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In
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
, the translation of
relic In religion, a relic is an object or article of religious significance from the past, it usually consists of the physical remains of a saint or the personal effects of the saint or venerated person preserved for purposes of veneration Veneratio ...

relic
s is the removal of holy objects from one locality to another (usually a higher-status location); usually only the movement of the remains of the saint's body would be treated so formally, with secondary relics such as items of clothing treated with less ceremony. Translations could be accompanied by many acts, including all-night
vigil A vigil, from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in ...

vigil
s and processions, often involving entire communities. The solemn translation (in
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
, ''translatio'') of relics is not treated as the outward recognition of sanctity. Rather, miracles confirmed a saint's sanctity, as evinced by the fact that when, in the twelfth century, the Papacy attempted to make sanctification an official process; many collections of miracles were written in the hope of providing proof of the saint-in-question's status. In the early Middle Ages, however, solemn translation marked the moment at which, the saint's miracles having been recognized, the relic was moved by a bishop or abbot to a prominent position within the church. Local veneration was then permitted. This process is known as ''local canonization''. The date of a translation of a saint's relics was celebrated as a
feast day The calendar of saints is the traditional method of organizing a by associating each day with one or more s and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint. The word "feast" in this context does not mean "a large meal, typicall ...
in its own right. For example, on
January 27 Events Pre-1600 * 98 – Trajan Trajan ( ; la, Caesar Nerva Trajanus; 18 September 539/11 August 117) was from 98 to 117. Officially declared by the ''optimus princeps'' ("best ruler"), Trajan is remembered as a successful sol ...
is celebrated the translation of the relics of St. John Chrysostom from the
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...

Armenia
n village of Comana (where he died in exile in 407) to Constantinople. The most commonly celebrated feast days, however, are the (the day on which the saint died, not the modern idea of birthday). Relics sometimes travelled very far. The relics of
Saint Thyrsus Saint Thyrsus or Thyrse ( grc-gre, Θύρσος, Thúrsos, literally "thyrsus"; Spanish and pt, Tirso; french: link=no, Thyrse; died 251) is venerated as a Christian martyr. He was killed for his faith in Sozopolis, Pisidia, Sozopolis (Apolloni ...
at
Sozopolis, PisidiaSozopolis in Pisidia ( grc, Σωζόπολη της Πισιδίας), which had been called Apollonia (Ἀπολλωνία) and Apollonias (Ἀπολλωνίας) during Seleucid The Seleucid Empire (; grc, Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκι ...
, in
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of ...

Asia Minor
, were brought to
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
and then to
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
. His cult became popular in the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former kingdom in Spain * the Aragonese people, those originating from or living in the historical region ...

Iberian Peninsula
, where he is known as San Tirso or Santo Tirso. Some of his relics were brought to
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
: Thyrsus is thus the titular saint of the
cathedral of Sisteron
cathedral of Sisteron
in the
Basses Alpes Alpes-de-Haute-Provence (; oc, Aups d'Auta Provença; ) is a Departments of France, department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Regions of France, region of Southeastern France. Formerly part of the Provinces of France, province of Provence, i ...
, the Cathédrale Notre Dame et Saint Thyrse. Thyrsus is thus the
patron saint A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Catholic Church, Catholicism, Anglicanism, or Eastern Orthodoxy is regarded as the heavenly advocacy, advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, c ...
of Sisteron.
Liborius of Le Mans Liborius of Le Mans (c. 348–397) was the second Bishop of Le Mans The Catholic Diocese of Le Mans (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was orig ...
became patron saint of
Paderborn Paderborn () is a city in eastern North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, capital of the Paderborn (district), Paderborn district. The name of the city derives from the river Pader (river), Pader and ''Born'', an old German term for the source of a rive ...

Paderborn
, in Germany, after his relics were transferred there in 836.


History

In the early church, the disturbance, let alone the division, of the remains of martyrs and other saints, was not of concern or interest, much less practised. It was assumed that they would remain permanently in their often-unidentified resting places in cemeteries and the
catacombs of Rome The Catacombs of Rome ( it, Catacombe di Roma) are ancient catacombs catacombs in Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of R ...

catacombs of Rome
(but always outside the walls of the city, continuing a pagan taboo). Then,
martyrium A martyrium (Latin) or martyrion (ancient Greek, Greek), plural ''martyria'', sometimes anglicized martyry (pl. martyries), is a church or shrine built over the tomb of a Christian martyr. It is associated with a specific architectural form, cen ...
s began to be built over the site of the burial of saints. It came to be considered beneficial to the soul to be buried close to saintly remains, and as such, several large "funerary halls" were built over the sites of martyr's graves, the primary example being the
Old Saint Peter's Basilica Old St. Peter's Basilica was the building that stood, from the 4th to 16th centuries, where the new St. Peter's Basilica stands today in Vatican City. Construction of the basilica, built over the historical site of the Circus of Nero, began durin ...
. The earliest recorded removal of saintly remains was that of
Saint Babylas Babylas (died 253) was a patriarch of Antioch (237–253), who died in prison during the Decian persecution. In the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches of the Byzantine rite his feast day is September 4, in the Latin Catholic , R ...
at
Antioch Antioch on the Orontes (; grc, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου, ''Antiókheia hē epì Oróntou''; also Syrian Antioch) grc-koi, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ ...
in 354. However, partly perhaps because Constantinople lacked the many saintly graves of Rome, translations soon became common in the Eastern Empire, even though it was still prohibited in the West. The Eastern capital was able to acquire the remains of Saints
Timothy
Timothy
,
Andrew Andrew is the English form of a given name common in many countries. In the 1990s, it was among the top ten most popular names given to boys in List of countries where English is an official language, English-speaking countries. "Andrew" is freq ...

