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A turbine ( or ) (from the Greek , ''tyrbē'', or
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
''turbo'', meaning
vortex , revealed by colored smoke In fluid dynamics, a vortex (plural vortices/vortexes) is a region in a fluid in which the flow revolves around an axis line, which may be straight or curved. Vortices form in stirred fluids, and may be observed in smo ...

vortex
) is a rotary mechanical device that extracts
energy In , energy is the that must be to a or to perform on the body, or to it. Energy is a ; the law of states that energy can be in form, but not created or destroyed. The unit of measurement in the (SI) of energy is the , which is the ...

energy
from a
fluid In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular s ...
flow and converts it into useful
work Work may refer to: * Work (human activity), intentional activity people perform to support themselves, others, or the community ** Manual labour, physical work done by humans ** House work, housework, or homemaking * Work (physics), the product of ...

work
. The work produced by a turbine can be used for generating electrical power when combined with a generator.Munson, Bruce Roy, T. H. Okiishi, and Wade W. Huebsch. "Turbomachines." Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics. 6th ed. Hoboken, NJ: J. Wiley & Sons, 2009. Print. A turbine is a
turbomachine Turbomachinery, in mechanical engineering, describes machines that transfer energy between a rotor (turbine), rotor and a fluid, including both turbines and gas compressor, compressors. While a turbine transfers energy from a fluid to a rotor, a ...
with at least one moving part called a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with
blades
blades
attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples are
windmill A windmill is a structure that converts wind power Wind power or wind energy is the use of wind to provide mechanical power through wind turbines to turn electric generators for electrical power. Wind power is a popular sustainable ener ...

windmill
s and
waterwheel The reversible water wheel powering a mine hoist in ''De re metallica'' (Georgius Agricola">De_re_metallica.html" ;"title="mine hoist in ''De re metallica">mine hoist in ''De re metallica'' (Georgius Agricola, 1566) A water wheel is a machi ...

waterwheel
s.
Gas Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space ...
,
steam Steam is water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). It is vital for all known forms of , ev ...
, and
water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). It is vital for all known forms of , even though it provide ...

water
turbines have a casing around the blades that contains and controls the working fluid. Credit for invention of the steam turbine is given both to Anglo-Irish engineer
Sir Charles Parsons
Sir Charles Parsons
(1854–1931) for invention of the reaction turbine, and to Swedish engineer
Gustaf de Laval Gustav or Gustave may refer to: Art, entertainment, and media * ''Primeval'' (film), a 2007 American horror film * ''Gustav'' (film series), a Hungarian series of animated short cartoons * Gustav (''Zoids''), a transportation mecha in the ''Zoids' ...
(1845–1913) for invention of the impulse turbine. Modern steam turbines frequently employ both reaction and impulse in the same unit, typically varying the
degree of reaction In turbomachinery, Degree of reaction or reaction ratio (R) is defined as the ratio of the static pressure Pressure (symbol: ''p'' or ''P'') is the force In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physik ...
and impulse from the blade root to its periphery.
Hero of Alexandria Hero of Alexandria (; grc-gre, Ἥρων ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς, ''Heron ho Alexandreus'', also known as Heron of Alexandria ; c. 10 AD – c. 70 AD), was a Greek mathematician and engineer who was active in his native city of Alexandria, R ...

Hero of Alexandria
demonstrated the turbine principle in an
aeolipile An aeolipile, aeolipyle, or eolipile, also known as a Hero's engine, is a simple, bladeless radial steam turbine which spins when the central water container is heated. Torque In physics and mechanics Mechanics (Ancient Greek, Greek: ) ...

aeolipile
in the first century AD and
Vitruvius Vitruvius (; c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC) was a Roman architect and engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled ''De architectura (''On architecture'', published as ''Ten Books on Architecture'') i ...

Vitruvius
mentioned them around 70 BC. The word "turbine" was coined in 1822 by the French mining engineer
Claude Burdin Claude Burdin (; 19 March 1788 – 12 November 1873) was a French engineer Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are Professional, professionals who Invention, invent, design, analyze, build and test Machine, machines, complex syst ...

