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The classification system of inhabited localities in
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
and some other post-
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovere ...
states has certain peculiarities compared with the classification systems in other countries.


Modern classification in Russia

During the
Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovere ...
time, each of the
republics of the Soviet Union The Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the Union Republics ( rus, Сою́зные Респу́блики, r=Soyúznye Respúbliki) were National delimitation in the Soviet Union, ethnically based administrative units of ...
, including the
Russian SFSR The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links=no, Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика, Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya ...
, had its own legislative documents dealing with classification of inhabited localities. After the
dissolution of the Soviet Union The dissolution of the Soviet Union, also negatively connoted as rus, Разва́л Сове́тского Сою́за, r=Razvál Sovétskovo Sojúza, ''Ruining of the Soviet Union''. (1988–1991) was the process of internal political, ...
, the task of developing and maintaining such classification in Russia was delegated to the
federal subjects The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (russian: ...
.Articles 71 and 72 of the
Constitution of Russia The Constitution of the Russian Federation () was adopted by national referendum on . Russia's constitution came into force on , at the moment of its official publication, and abolished the Soviet republic (system of government), Soviet system ...
do not name issues of the administrative and territorial structure among the tasks handled on the federal level or jointly with the governments of the federal subjects. As such, all federal subjects pass their own laws establishing the system of the administrative-territorial divisions on their territories.
While currently there are certain peculiarities to classifications used in many federal subjects, they are all still largely based on the system used in the RSFSR. In all federal subjects, the inhabited localities are classified into two major categories: urban and rural.See, for example, th
results of the 2002 population Census
/ref> Further divisions of these categories vary slightly from one federal subject to another, but they all follow common trends described below.


Urban localities

*
Cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped to ...

Cities
and
town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" shares a ...

town
s (, ''gorod''; pl. , ''goroda''). Cities and towns are classified by their level of jurisdiction (
district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or County, counties, several Municipality, municipal ...
/federal subject/federal). The
Russian language Russian (, tr. ''russkiy yazyk'') is an East Slavic languages, East Slavic language native to Russia in Eastern Europe. It is a part of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European language family, and is one of four living East Slavic languages ...
has no separate words for "town" and "city" ("" is used for both). Some translators prefer the word "city" for urban populated places with population of at least 100,000 persons. *
Urban-type settlement Urban-type settlementrussian: посёлок городско́го ти́па, translit=posyolok gorodskogo tipa, abbreviated: russian: п.г.т., translit=p.g.t.; ua, селище міського типу, translit=selyshche mis'koho typu, ab ...
s (, ''posyolok gorodskogo tipa''; pl. ) is a type of smaller urban locality. This type of urban locality was first introduced in the Soviet Union in 1924, with the following subcategories: **Urban-type settlement proper—mostly urban population of 3,000–12,000. *** Work settlement (, ''rabochy posyolok'')—mostly urban population occupied in industrial manufacture. ***Suburban (dacha) settlement (, ''dachny posyolok'')—typically, a suburban settlement with summer
dacha A dacha ( rus, дача, p=ˈdatɕə, a=ru-dacha.ogg) is a seasonal or year-round second home, often located in the exurbs of Russian language, Russian-speaking and other former Soviet Union, post-Soviet countries. A cottage (, ') or shack serving ...

dacha
s. ***
Resort A resort (North American English North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety (linguistics), variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada. Because of their related histories and cultures, ...

Resort
settlement (, ''kurortny posyolok'')—mostly urban population occupied in services to holidaymakers (on the seaside or a mineral water spa, or in the mountains for walks and alpine skiing). In 1957, the procedures for categorizing urban-type settlements were further refined. (Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR of September 12, 1957 ''On Procedures of Categorizing the Inhabited Localities as Cities, Work and Resort Settlements)


