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Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical
location In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. Th ...
s. Travel can be done by
foot The foot (plural: feet) is an anatomical Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemis ...

foot
,
bicycle A bicycle, also called a bike or cycle, is a human-powered transport, human-powered or motorized bicycle, motor-powered, bicycle pedal, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two bicycle wheel, wheels attached to a bicycle frame, frame, ...

bicycle
,
automobile A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle A motor vehicle, also known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on Track (rail transport), rails (such as trains o ...

automobile
,
train In rail transport Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicles include wag ...

train
,
boat A boat is a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It m ...

boat
,
bus trolleybus in Toronto Toronto is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2016, it is the List of the 100 largest municipalities in Canada by p ...

bus
,
airplane An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, Propeller (aircraft), propeller, or rocket engine. Airplanes come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and wing configurati ...

airplane
,
ship A ship is a large watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional propertie ...

ship
or other means, with or without luggage, and can be one way or round trip. Travel can also include relatively short stays between successive movements, as in the case of
tourism Tourism is travel Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical location In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of th ...

tourism
.


Etymology

The origin of the word "travel" is most likely lost to history. The term "travel" may originate from the
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular o ...
word ''travail'', which means 'work'. According to the Merriam Webster dictionary, the first known use of the word ''travel'' was in the 14th century. It also states that the word comes from Middle English ''travailen'', ''travelen'' (which means to torment, labor, strive, journey) and earlier from Old French ''travailler'' (which means to work strenuously, toil). In English, people still occasionally use the words ''travail'', which means struggle. According to Simon Winchester in his book ''The Best Travelers' Tales (2004)'', the words ''travel'' and ''travail'' both share an even more ancient root: a Roman instrument of torture called the ''tripalium'' (in Latin it means "three stakes", as in to impale). This link may reflect the extreme difficulty of travel in ancient times. Travel in modern times may or may not be much easier depending upon the destination. Travel to
Mount Everest Mount Everest (Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's ...

Mount Everest
, the
Amazon rainforest The Amazon rainforest, alternatively, the Amazon jungle or ; es, Selva amazónica, , or usually ; french: Forêt amazonienne; nl, Amazoneregenwoud. In English, the names are sometimes capitalized further, as Amazon Rainforest, Amazon Forest ...

Amazon rainforest
,
extreme tourism Image:Bill's Bungy Jump.jpg, 200px, up Bungee jumping off the Victoria Falls Bridge in Zambia/Zimbabwe Extreme tourism (also often referred to as shock tourism, although both concepts do not appear strictly similar) is a niche in the tourism ...
, and
adventure travel , Canada Image:Tour to the Quebrada de las Conchas.jpg, 260px, Trekking in Quebrada de las Conchas, Cafayate, Salta Province, Argentina Adventure travel is a type of niche market, niche tourism, involving exploration or travel with a certain d ...
are more difficult forms of travel. Travel can also be more difficult depending on the method of travel, such as by
bus trolleybus in Toronto Toronto is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2016, it is the List of the 100 largest municipalities in Canada by p ...

bus
,
cruise ship Cruise ships are large passenger ship A passenger ship is a merchant ship whose primary function is to carry passengers on the sea. The category does not include cargo ship, cargo vessels which have accommodations for limited numbers of pas ...

cruise ship
, or even by
bullock cart A bullock cart or ox cart (sometimes called a bullock carriage when carrying people in particular) is a two-wheeled or four-wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to app ...

bullock cart
.


Purpose and motivation

Reasons for traveling include
recreation Recreation is an activity of leisure Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is spent away from , , , , and , as well as necessary activities such as and ing. Leisure as an experience usuall ...

recreation
,"The Road to Travel: Purpose of Travel."University of Florida, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences
(Compilation for History 3931/REL 3938 course.) Accessed July 2011.
holidays,
tourism Tourism is travel Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical location In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of th ...

tourism
or
vacation A vacation (American English), or holiday (British English), is a leave of absence from a regular job. People often take a vacation during specific holiday observances, or for specific festivals or celebrations. Vacations are often spent with F ...

vacation
ing,
research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expa ...