Claude Burdin
from the Greek , ''tyrbē'', meaning "
vortex , revealed by colored smoke In fluid dynamics, a vortex (plural vortices/vortexes) is a region in a fluid in which the flow revolves around an axis line, which may be straight or curved. Vortices form in stirred fluids, and may be observed in smo ...

vortex
" or "whirling", in a memo, "Des turbines hydrauliques ou machines rotatoires à grande vitesse", which he submitted to the Académie royale des sciences in Paris. Benoit Fourneyron, a former student of Claude Burdin, built the first practical water turbine.


Operation theory

A working fluid contains
potential energy In physics, potential energy is the energy In , energy is the that must be to a or to perform on the body, or to it. Energy is a ; the law of states that energy can be in form, but not created or destroyed. The unit of measure ...

potential energy
(pressure
head Head Sport GmbH is an American-Austrian manufacturing company Manufacturing is the creation or production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in th ...
) and
kinetic energy In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular ...
(velocity head). The fluid may be
compressible In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, radiation, and physical properties of matter. The behavior of these quantities is governed ...
or
incompressible In fluid mechanics Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics concerned with the mechanics Mechanics (Ancient Greek, Greek: ) is the area of physics concerned with the motions of physical objects, more specifically the relationships among ...
. Several physical principles are employed by turbines to collect this energy: Impulse turbines change the direction of flow of a high velocity fluid or gas jet. The resulting impulse spins the turbine and leaves the fluid flow with diminished kinetic energy. There is no pressure change of the fluid or gas in the
turbine blade A turbine blade is the individual component which makes up the turbine A turbine ( or ) (from the Greek , ''tyrbē'', or Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structu ...

turbine blade
s (the moving blades), as in the case of a steam or gas turbine, all the pressure drop takes place in the stationary blades (the nozzles). Before reaching the turbine, the fluid's ''pressure head'' is changed to ''velocity head'' by accelerating the fluid with a
nozzle A nozzle is a device designed to control the direction or characteristics of a fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress, or external force. Fluids are a ...

nozzle
.
Pelton wheel The Pelton wheel or Pelton Turbine is an impulse-type water turbine A water turbine is a rotary machine that converts kinetic energy and potential energy of water into mechanical work. Water turbines were developed in the 19th century and we ...
s and de Laval turbines use this process exclusively. Impulse turbines do not require a pressure casement around the rotor since the fluid jet is created by the nozzle prior to reaching the blades on the rotor.
Newton's second law Newton's laws of motion are three Scientific law, laws of classical mechanics that describe the relationship between the motion of an object and the forces acting on it. These laws can be paraphrased as follows: ''Law 1''. A body continues ...
describes the transfer of energy for impulse turbines. Impulse turbines are most efficient for use in cases where the flow is low and the inlet pressure is high.
Reaction Reaction may refer to a process or to a response to an action, event, or exposure: Physics and chemistry *Chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the IUPAC nomenclature for organic transformations, chemical transformat ...
turbines develop
torque In physics and mechanics, torque is the rotational equivalent of linear force. It is also referred to as the moment, moment of force, rotational force or turning effect, depending on the field of study. The concept originated with the studies ...

torque
by reacting to the gas or fluid's pressure or mass. The pressure of the gas or fluid changes as it passes through the turbine rotor blades. A pressure casement is needed to contain the working fluid as it acts on the turbine stage(s) or the turbine must be fully immersed in the fluid flow (such as with wind turbines). The casing contains and directs the working fluid and, for water turbines, maintains the suction imparted by the
draft tube Draft Tube is a diverging tube fitted at the exit of runner of turbine and used to utilize the kinetic energy available with water at the exit of runner. '. This draft tube at the end of the turbine increases the pressure of the exiting flui ...

draft tube
.
Francis turbine The Francis turbine is a type of water turbine. It is an inward-flow reaction turbine that combines Radial turbine, radial and Axial flow turbine, axial flow concepts. Francis turbines are the most common water turbine in use today, and can achie ...
s and most
steam turbine A steam turbine is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine that uses Power (physics), power to apply Force, f ...
s use this concept. For compressible working fluids, multiple turbine stages are usually used to harness the expanding gas efficiently.
Newton's third law In classical mechanics, Newton's laws of motion are three laws that describe the relationship between the motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In physics, motion is the phenomenon in which a ...