Rural localities

Multiple types of rural localities exist, some common through the whole territory of Russia, some specific to certain federal subjects. The most common types include: * (, ''derevnya''; pl. , ''derevni''), hamlets * (, ''selo''; pl. , ''syola''), villages (historically, ones with an
Orthodox church Orthodox Church may refer to: * Eastern Orthodox Church The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 mi ...
). *
Stanitsa A stanitsa ( rus, станица, p=stɐˈnʲitsə; uk, станиця, ''stanytsia'') is a village inside a Cossack host A Cossack host ( uk, козацьке військо, ''kozatske viysko''; russian: каза́чье во́йско, ''ka ...
s (, ''stanitsa''; pl. , ''stanitsy''), villages (historically,
Cossack The Cossacks * russian: казаки́ or * be, казакi * pl, Kozacy * cs, kozáci * sk, kozáci * hu, kozákok, cazacii * fi, Kasakat, cazacii * et, Kasakad, cazacii are a group of predominantly East Slavic languages, East Slav ...
rural settlements) *
Sloboda A sloboda ( rus, слобода́, p=sləbɐˈda) was a kind of settlement in the history of the Old Russia, Russian regions Volga region, Povolzhye, Central Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. The name is derived from the early Slavic word for "liberty ...
s (, ''sloboda''; pl. , ''slobody''), villages (historically, settlements freed from taxes and levies) *(Rural-type) settlements (, ''posyolok (selskogo tipa)''; pl. ). The "rural-type" () designation is added to the settlements the population of which is mostly occupied in agriculture, while ''posyolok'' () proper indicates a mix of population working in agriculture and industry.


Historical terms

*Krepost (, a
fort A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, g ...

fort
), a fortified settlement **A
Kremlin (fortification) A kremlin (russian: кремль, kreml', ) is a major fortified central complex found in historic Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It ...
(, citadel), a major ''krepost'', usually including a castle and surrounded by a
posad A posad (russian: посад) was a town, settlement in the Russian Empire, often surrounded by Defensive wall, ramparts and a moat, adjoining a town or a Kremlin (fortification), kremlin, but outside of it, or adjoining a monastery in the 10th to ...
**An ostrog, a more primitive kind of ''krepost'' which could be put up quickly within rough walls of debarked pointed timber *
Posad A posad (russian: посад) was a town, settlement in the Russian Empire, often surrounded by Defensive wall, ramparts and a moat, adjoining a town or a Kremlin (fortification), kremlin, but outside of it, or adjoining a monastery in the 10th to ...
(), a medieval suburban settlement *Mestechko (, from pl, miasteczko), a small town in the
Western Krai Three partitions of Poland Western Krai (russian: Западный край) is an unofficial name of the westernmost parts of the Russian Empire, excluding the territory of Congress Poland. The term embodies lands annexed by the Russian Empire du ...
annexed during the
partitions of Poland The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian CommonwealthPolish–Lithuanian can refer to: * Polish–Lithuanian union (1385–1569) * Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795) * Polish-Lithuanian identity as ...

partitions of Poland
; typically a mestechko would have a
Jew Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), suc ...

Jew
ish majority *
Pogost 275px, Vytegra Pogost, as photographed ca. 1912 by Prokudin-Gorskii. ''Pogost'' (russian: погост, from Old East Slavic: погостъ) is a historical term with several meanings in the Russian language. It has also been borrowed into Latgal ...

Pogost
* Seltso, a type of rural locality in the Russian Empire and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth *Pochinok (, ''pochinok''; pl. , ''pochinki'')—a newly formed rural locality of one or several families. Pochinoks were established as new settlements and usually grow into larger villages as they developed.


See also

*
City of federal subject significance City of federal subject significance is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar t ...
* List of terms for country subdivisions *
Lists of rural localities in Russia This article contains lists of Types_of_inhabited_localities_in_Russia#Rural_localities, rural localities in Russia, organized by Federal subjects of Russia, federal subject. The federal subjects of Russia are the constituent entity, constituent ent ...
*
Subdivisions of Russia Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, pa ...

Subdivisions of Russia
*
Town of district significance Town of district significance is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are ...


References

{{Reflist, 30em


External links

*Doukhobor Genealogy Website. Jonathan J. Kalmakoff
Index of Russian Geographic Terms