority also dominate the
executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of state bureaucracy * Executive, a senior management role in an organization ** Chief exec ...
. There is also the risk that important sectors of society may not be adequately represented by the elected singular body.


List of unicameral legislatures

Approximately half of the world's
sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social relation, social relatio ...
s are currently unicameral. The
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
is somewhat in between, with a legislature and a formal advisory body. China has a
Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC, zh, 中国人民政治协商会议), also known as the People's PCC (, ) or simply the PCC (), is a political advisory body in the People's Republic of China and a central part of t ...

Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
which meets alongside the
National People's Congress The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China (), often referred to as the National People's Congress (NPC) (), is the highest organ of state power and the of the . With 2,980 members in 2018, it is the largest parlia ...
, in many respects an advisory "upper house". Many
subnational entitiesSubnational or sub-national may refer to: * Administrative division, all administrative divisions are under the national level * Subnational legislature, a type of regional legislature, under the national level * Subnational state, a type of state, ...

subnational entities
have unicameral legislatures. These include the state of
Nebraska Nebraska () is a in the region of the . It is bordered by to the north; to the east and to the southeast, both across the ; to the south; to the southwest; and to the west. It is the only triply landlocked U.S. state. Indigenous pe ...

Nebraska
and territories of
Guam Guam (; ch, Guåhan ) is an in the subregion of the western . It is the and territory of the United States (reckoned from the ); in , it is the largest and southernmost of the and the largest island in Micronesia. Guam's capital is , and t ...

Guam
and the
Virgin Islands The Virgin Islands ( es, Islas Vírgenes) are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habita ...
in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, the Chinese special administrative regions of
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a List of cities in China, city and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative region of China on the ...

Hong Kong
and
Macao Macau or Macao (; ; ; ), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (MSAR), (RAEM) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: ...

Macao
, the
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
n state of
Queensland Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the ...

Queensland
as well as the
Northern Territory The Northern Territory (NT; formally the Northern Territory of Australia) is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, ...
and the
Australian Capital Territory The Australian Capital Territory (ACT), known as the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) until 1938, is a federal territory A federal territory is an area under the direct and usually exclusive jurisdiction of a federation's central or national ...
, a majority of the
provinces of Argentina Argentina is subdivided into twenty-three provinces ( es, provincias singular ''provincia'') and the autonomous city (''ciudad autónoma'') of Buenos Aires, which is the federal capital of the nation ( es, Capital Federal, links=no) as decide ...
, all of the provinces and territories in
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into the Arctic Oce ...

Canada
, all of the
German states The Federal Republic of Germany, as a federal state, consists of sixteen partly sovereign federated states (german: Land (state), plural (states); commonly informally / federated state, plural / federated states). Since the Germany, Germa ...

German states
, all of the
regions of Italy In geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ap ...

regions of Italy
, all of the Spanish autonomous communities, both the
autonomous regions of Portugal The two Autonomous Regions of Portugal ( pt, Regiões Autónomas de Portugal) are the Azores (''Região Autónoma dos Açores'') and Madeira (''Região Autónoma da Madeira''). Together with Continental Portugal (''Portugal Continental''), they f ...
, most of the
states and union territories of India India India, officially the Republic of India (: ), is a country in . It is the by area, the country, and the most populous in the world. Bounded by the on the south, the on the southwest, and the on the southeast, it shares l ...
and all of the
states of Brazil The federative units of Brazil ( pt, unidades federativas do Brasil) are subnational entities with a certain degree of autonomy (self-government, self-regulation and self-collection) and endowed with their own government A government ...
. In the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
, the devolved
Scottish Parliament The Scottish Parliament ( gd, Pàrlamaid na h-Alba ; : ''Scots Pairlament'') is the , legislature of . Located in the area of the capital city, , it is frequently referred to by the Holyrood. The Parliament is a democratically elected body ...

Scottish Parliament
, the
Senedd Cymru The Senedd (; ), officially known as the Welsh Parliament in and () in , is the , of . A democratically elected body, it makes laws for Wales, agrees certain taxes and scrutinises the . It is a bilingual institution, with both and being t ...

Senedd Cymru
, the
Northern Ireland Assembly The Northern Ireland Assembly ( ga, Tionól Thuaisceart Éireann; Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster Scots: ''Norlin Airlan Assemblie'') often referred to by the metonym Stormont, is the devolution, devolved legislature of Northern Ireland. It has ...
and the
London Assembly The London Assembly is a 25-member elected body, part of the Greater London Authority The Greater London Authority (GLA), known colloquially as City Hall, is the devolved regional governance body of London London is the capital city, c ...
are also unicameral.