Newton's third law
describes the transfer of energy for reaction turbines. Reaction turbines are better suited to higher flow velocities or applications where the fluid head (upstream pressure) is low. In the case of steam turbines, such as would be used for marine applications or for land-based electricity generation, a Parsons-type reaction turbine would require approximately double the number of blade rows as a de Laval-type impulse turbine, for the same degree of thermal energy conversion. Whilst this makes the Parsons turbine much longer and heavier, the overall efficiency of a reaction turbine is slightly higher than the equivalent impulse turbine for the same thermal energy conversion. In practice, modern turbine designs use both reaction and impulse concepts to varying degrees whenever possible.
Wind turbine A wind turbine is a device that converts Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion Religion is a social ...

Wind turbine
s use an
airfoil An airfoil (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American Englis ...

airfoil
to generate a reaction
lift Lift or LIFT may refer to: Physical devices * Elevator, or lift, a device used for raising and lowering people or goods ** Rack lift, a type of elevator ** Ski lift, an aerial or surface lift for uphill transport ** Space elevator, a hypothetical ...
from the moving fluid and impart it to the rotor. Wind turbines also gain some energy from the impulse of the wind, by deflecting it at an angle. Turbines with multiple stages may use either reaction or impulse blading at high pressure. Steam turbines were traditionally more impulse but continue to move towards reaction designs similar to those used in gas turbines. At low pressure the operating fluid medium expands in volume for small reductions in pressure. Under these conditions, blading becomes strictly a reaction type design with the base of the blade solely impulse. The reason is due to the effect of the rotation speed for each blade. As the volume increases, the blade height increases, and the base of the blade spins at a slower speed relative to the tip. This change in speed forces a designer to change from impulse at the base, to a high reaction-style tip. Classical turbine design methods were developed in the mid 19th century. Vector analysis related the fluid flow with turbine shape and rotation. Graphical calculation methods were used at first. Formulae for the basic dimensions of turbine parts are well documented and a highly efficient machine can be reliably designed for any fluid flow condition. Some of the calculations are empirical or 'rule of thumb' formulae, and others are based on classical mechanics. As with most engineering calculations, simplifying assumptions were made.
Velocity triangleIn turbomachinery, a velocity triangle or a velocity diagram is a triangle representing the various components of velocities of the working fluid in a turbomachinery, turbomachine. Velocity triangles may be drawn for both the inlet and outlet section ...
s can be used to calculate the basic performance of a turbine stage. Gas exits the stationary turbine nozzle guide vanes at absolute velocity ''V''a1. The rotor rotates at velocity ''U''. Relative to the rotor, the velocity of the gas as it impinges on the rotor entrance is ''V''r1. The gas is turned by the rotor and exits, relative to the rotor, at velocity ''V''r2. However, in absolute terms the rotor exit velocity is ''V''a2. The velocity triangles are constructed using these various velocity vectors. Velocity triangles can be constructed at any section through the blading (for example: hub, tip, midsection and so on) but are usually shown at the mean stage radius. Mean performance for the stage can be calculated from the velocity triangles, at this radius, using the Euler equation: :\Delta h = u\cdot\Delta v_w Hence: :\frac = \frac where: :\Delta h is the specific enthalpy drop across stage :T is the turbine entry total (or stagnation) temperature :u is the turbine rotor peripheral velocity :\Delta v_w is the change in whirl velocity The turbine pressure ratio is a function of \frac and the turbine efficiency. Modern turbine design carries the calculations further.
Computational fluid dynamics#REDIRECT Computational fluid dynamics Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis and data structures to analyze and solve problems that involve fluid dynamics, fluid flows. Computers are used ...
dispenses with many of the simplifying assumptions used to derive classical formulas and computer software facilitates optimization. These tools have led to steady improvements in turbine design over the last forty years. The primary numerical classification of a turbine is its
specific speed Specific speed ''N's'', is used to characterize turbomachinery speed. Common commercial and industrial practices use dimensioned versions which are of equal utility. Specific speed is most commonly used in pump applications to define the suct ...
. This number describes the speed of the turbine at its maximum efficiency with respect to the power and flow rate. The specific speed is derived to be independent of turbine size. Given the fluid flow conditions and the desired shaft output speed, the specific speed can be calculated and an appropriate turbine design selected. The specific speed, along with some fundamental formulas can be used to reliably scale an existing design of known performance to a new size with corresponding performance. Off-design performance is normally displayed as a
turbine map Each turbine in a gas turbine engine has an operating map. Complete maps are either based on turbine rig test results or are predicted by a special computer program. Alternatively, the map of a similar turbine can be suitably scaled. Description A ...
or characteristic. The number of blades in the rotor and the number of vanes in the stator are often two different
prime number A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product (mathematics), product of two smaller natural numbers. A natural number greater than 1 that is not prime is called a composite number. For example, 5 is prime ...
s in order to reduce the harmonics and maximize the blade-passing frequency.