research
travel, the gathering of information, visiting people,
volunteer travel International volunteering is when volunteers volunteering, contribute their time to work for organisations or causes outside their respective home countries. International volunteering has a long association with international development, with th ...
for
charity Charity may refer to: Giving * Charitable organization or charity, a non-profit organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being * Charity (practice), the practice of being benevolent, giving and sharing * Charity (virtu ...
,
migration Migration, migratory, or migrate may refer to: Human migration * Human migration, physical movement by humans from one region to another ** International migration, when peoples cross state boundaries and stay in the host state for some minimum len ...

migration
to begin life somewhere else, religious
pilgrimage A pilgrimage is a journey, often into an unknown or foreign place, where a person goes in search of new or expanded meaning about their self, others, nature, or a higher good, through the experience. It can lead to a personal transformation, aft ...
s and
mission trip Mission (from Latin ''missio'' "the act of sending out") may refer to: Religion *Mission (station) A religious mission or mission station is a location for missionary work, in particular a Christian mission. History Historically, mission ...
s,
business travel Business travel is travel Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical location In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study o ...
,
trade Trade involves the transfer of goods from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of r ...

trade
,
commuting Commuting is periodically recurring travel Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical location In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

commuting
, and other reasons, such as to obtain health care or waging or or for the enjoyment of traveling. Travelers may use
human-powered transport Human-powered transport is the transport Transport (commonly used in the U.K.), or transportation (used in the U.S.), is the Motion, movement of humans, animals and cargo, goods from one location to another. In other words, the action of tran ...
such as
walking Walking (also known as ambulation) is one of the main gait Gait is the pattern of movement Movement may refer to: Common uses * Movement (clockwork), the internal mechanism of a timepiece * Motion (physics), commonly referred to as move ...

walking
or
bicycling Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport Transport (commonly used in the U.K.), or transportation (used in the U.S.), is the Motion, movement of humans, animals and cargo, goods from one location ...

bicycling
; or
vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine A molecular machine, nanite, or ...

vehicle
s, such as
public transport Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, mass transit, or simply transit) is a system of transport Transport (in British English), or transportation (in American English), is the Motion, movement of humans ...

public transport
,
automobile A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle A motor vehicle, also known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on Track (rail transport), rails (such as trains o ...

automobile
s,
train In rail transport Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicles include wag ...

train
s,
ferries at Samothrace island, Northern Aegean, Aegean Sea. File:Spirit of America - Staten Island Ferry.jpg, The commuters between Manhattan and Staten Island">commuting">commuters between Manhattan and Staten Island in New York City. A ferry is a ...

ferries
,
boats A boat is a watercraft of a large range of types and sizes, but generally smaller than a ship, which is distinguished by its larger size, shape, cargo or passenger capacity, or its ability to carry boats. Small boats are typically found on inl ...

boats
,
cruise ships Cruise ships are large passenger ship A passenger ship is a merchant ship whose primary function is to carry passengers on the sea. The category does not include cargo ship, cargo vessels which have accommodations for limited numbers of pas ...

cruise ships
and
airplane An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, Propeller (aircraft), propeller, or rocket engine. Airplanes come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and wing configurati ...

airplane
s. Motives for travel include: *
Pleasure Pleasure refers to experience that feels good, that involves the enjoyment of something. It contrasts with pain or suffering, which are forms of feeling bad. It is closely related to value, desire and action: humans and other conscious animals ...
* Relaxation *
Discovery Discovery may refer to: * Discovery (observation) Discovery is the act of detecting something new, or something previously unrecognized as meaningful. With reference to sciences and academic disciplines An academic discipline or academic fi ...
and
exploration Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery Discovery may refer to: * Discovery (observation) Discovery is the act of detecting something new, or something previously unrecognized as meaningful. With reference to scien ...

exploration
*
Intercultural communication Intercultural communication is a discipline that studies communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other, private ...
s * Taking personal time for building
interpersonal relationship The concept of interpersonal relationship involves social associations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people. Interpersonal relationships vary in their degree of intimacy or self-disclosure, but also in their duration, in t ...
s. *Avoiding stress *Forming memories


History

Travel dates back to
antiquity Antiquity or Antiquities may refer to Historical objects or periods Artifacts * Antiquities, objects or artifacts surviving from ancient cultures Eras Any period before the European Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...
where wealthy Greeks and Romans would travel for leisure to their summer homes and villas in cities such as
Pompeii Pompeii (, ) was an ancient city located in what is now the ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenan ...