National (UN member states and observers)


Federal

*
Assembly of the Union The Pyidaungsu Hluttaw ( my, ပြည်ထောင်စု လွှတ်တော် lit. Assembly of the Union) is the ''de jure'' national-level bicameral legislature of Myanmar (officially known as the ''Republic of the Union of Myanm ...
of the Comoros * Council of Representatives of Iraq (provision exists for the founding of a "Council of Union", but no move to this effect has been initiated by the existing Council) *
Congress Congresses are formal meetings of the representatives of different countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, ...
of the Federated States of Micronesia *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...

National Assembly
of Saint Kitts and Nevis *
Federal National Council The Federal National Council (FNC) ( ar, المجلس الوطني الإتحادي, ''al-Majlis al-Watani al-Ittihadi'') of the United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) o ...
of the United Arab Emirates *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
of Venezuela


Unitary


= Africa

= *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
of Angola *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...

National Assembly
of Benin *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
of Botswana *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
of Burkina Faso *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
of Cape Verde *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
of the Central African Republic *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
of Chad *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...

National Assembly
of Djibouti *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...

National Assembly
of Eritrea *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
of The Gambia *
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
of Ghana *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
of Guinea * National People's Assembly of Guinea-Bissau *
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...
of Libya *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
of Malawi *
Majlis , ''Mejlis'' ( ar, مجلس, pl. '), or ''Majles'' ( fa, مجلس) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East ...
of Maldives *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
of Mali *
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
of Mauritania *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
of Mauritius * Assembly of the Republic of Mozambique *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
of Niger *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
of São Tomé and Príncipe *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
of Senegal *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
of Seychelles *
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
of Sierra Leone *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
of Tanzania *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...

National Assembly
of Togo *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
of Tunisia *
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
of Uganda *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...

National Assembly
of Zambia


= Asia

= *
Jatiya Sangsad The Jatiya Sangsad ( bn, জাতীয় সংসদ ''Jatiyô Sôngsôd''; lit. ’National Parliament’), often referred to simply as the ''Sangsad'' or JS and also known as the House of the Nation, is the supreme legislative body of ...
of Bangladesh *
Legislative Council A legislative council is the legislature, or one of the legislative chambers, of a nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared terri ...
of Brunei *
National People's Congress The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China (), often referred to as the National People's Congress (NPC) (), is the highest organ of state power and the of the . With 2,980 members in 2018, it is the largest parlia ...
of the People's Republic of China – though they also have a
Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC, zh, 中国人民政治协商会议), also known as the People's PCC (, ) or simply the PCC (), is a political advisory body in the People's Republic of China and a central part of t ...

Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
which is effectively an advisory "upper house". *
National Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislature, legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation (politics), representing the Election#Suffrage, electorate, making laws, an ...
of East Timor *
Islamic Consultative Assembly The Islamic Consultative Assembly ( fa, مجلس شورای اسلامی, Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majles (Arabicised spelling Majlis), is the national legislative body A legislature is ...
of Iran *
Knesset The Knesset ( he, הַכְּנֶסֶת ; "gathering" or "assembly") is the unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber ...

Knesset
of Israel *
Supreme People's Assembly The Supreme People's Assembly (SPA; ) is the Unicameralism, unicameral legislature of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), commonly known as North Korea. It consists of one deputy from each of the DPRK's 687 constituencies, Election ...

Supreme People's Assembly
of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
of the Republic of Korea (South Korea) *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
of Kuwait * Supreme Council of Kyrgyzstan *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
of Laos *
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...

Parliament
of Lebanon *
State Great Khural The State Great Khural ( mn, Улсын Их Хурал, ''Ulsyn Ikh Khural'', also State Great Hural, and Ikh Khural; English: lit. State Great Assembly) is the unicameral parliament of Mongolia.Montsame News Agency. ''Mongolia''. 2006, ...
of Mongolia *
Legislative Council A legislative council is the legislature, or one of the legislative chambers, of a nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared terri ...
of Palestine * Consultative Assembly of Qatar * Consultative Assembly of Saudi Arabia (most powers are reserved for the
King King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contempora ...
) *
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
of Singapore *
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
of Sri Lanka *
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
of Syria *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...