Types

*
Steam turbine A steam turbine is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine that uses Power (physics), power to apply Force, f ...
s are used to drive electrical generators in thermal power plants which use
coal Coal is a combustible , Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , ...

coal
,
fuel oil Fuel oil (also known as heavy oil, marine fuel, bunker, furnace oil, or gasoil) is a fraction A fraction (from Latin ', "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts. When spoken in everyday English, a fr ...
or
nuclear fuel Nuclear fuel is material used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines. Heat is created when nuclear fuel undergoes nuclear fission. Most nuclear fuels contain heavy fissile actinide elements that are capable of Fissile mate ...
. They were once used to directly drive mechanical devices such as ships'
propeller . A propeller is a device with a rotating hub and radiating blades that are set at a pitch to form a helical spiral, that, when rotated, exerts linear thrust upon a working fluid, such as water or air. Propellers are used to pump fluid through a ...

propeller
s (for example the ''
Turbinia ''Turbinia'' was the first steam turbine-powered steamship A steamship, often referred to as a steamer, is a type of steam-powered vessel, typically ocean-faring and seaworthy, that is propelled by one or more steam engines that typically mov ...
'', the first turbine-powered
steam launch Steam is water in the gas phase. This may occur due to evaporation, to due to boiling, where heat is applied until water reaches the enthalpy of vaporization. Steam that is saturated or Superheated steam, superheated is invisible; however, "stea ...
,) but most such applications now use reduction gears or an intermediate electrical step, where the turbine is used to generate electricity, which then powers an connected to the mechanical load. Turbo electric ship machinery was particularly popular in the period immediately before and during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, primarily due to a lack of sufficient gear-cutting facilities in US and UK shipyards. * Aircraft
gas turbine A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous Continuity or continuous may refer to: Mathematics * Continuity (mathematics), the opposing concept to discreteness; common examples include ** Continuous probability di ...
engines are sometimes referred to as turbine engines to distinguish between piston engines. *
Transonic Transonic (or transsonic) flow is air flowing around an object at a speed that generates regions of both subsonic and supersonic Supersonic speed is the speed of an object that exceeds the speed of sound The speed of sound is the dist ...

Transonic
turbine. The gas flow in most turbines employed in gas turbine engines remains subsonic throughout the expansion process. In a transonic turbine the gas flow becomes supersonic as it exits the nozzle guide vanes, although the downstream velocities normally become subsonic. Transonic turbines operate at a higher pressure ratio than normal but are usually less efficient and uncommon. *
Contra-rotating Contra-rotating, also referred to as coaxial contra-rotating, is a technique whereby parts of a mechanism rotate in opposite directions about a common axis, usually to minimise the effect of torque In physics and mechanics, torque is the rota ...
turbines. With axial turbines, some efficiency advantage can be obtained if a downstream turbine rotates in the opposite direction to an upstream unit. However, the complication can be counter-productive. A contra-rotating steam turbine, usually known as the Ljungström turbine, was originally invented by Swedish Engineer
Fredrik Ljungström Fredrik Ljungström (16 June 1875 in Stockholm – 18 February 1964 in Stockholm) was a Swedes, Swedish engineer, Industrial design, technical designer, and industrialist. Considered one of the foremost inventors of Sweden, Fredrik Ljungstr ...
(1875–1964) in Stockholm, and in partnership with his brother Birger Ljungström he obtained a patent in 1894. The design is essentially a multi-stage
radial turbineA radial turbine is a turbine in which the flow of the working fluid is radial to the shaft. The difference between axial and radial turbines consists in the way the fluid flows through the components (compressor and turbine). Whereas for an axial ...

