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''Erythronium'', the fawn lily, trout lily, dog's-tooth violet or adder's tongue, is a genus of Eurasian and North American plants in the Liliaceae, lily family, most closely related to tulips. The name Erythronium derives from Ancient Greek () "red" in Greek, referring to the red flowers of Erythronium dens-canis, ''E. dens-canis''. Of all the established species, most live in North America; only six species are found in Europe and Asia.


Species

''Erythronium'' includes about 20–30 species of Hardiness (plants), hardy spring-flowering perennial plant, perennial flowering plant, plants with long, tooth-like bulbs. Slender stems carry pendent flowers with recurved tepals in shades of cream, yellow, pink and mauve. Species are native plant, native to forests and meadows in temperateness, temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. File:Erythronium albidum NRCS-1.jpg, ''Erythronium albidum'' File:Erythronium americanum 002.JPG, ''Erythronium americanum'' File:Erythronium californicum 2.jpg, ''Erythronium californicum'' File:Erythronium citrinum.jpg, ''Erythronium citrinum'' File:Medvednica 0803.JPG, ''Erythronium dens-canis'' File:Erythronium grandiflorum 6031.JPG, ''Erythronium grandiflorum'' File:Erythronium helenae 1.jpg, ''Erythronium helenae'' File:Erythronium hendersonii 001.jpg, ''Erythronium hendersonii'' File:Erythronium japonicum 2006 010.jpg, ''Erythronium japonicum'' File:Erythronium montanum 5926.JPG, ''Erythronium montanum'' File:Erythronium oregonum 5504.JPG, ''Erythronium oregonum'' File:Erythronium propullans.jpg, ''Erythronium propullans'' File:Erythronium purpurascens 01.jpg, ''Erythronium purpurascens'' File:Erythronium purpurascens 02.jpg, ''Erythronium purpurascens'', end of blooming File:Erythronium revolutum 2156.JPG, ''Erythronium revolutum'' File:Erythronium sibiricum.JPG, ''Erythronium sibiricum''


Formerly included

Two species names were coined using the name ''Erythronium'' but have since been reclassified to other taxa. * ''Erythronium carolinianum'', now called ''Uvularia perfoliata'' * ''Erythronium hyacinthoides'', now called ''Drimia indica''


Cultivation and uses

Erythroniums are widely grown as ornamental plants, with numerous Hybrid (biology), hybrids and cultivars having been selected for garden use. Popular cultivars include Erythronium 'Pagoda', ''Erythronium'' 'Pagoda', ''E.'' 'Sundisc', ''E.'' 'Joanna', ''E.'' 'Kondo', ''E.'' 'Citronella', ''E. californicum'' 'White Beauty', and ''E.'' 'Rosalind'. Propagation is best by seed in autumn or by division of bulbs, depending on species. Some species propagate vegetatively. The plant is also great as a ground cover, as it will spread over several years. The following cultivars, of mixed ancestry, have won the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit: *'Apple Blossom' (white with yellow centre) *'Janice' (pink) *'Joanna' (cream/pale yellow throat) *'Pagoda' (cream yellow) *'Sundisc' (yellow) *'Wildside Seedling' (white/yellow) The bulb is edible as a root vegetable, cooked or dried, and can be ground into flour. The leaves can also be cooked as a leaf vegetable. In Japan, ''Erythronium japonicum'' is called ''katakuri'', and the bulb is processed to produce starch, which is used for food and other purposes.


See also

* List of plants known as lily


References


Bibliography

* * {{Taxonbar, from=Q143756 Erythronium, Liliaceae genera Root vegetables