National Assembly
of Vietnam


= Europe

= *
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
of Albania * National Assembly of Armenia, National Assembly of Armenia * National Assembly of Azerbaijan, National Assembly of Azerbaijan * National Assembly of Bulgaria, National Assembly of Bulgaria * Sabor of Croatia * Folketing of Denmark * Riigikogu of Estonia * Parliament of Finland, Parliament of Finland * Parliament of Georgia, Parliament of Georgia * Hellenic Parliament, Parliament of Greece * National Assembly of Hungary, National Assembly of Hungary * Althing of Iceland * Saeima of Latvia * Landtag of Liechtenstein, Landtag of Liechtenstein * Seimas of Lithuania * Chamber of Deputies of Luxembourg, Chamber of Deputies of Luxembourg * Parliament of Malta, Parliament of Malta * Parliament of the Republic of Moldova, Parliament of Moldova * National Council of Monaco, National Council of Monaco * Parliament of Montenegro, Parliament of Montenegro * Assembly of North Macedonia, Assembly of North Macedonia * Storting of Norway * Assembly of the Republic (Portugal), Assembly of the Republic of Portugal * Grand and General Council of San Marino * National Assembly of Serbia, National Assembly of Serbia * National Council of the Slovak Republic, National Council of Slovakia * Riksdag of Sweden * Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Grand National Assembly of Turkey * Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine * Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, Pontifical Commission for Vatican City


= North America

= * Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica, Legislative Assembly of Costa Rica * National Assembly of People's Power of Cuba * House of Assembly of Dominica, House of Assembly of Dominica * Legislative Assembly of El Salvador, Legislative Assembly of El Salvador * Congress of Guatemala, Congress of Guatemala * National Congress of Honduras, National Congress of Honduras * National Assembly of Nicaragua, National Assembly of Nicaragua * National Assembly of Panama, National Assembly of Panama * House of Assembly of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, House of Assembly of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines


= Oceania

= * Parliament of the Cook Islands, Parliament of the Cook Islands * Parliament of Fiji, Parliament of Fiji * House of Assembly of Kiribati, House of Assembly of Kiribati * Legislature of the Marshall Islands, Legislature of the Marshall Islands * Parliament of Nauru, Parliament of Nauru * New Zealand Parliament, Parliament of New Zealand * Niue Assembly, Assembly of Niue * National Parliament of Papua New Guinea, National Parliament of Papua New Guinea * Legislative Assembly of Samoa, Legislative Assembly of Samoa * Legislative Assembly of Tonga, Legislative Assembly of Tonga * Parliament of Tuvalu, Parliament of Tuvalu * Parliament of Vanuatu, Parliament of Vanuatu


= South America

= * National Assembly (Ecuador), National Assembly of Ecuador * National Assembly of Guyana, National Assembly of Guyana * Congress of the Republic of Peru, Congress of the Republic of Peru * National Assembly of Suriname, National Assembly of Suriname


Territorial

* House of Assembly of the British Virgin Islands, House of Assembly of the British Virgin Islands * Legislative Assembly of the Cayman Islands, Legislative Assembly of the Cayman Islands * Legislative Assembly of the Falkland Islands, Legislative Assembly of the Falkland Islands * The Løgting of the Faroe Islands * Gibraltar Parliament, Parliament of Gibraltar * Parliament of Greenland, Parliament of Greenland * Legislature of Guam, Legislature of Guam * Legislative Council of Hong Kong, Legislative Council of Hong Kong * Legislative Assembly of Macau, Legislative Assembly of Macao * Tobago House of Assembly, House of Assembly of Tobago * Legislature of the Virgin Islands, Legislature of the U.S. Virgin Islands


State parliaments with limited recognition

* People's Assembly of Abkhazia, People's Assembly of Abkhazia * National Assembly (Artsakh), National Assembly of the Republic of Artsakh * Assembly of Kosovo, Assembly of Kosovo * Assembly of the Republic (Northern Cyprus), Assembly of the Republic of Northern Cyprus * Sahrawi National Council, National Council of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic * Parliament of South Ossetia, Parliament of South Ossetia * Legislative Yuan of the Republic of China (Taiwan) * Supreme Council (Transnistria), Supreme Council of Transnistria