radial turbine
(or pair of 'nested' turbine rotors) offering great efficiency, four times as large heat drop per stage as in the reaction (Parsons) turbine, extremely compact design and the type met particular success in back pressure power plants. However, contrary to other designs, large steam volumes are handled with difficulty and only a combination with axial flow turbines (DUREX) admits the turbine to be built for power greater than ca 50 MW. In marine applications only about 50 turbo-electric units were ordered (of which a considerable amount were finally sold to land plants) during 1917–19, and during 1920-22 a few turbo-mechanic not very successful units were sold.Ingvar Jung, 1979, The history of the marine turbine, part 1, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, dep of History of technology Only a few turbo-electric marine plants were still in use in the late 1960s (ss Ragne, ss Regin) while most land plants remain in use 2010. *
Stator The stator is the stationary part of a rotary system, found in electric generator In electricity generation Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy. For electric utility, utilities ...
less turbine. Multi-stage turbines have a set of static (meaning stationary) inlet guide vanes that direct the gas flow onto the rotating rotor blades. In a stator-less turbine the gas flow exiting an upstream rotor impinges onto a downstream rotor without an intermediate set of stator vanes (that rearrange the pressure/velocity energy levels of the flow) being encountered. *
Ceramic A ceramic is any of the various hard, brittle, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant Corrosion is a Erosion, natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide, hydroxide, carbonate or sulfide. ...

Ceramic
turbine. Conventional high-pressure turbine blades (and vanes) are made from nickel based alloys and often use intricate internal air-cooling passages to prevent the metal from overheating. In recent years, experimental ceramic blades have been manufactured and tested in gas turbines, with a view to increasing rotor inlet temperatures and/or, possibly, eliminating air cooling. Ceramic blades are more brittle than their metallic counterparts, and carry a greater risk of catastrophic blade failure. This has tended to limit their use in jet engines and gas turbines to the stator (stationary) blades. * Shrouded turbine. Many turbine rotor blades have shrouding at the top, which interlocks with that of adjacent blades, to increase damping and thereby reduce blade flutter. In large land-based electricity generation steam turbines, the shrouding is often complemented, especially in the long blades of a low-pressure turbine, with lacing wires. These wires pass through holes drilled in the blades at suitable distances from the blade root and are usually brazed to the blades at the point where they pass through. Lacing wires reduce blade flutter in the central part of the blades. The introduction of lacing wires substantially reduces the instances of blade failure in large or low-pressure turbines. * Shroudless turbine. Modern practice is, wherever possible, to eliminate the rotor shrouding, thus reducing the centrifugal load on the blade and the cooling requirements. * uses the boundary layer effect and not a fluid impinging upon the blades as in a conventional turbine. *
Water turbine A water turbine is a rotary machine that converts kinetic energy and potential energy of water into mechanical work. Water turbines were developed in the 19th century and were widely used for industrial power prior to electrical grids. Now, the ...

Water turbine
s **
Pelton turbine A Pelton wheel is an impulse-type water turbine A water turbine is a rotary machine that converts kinetic energy and potential energy In physics, potential energy is the energy held by an object because of its position relative to other ob ...
, a type of impulse water turbine. **
Francis turbine The Francis turbine is a type of water turbine. It is an inward-flow reaction turbine that combines Radial turbine, radial and Axial flow turbine, axial flow concepts. Francis turbines are the most common water turbine in use today, and can achie ...
, a type of widely used water turbine. **
Kaplan turbine The Kaplan turbine is a propeller-type water turbine which has adjustable blades. It was developed in 1913 by Austrian professor Viktor Kaplan, who combined automatically adjusted propeller blades with automatically adjusted wicket gates to achie ...
, a variation of the Francis Turbine. **
Turgo turbine The Turgo turbine is an impulse water turbine designed for medium head A head is the part of an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system tha ...