Pompeii
and
Baiae Baiae ( it, Baia; nap, Baia) was an ancient Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle ...
. While early travel tended to be slower, more dangerous, and more dominated by trade and migration, cultural and technological advances over many years have tended to mean that travel has become easier and more accessible. Mankind has come a long way in transportation since
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
sailed to the new world from Spain in 1492, an expedition which took over 10 weeks to arrive at the final destination; to the 21st century where
aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support from the Atmosphere of Earth, air. It counters the force of gravity by using either Buoyancy, static lift or by using the Lift (force), dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in ...

aircraft
allow travel from Spain to the United States overnight. Travel in the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
offered hardships and challenges, however, it was important to the economy and to society. The wholesale sector depended (for example) on
merchants A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people, especially one who trades with foreign countries. Historically, a merchant is anyone who is involved in business Business is the activity of making one's living or m ...

merchants
dealing with/through
caravans Caravan or caravans may refer to: Transport and travel *Caravan (travellers), a group of travellers journeying together **Caravanserai, a place where a caravan could stop *Camel train, a convoy using camels as pack animals *Convoy, a group of vehi ...
or sea-voyagers, end-user
retailing Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption ( ...
often demanded the services of many itinerant
peddler A peddler, in British English pedlar, also known as a chapman, packman, cheapjack, hawker, higler, huckster, (coster)monger, colporteur or solicitor, is a door-to-door and/or traveling vendor of good (economics), goods. In England, the term wa ...

peddler
s wandering from village to hamlet, gyrovagues (Wandering Monks) and wandering
friar A friar is a brother A brother is a man A man is an adult male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fert ...
s brought
theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine Divinity or the divine are things that are either related to, devoted to, or proceeding from a deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed ...
and to neglected areas, traveling minstrels practiced the never-ending tour, and armies ranged far and wide in various crusades and in sundry other wars. Pilgrimages were common in both the European and Islamic world and involved streams of travelers both locally (
Canterbury Tales ''The Canterbury Tales'' ( enm, Tales of Caunterbury) is a collection of 24 stories that runs to over 17,000 lines written in Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conque ...

Canterbury Tales
-style) and internationally. In the late 16th century it became fashionable for young European
aristocrat The aristocracy is a social class A social class is a set of concepts in the social sciences Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relation ...

aristocrat
s and wealthy upper-class men to travel to significant European cities as part of their education in the arts and literature. This was known as the
Grand Tour The Grand Tour was the principally 17th- mid-19th-century custom of a traditional trip through Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rath ...

Grand Tour
, it included cities such as London, Paris, Venice, Florence, and Rome. However, The
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
brought with it the end of the Grand Tour. Travel by water often provided more comfort and speed than land-travel, at least until the advent of a network of
railway Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicles include wagons, bicycles, motor veh ...

railway
s in the 19th century. Travel for the purpose of tourism is reported to have started around this time when people began to travel for fun as travel was no longer a hard and challenging task. This was capitalized on by people like
Thomas Cook Thomas Cook (22 November 1808 – 18 July 1892) was an English businessman. He is best known for founding the travel agency Thomas Cook & Son. Early life Thomas Cook was born on 22 November 1808, to John and Elizabeth Cook, who lived at ...

Thomas Cook
selling tourism packages where trains and hotels were booked together.
Airship An airship, dirigible balloon or blimp is a type of aerostat An aerostat (From greek language, Greek ἀήρ ''aer'' (air) + στατός ''statos'' (standing) through French) is a lighter than air aircraft that gains its lift through the ...

Airship
s and
airplane An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, Propeller (aircraft), propeller, or rocket engine. Airplanes come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and wing configurati ...

airplane
s took over much of the role of long-distance surface travel in the 20th century, notably after the Second World War where there was a surplus of both aircraft and pilots. Indeed, air travel has become so ubiquitous in the 21st century that one woman, Alexis Alford, visited all 196 countries before the age of 21.