Subnational


Federations

* All legislatures and legislative councils of the Communities, regions and language areas of Belgium, regions and communities of Belgium * All legislative assemblies in all states of Brazil * All Legislative Assemblies of Canadian provinces and territories, legislative assemblies of the provinces and territories of Canada, provinces and territories of Canada * All Landtage of the states of Germany, states of Germany * All legislative assemblies of the States and federal territories of Malaysia, states of Malaysia * All legislatures in all states of Mexico * All legislatures of the Provinces of Nepal, provinces in Nepal * All legislatures of the Administrative units of Pakistan, provinces and territories in Pakistan * The Nebraska Legislature, legislature of the U. S. state, state of Nebraska, and Council of the District of Columbia, council of the District of Columbia in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
* Parliament of Queensland, Parliament of Queensland and the Parliaments of the Australian states and territories, legislative assemblies of the States and territories of Australia, territories of Australia (but not the other states) * Provincial legislature (South Africa), Provincial legislatures of the Provinces of South Africa, provinces of South Africa * National Assembly of the Republic of Srpska, Narodna skupština of Republika Srpska * 15 of the provinces of Argentina, provinces of Argentina – Chaco, Chubut, Córdoba, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Misiones, Neuquén, Río Negro, San Juan, Santa Cruz, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego, Tucumán and the autonomous city of Buenos Aires. * 22 of the States and union territories of India, states of India – Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, India, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttarakhand and West Bengal; and 3 of the union territories – Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir and Puducherry (union territory), Puducherry.


Devolved governments

* Iraqi Kurdistan Iraqi Kurdistan Parliament, Parliament *
Northern Ireland Assembly The Northern Ireland Assembly ( ga, Tionól Thuaisceart Éireann; Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster Scots: ''Norlin Airlan Assemblie'') often referred to by the metonym Stormont, is the devolution, devolved legislature of Northern Ireland. It has ...
*
Scottish Parliament The Scottish Parliament ( gd, Pàrlamaid na h-Alba ; : ''Scots Pairlament'') is the , legislature of . Located in the area of the capital city, , it is frequently referred to by the Holyrood. The Parliament is a democratically elected body ...

Scottish Parliament
* Senedd (Welsh Parliament) * Parliaments of the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous communities of Spain * All regional council (France), regional councils of France * Bangsamoro Bangsamoro Parliament, Parliament


Others

* Elections in China#Local People's Congresses, Local People's Congresses of all levels of provinces, regions, and municipalities of the People's Republic of China * Palestinian National Council, National Council of the Palestine Liberation Organization


List of historical unicameral legislatures


National

* The First Protectorate Parliament and Second Protectorate Parliament of the Kingdom of England, regulated by the Instrument of Government (dissolved) * Parliament of Scotland, Parliament of the Kingdom of Scotland until 1707 (dissolved) * Congress of the Confederation was unicameral before being replaced in 1789 by the current, bicameral United States Congress. * Provisional Congress of the Confederate States, Provisional Congress of the Confederate States was unicameral before being replaced by the bicameral Confederate States Congress in 1862. * Congress of Deputies (Spain), Congress of Deputies of Second Spanish Republic was unicameral between 1931 and 1936. Dissolved at the end of Spanish Civil War * The Parliament of Uzbekistan was unicameral before being replaced in 2005 by the current, bicameral Oliy Majlis. * National Assembly (Cameroon), National Assembly of Cameroon was unicameral before being replaced in 2013 by the current, bicameral Parliament of Cameroon. * Chamber of Deputies (Equatorial Guinea), Chamber of People's Representative of Equatorial Guinea was unicameral before being replaced in 2013 by the current, bicameral Parliament of Equatorial Guinea. * National Assembly (Kenya), National Assembly of Kenya was the country's unicameral legislature before becoming the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Kenya in 2013. * National Assembly (Ivory Coast), National Assembly of Ivory Coast was the country's unicameral legislature before becoming the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Ivory Coast in 2016. * Central Indonesian National Committee, Central National Committee and the Provisional People's Representative Council of Indonesia was the unicameral legislature of the Republic of Indonesia during the Indonesian National Revolution, War of Independence and the Liberal democracy period in Indonesia, Liberal democracy era.