Turgo turbine
, a modified form of the Pelton wheel. **
Cross-flow turbine A cross-flow turbine, Bánki-Michell turbine, or Ossberger turbine''E.F. Lindsley,'' Water power for your homePopular Science, May 1977, Vol. 210, No. 5 87-93. is a water turbine developed by the Australian Anthony Michell, the Hungarian Donát B ...
, also known as Banki-Michell turbine, or Ossberger turbine. *
Wind turbine A wind turbine is a device that converts Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion Religion is a social ...

Wind turbine
. These normally operate as a single stage without nozzle and interstage guide vanes. An exception is the Éolienne Bollée, which has a stator and a rotor. * Velocity compound "Curtis". Curtis combined the de Laval and Parsons turbine by using a set of fixed nozzles on the first stage or stator and then a rank of fixed and rotating blade rows, as in the Parsons or de Laval, typically up to ten compared with up to a hundred stages of a Parsons design. The overall efficiency of a Curtis design is less than that of either the Parsons or de Laval designs, but it can be satisfactorily operated through a much wider range of speeds, including successful operation at low speeds and at lower pressures, which made it ideal for use in ships' powerplant. In a Curtis arrangement, the entire heat drop in the steam takes place in the initial nozzle row and both the subsequent moving blade rows and stationary blade rows merely change the direction of the steam. Use of a small section of a Curtis arrangement, typically one nozzle section and two or three rows of moving blades, is usually termed a Curtis 'Wheel' and in this form, the Curtis found widespread use at sea as a 'governing stage' on many reaction and impulse turbines and turbine sets. This practice is still commonplace today in marine steam plant. * Pressure compound multi-stage impulse, or "Rateau", after its French inventor,
Auguste Rateau Auguste Rateau (13 October 1863 – 13 January 1930) was an engineer Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are Professional, professionals who Invention, invent, design, analyze, build and test Machine, machines, complex systems, architect ...
. The Rateau employs simple impulse rotors separated by a nozzle diaphragm. The diaphragm is essentially a partition wall in the turbine with a series of tunnels cut into it, funnel shaped with the broad end facing the previous stage and the narrow the next they are also angled to direct the steam jets onto the impulse rotor. *
Mercury vapour turbineA mercury vapour turbine is a form of heat engine that uses mercury (element), mercury as the working fluid of its thermal cycle. A mercury vapour turbine has been used in conjunction with a steam turbine for Electrical generator, generating electri ...
s used
mercury Mercury usually refers to: * Mercury (planet) Mercury is the smallest planet in the Solar System and the closest to the Sun. Its orbit around the Sun takes 87.97 Earth days, the shortest of all the Sun's planets. It is named after the Roman g ...

mercury
as the working fluid, to improve the efficiency of fossil-fuelled generating stations. Although a few power plants were built with combined mercury vapour and conventional steam turbines, the toxicity of the metal mercury was quickly apparent. * Screw turbine is a
water turbine A water turbine is a rotary machine that converts kinetic energy and potential energy of water into mechanical work. Water turbines were developed in the 19th century and were widely used for industrial power prior to electrical grids. Now, the ...

water turbine
which uses the principle of the
Archimedean screw Archimedes' screw, also known as the water screw, screw pump upPrinciple of screw pump (Saugseite = intake, Druckseite = outflow) A screw pump, also known as a water screw, is a positive-displacement (PD) pump that use one or several screws to m ...
to convert the
potential energy In physics, potential energy is the energy In , energy is the that must be to a or to perform on the body, or to it. Energy is a ; the law of states that energy can be in form, but not created or destroyed. The unit of measure ...

potential energy
of water on an upstream level into
kinetic energy In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular ...
.