Geographic types

Travel may be local, regional, national (domestic) or international. In some countries, non-local internal travel may require an
internal passport An internal passport or a domestic passport is an identity document An identity document (also called a piece of identification or ID, or colloquially as papers) is any that may be used to prove a person's identity. If issued in a small, sta ...
, while international travel typically requires a
passport A passport is an official travel document A travel document is an identity document issued by a government or international entity pursuant to international agreements to enable individuals to clear border control measures. Travel documents ...

passport
and
visa Visa most commonly refers to: *Visa Inc., a US multinational financial and payment cards company ** Visa Debit card issued by the above company ** Visa Electron, a debit card ** Visa Plus, an interbank network *Travel visa, a document that allows e ...
. Tours are a common type of travel. Examples of travel tours are expedition cruises, small group tours, and river cruises.


Safety

Authorities emphasize the importance of taking precautions to ensure travel
safety Safety is the state of being "safe", the condition of being protected from harm Harm is a moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European language ...

safety
."Tips for Traveling Abroad."Bureau of Consular Affairs, U.S. Department of State
Accessed July 2011.
When traveling abroad, the odds favor a safe and incident-free trip, however, travelers can be subject to difficulties, crime and violence. Some safety considerations include being aware of one's surroundings, avoiding being the target of a crime, leaving copies of one's
passport A passport is an official travel document A travel document is an identity document issued by a government or international entity pursuant to international agreements to enable individuals to clear border control measures. Travel documents ...

passport
and itinerary information with trusted people, obtaining
medical insurance Health insurance is a type of insurance Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss. It is a form of risk management, primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent or uncertain loss. An entity which provides insuran ...
valid in the country being visited and registering with one's national
embassy A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (news ...
when arriving in a foreign country. Many countries do not recognize drivers' licenses from other countries; however most countries accept
international driving permit An International Driving Permit (IDP), often referred to as an international driving licence, is a translation of a domestic driving licence that allows the holder to drive a private motor vehicle A motor vehicle, also known as motorized vehic ...
s."Road Safety Overseas."Bureau of Consular Affairs, U.S. Department of State
Accessed July 2011.
Automobile insurance Vehicle insurance (also known as car insurance, motor insurance, or auto insurance) is insurance Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss. It is a form of risk management Risk management is the identification, evaluation, ...
policies issued in one's own country are often invalid in foreign countries, and it is often a requirement to obtain temporary auto insurance valid in the country being visited. It is also advisable to become oriented with the driving rules and -regulations of destination countries. Wearing a
seat belt A seat belt (also known as a safety belt, or spelled seatbelt) is a vehicle safety Automotive safety is the study and practice of design, construction, equipment and regulation to minimize the occurrence and consequences of traffic collisio ...

seat belt
is highly advisable for safety reasons; many countries have penalties for violating seatbelt laws. There are three main statistics which may be used to compare the safety of various forms of travel (based on a
DETR The Secretary of State for the Environment, Transport and the Regions was a United Kingdom Cabinet position created in 1997, with responsibility for the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR). The position and department w ...
survey in October 2000):The risks of travel


See also

*
Environmental impact of aviation Like other emissions resulting from fossil fuel A fossil fuel is a hydrocarbon In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally an ...
*
Layover 250px, Layover for buses at LACMTA's Warner Center Transit Hub Rights are law, legal, social, or ethics, ethical principles of Liberty, freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people ...
* List of travelers *
Mode of transport Mode of transport is a term used to distinguish between different ways of transportation or transporting people or goods. The different modes of transport are air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volum ...
* Recreational travel * Science tourism * ''
The Negro Motorist Green Book ''The Negro Motorist Green Book'' (also ''The Negro Motorist Green-Book'', ''The Negro Travelers' Green Book'', or simply the ''Green Book'') was an annual guidebook A guide book or travel guide is "a book of information about a place design ...

The Negro Motorist Green Book
'' *
Transport Transport (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and ...

Transport


References


External links

* {{Authority control Tourism Tourist activities Transport culture