Subnational

* Georgia General Assembly, General Assembly of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia until 1789 * Pennsylvania General Assembly, General Assembly of Pennsylvania until 1790 * Vermont General Assembly, General Assembly of Vermont until 1836


Other

* Assembly of Representatives (Mandatory Palestine), Assembly of Representatives of Yishuv community in Mandatory Palestine from 1920 to 1949


Unicameralism in the Philippines

Though the current Congress of the Philippines is bicameral, the country experienced unicameralism in 1898 and 1899 (during the First Philippine Republic), from 1935 to 1941 (the Commonwealth of the Philippines, Commonwealth era) and from 1943 to 1944 (during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, Japanese occupation). Under the 1973 Constitution, the legislative body was called Batasang Pambansa, which functioned also a unicameral legislature within a
parliamentary system A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' an ...
(1973-1981) and a semi-presidential system (1981-1986) form of government. The ongoing process of amending or revising the 1987 Constitution, current Constitution and form of government is popularly known as Charter Change. A shift to a unicameral parliament was included in the proposals of the constitutional commission created by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. Unlike in the United States, senators in the Senate of the Philippines are elected not per district and state but nationally; the Philippines is a unitary state. The Philippine government's decision-making process, relative to the United States, is more rigid, highly centralised, much slower and susceptible to political gridlock. As a result, the trend for unicameralism as well as other political system reforms are more contentious in the Philippines. While Congress is bicameral, all local legislatures are unicameral: the Bangsamoro Parliament, the Sangguniang Panlalawigan (Provincial Boards), Sangguniang Panlungsod (City Councils), Sangguniang Bayan (Municipal Councils), Sangguniang Barangay (Barangay Councils) and the Sangguniang Kabataan (Youth Councils).


Unicameralism in the United States

The Nebraska Legislature (also called the Unicameral) is the supreme legislative body of the state of Nebraska and the only unicameral state legislature in the United States. Its members are called "senators", as it was originally the upper house of a bicameral legislature before the Nebraska House of Representatives dissolved in 1937. The legislature is also notable for being nonpartisan and officially recognizes no party affiliation, making Nebraska unique among U.S. states. With 49 members, it is also the smallest legislature of any U.S. state. A 2018 study found that efforts to adopt unicameralism in Ohio and Missouri failed due to rural opposition. There was a fear in rural communities that unicameralism would diminish their influence in state government. Local government legislatures of counties, cities, or other political subdivisions within states are usually unicameral and have limited lawmaking powers compared to their state and federal counterparts. Some of the 13 colonies which became independent, such as Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New Hampshire had initially introduced strong unicameral legislature and (relatively) less powerful governors with no veto power. Pennsylvania's constitution lasted only 14 years. In 1790, conservatives gained power in the state legislature, called a new constitutional convention, and rewrote the constitution. The new constitution substantially reduced universal male suffrage, gave the governor veto power and patronage appointment authority, and added an upper house with substantial wealth qualifications to the unicameral legislature. Thomas Paine called it a constitution unworthy of America. In 1999, Governor Jesse Ventura proposed converting the Minnesota Legislature into a single chamber. Although debated, the idea was never adopted. Seven U.S. states, Arizona Legislature, Arizona, Idaho Legislature, Idaho, Maryland General Assembly, Maryland, New Jersey Legislature, New Jersey, North Dakota Legislative Assembly, North Dakota, South Dakota State Legislature, South Dakota, and Washington State Legislature, Washington, effectively have two-house unicamerals. In these states, districts in the upper house and the lower house are combined into a single constituency, a practice known as Nesting (voting districts), nesting. The territories of the United States, U.S. territory of Puerto Rico held a non-binding Puerto Rican unicameralism referendum, referendum in 2005. Voters approved changing its Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico, Legislative Assembly to a unicameral body by 456,267 votes in favor (83.7%) versus 88,720 against (16.3%). If both the territory's Puerto Rico House of Representatives, House of Representatives and Puerto Rico Senate, Senate had approved by a vote the specific amendments to the Puerto Rico Constitution that are required for the change to a unicameral legislature, another referendum would have been held in the territory to approve such amendments. If those constitutional changes had been approved, Puerto Rico could have switched to a unicameral legislature as early as 2015. On June 9, 2009, the Maine House of Representatives voted to form a unicameral legislature, but the measure did not pass the Senate. Because of legislative gridlock in 2009, former Congressman Rick Lazio, a prospective candidate for governor, has proposed that New York (state), New York adopt unicameralism. The United States as a whole was subject to a unicameral Congress during the years 1781–1788, when the Articles of Confederation were in effect. The Confederate States of America, pursuant to its Provisional Constitution, in effect from February 8, 1861, to February 22, 1862, was governed by a unicameral Congress.


Notes


References

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