Uses

A large proportion of the world's
electrical power Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy Electrical energy is energy derived from electric potential energy or kinetic energy. When used loosely, ''electrical energy'' refers to energy that has been converted ''f ...
is generated by
turbo generator A turbo generator set or turbine generator set is the compound of a steam turbine A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do Work (physics), mechanical work on a rotating output shaft. I ...
s. Turbines are used in
gas turbine A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous Continuity or continuous may refer to: Mathematics * Continuity (mathematics), the opposing concept to discreteness; common examples include ** Continuous probability di ...
engines on land, sea and air.
Turbochargers A turbocharger (technically a turbosupercharger), colloquially known as turbo, is a turbine A turbine ( or ) (from the Greek , ''tyrbē'', or Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch ...
are used on piston engines. Gas turbines have very high power densities (i.e. the ratio of power to mass, or power to volume) because they run at very high speeds. The
Space Shuttle main engine The Aerojet Rocketdyne RS-25, also known as the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME), is a liquid-fuel rocket, liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine that was used on NASA's Space Shuttle. NASA is planning to continue using the RS-25 on the Space Shut ...
s used
turbopump A turbopump is a propellant pump with two main components: a rotodynamic pump A rotodynamic pump is a kinetic machine in which energy is continuously imparted to the pumped fluid by means of a rotating impeller An impeller or impellor is a wikt ...
s (machines consisting of a pump driven by a turbine engine) to feed the propellants (liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen) into the engine's combustion chamber. The liquid hydrogen turbopump is slightly larger than an automobile engine (weighing approximately 700 lb) with the turbine producing nearly 70,000 (52.2 MW).
Turboexpander A turboexpander, also referred to as a turbo-expander or an expansion turbine, is a centrifugal or axial-flow turbine A turbine ( or ) (from the Greek , ''tyrbē'', or Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical languag ...
s are used for refrigeration in industrial processes.


See also

*
Balancing machine A balancing machine is a measuring tool used for balancing rotating machine parts such as rotors for electric motors, fans, turbine A turbine ( or ) (from the Greek , ''tyrbē'', or Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to ...
*
Euler's pump and turbine equation The Euler pump near the Hengsteysee, GermanyA pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes Slurry, slurries, by mechanical action, typically converted from electrical energy into hydraulic energy. Pumps can be classified i ...
*
Helmholtz's theorems In fluid mechanics Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics concerned with the mechanics Mechanics (Ancient Greek, Greek: ) is the area of physics concerned with the motions of physical objects, more specifically the relationships among forc ...
* Rotordynamics * Rotor–stator interaction *
Secondary flow In fluid dynamics In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids—liquids and gases. It has several subdisciplines, including aerodynamics (the study of air and other gases i ...
*
Segner wheelImage:Segner turbine.svg, 300px, Segner-wheel: A – water inlet, B – vertical tube with rotor, C – rotor with nozzles (side view), D – rotor with nozzles ("top" view), E – hole in the ground, F – Belt (mechanical), belt-pulley transmission ...
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Turbo-alternator An alternator is an electrical generator In electricity generation Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy. For electric utility, utilities in the electric power industry, it is the ...
* Turbodrill *
Turbofan The turbofan or fanjet is a type of airbreathing jet engine An airbreathing jet engine (or ''ducted jet engine'') is a jet engine that emits a jet of hot exhaust gases formed from air that is forced into the engine by several stages of cen ...

Turbofan
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Turbojet The turbojet is an airbreathing jet engine An airbreathing jet engine (or ''ducted jet engine'') is a jet engine that emits a jet of hot exhaust gases formed from air that is forced into the engine by several stages of centrifugal, axial ...
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Turboprop A turboprop engine is a turbine engine A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous Continuity or continuous may refer to: Mathematics * Continuity (mathematics), the opposing concept to discreteness; common ex ...

Turboprop
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Turboshaft A turboshaft engine is a form of gas turbine A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous Continuity or continuous may refer to: Mathematics * Continuity (mathematics), the opposing concept to discreteness; comm ...
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Turbine-electric transmission Turbotrains were gas turbine trains built in France 1971–75 and supplied to SNCF, Amtrak and Islamic Republic of Iran Railways, Iranian Railways. A turbine-electric transmission system includes a turboshaft gas turbine connected to an electric ...


Notes


Further reading

* Layton, Edwin T. "From Rule of Thumb to Scientific Engineering: James B. Francis and the Invention of the Francis Turbine," NLA Monograph Series. Stony Brook, NY: Research Foundation of the State University of New York, 1992.


External links


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