Andrew
and
Luke
Luke
. The division of bodies also began; the 5th-century theologian
Theodoretus Theodoret of Cyrus or Cyrrhus ( grc-gre, Θεοδώρητος Κύρρου; AD 393 –  458/466) was an influential theologian of the School of Antioch, biblical commentator, and Christianity, Christian bishop of Cyrrhus, Syria, Cyrrhus ...
declaring that "Grace remains entire with every part". An altar slab dated 357, found in North Africa but now in the
Louvre The Louvre ( ), or the Louvre Museum ( ), is the world's most-visited museum, and a historic landmark in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of Fr ...

Louvre
, records the deposit beneath it of relics from several prominent saints. Non-anatomical relics, above all that of the
True Cross The True Cross are the physical remnants which, by the tradition of some Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its ...

True Cross
, were divided and widely distributed from the 4th century. In the West a decree of
Theodosius I Theodosius I ( grc-gre, Θεοδόσιος ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also called Theodosius the Great, was Roman emperor from 379 to 395. During his reign, he faced and overcame a war against the Goths and two civil wars, and ...

Theodosius I
only allowed the moving of a whole
sarcophagus A sarcophagus (plural sarcophagi or sarcophaguses) is a box-like funeral receptacle for a cadaver, corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried. The word ''sarcophagus'' comes from th ...

sarcophagus
with its contents, but the upheavals of the barbarian invasions relaxed the rules, as remains needed to be relocated to safer places. In the 4th century,
Basil the Great Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great ( grc, Ἅγιος Βασίλειος ὁ Μέγας, ''Hágios Basíleios ho Mégas''; cop, Ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲃⲁⲥⲓⲗⲓⲟⲥ; 330 – January 1 or 2, 379), was an East Roman b ...
requested of the ruler of
Scythia Minor Scythia Minor or Lesser Scythia (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popul ...
, Junius Soranus (Saran), that he should send him the
relics In religion, a relic is an object or article of religious significance from the past, it usually consists of the physical remains of a saint or the personal effects of the saint or venerated person preserved for purposes of veneration Veneratio ...

relics
of saints of that region. Saran sent the relics of
Sabbas the Goth Sabbas the Goth ( ro, Sava Gotul, gr, Σάββας ο Γότθος; died 12 April 372) is a Christian martyr In Christianity Christianity is an , based on the and of . It is the , with about 2.5 billion followers. Its adherents, k ...
to him in
Caesarea Caesarea () (, he, קֵיסָרְיָה), ''Keysariya'' or ''Qesarya'', often simplified to Keisarya, and Qaysaria, is a town in north-central Israel, which inherits its name and much of its territory from the ancient city of Caesarea Maritima ...
,
Cappadocia Cappadocia (; also ''Capadocia''; grc, label=Ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past events
, in 373 or 374 accompanied by a letter, the "Epistle of the Church of God in Gothia to the Church of God located in Cappadocia and to all the Local Churches of the Holy Universal Church". The sending of Sabbas' relics and the writing of the actual letter has been attributed to
Bretannio Saint Bretannio (also Bretanion, Bretannion, Vetranio, Vetranion) was a Archbishop of Tomi (Constanţa), bishop of Tomi (today Constanţa, Romania) during the fourth century. Of Cappadocian origin, he occupied the see of Tomi from 360. According ...
. This letter is the oldest known writing to be composed on Romanian soil and was written in
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
. The spread of relics all over Europe from the 8th century onward is explained by the fact that after 787, all new Christian churches had to possess a relic before they could be properly
consecrated Consecration is the ritual, solemn dedication to a special purpose or service. The word ''consecration'' literally means "association with the sacred". Persons, places, or things can be consecrated, and the term is used in various ways by differen ...

consecrated
. New churches, situated in areas newly converted to Christianity, needed relics and this encouraged the translation of relics to far-off places. Relics became collectible items, and owning them became a symbol of prestige for cities, kingdoms, and monarchs, Relics were also desirable as they generated income from pilgrims traveling to venerate them. According to one legend concerning
Saint Paternian Paternian or Paternianus ( it, San Paterniano) is the name of an Italian saint. A native of Fermo who escaped to the mountains during the persecutions of Christians by Diocletian, he was then appointed bishop of Fano by Pope Sylvester I. (Paternia ...
, the inhabitants of
Fano Fano is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public services: Civil ...

Fano
competed with those of
Cervia Cervia ( rgn, Zirvia) is a seaside resort town in the province of Ravenna Ravenna ( , , also ; rgn, Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna The province of Ravenna ( it, provincia di Ravenna; ) is a province A province i ...
for possession of his relics. Cervia would be left with a finger, while Fano would possess the rest of the saint's relics. The translation of relics was a solemn and important event. In 1261, the
relics In religion, a relic is an object or article of religious significance from the past, it usually consists of the physical remains of a saint or the personal effects of the saint or venerated person preserved for purposes of veneration Veneratio ...

relics
of
Lucian of Beauvais Saint Lucian (Lucianus, Lucien) of Beauvais (died c. 290 AD) is a Christian martyr A martyr ( Greek: μάρτυς, ''mártys'', "witness"; stem μαρτυρ-, ''martyr-'') is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing ...
and his two companions were placed in a new
reliquary A reliquary (also referred to as a ''shrine'', by the French term ''châsse'', and historically including ''wikt:phylactery, phylacteries'') is a container for relics. A portable reliquary may be called a ''fereter'', and a chapel in which it is ...

reliquary
by William of Grès (Guillaume de Grès), the
bishop of Beauvais The Roman Catholic Diocese of Beauvais, Noyon, and Senlis (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known ...
. The translation took place in the presence of , the
king of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: link=no, Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was among the most powerful ...
, and , the
king of Navarre This is a list of the kings and queens of Pamplona Pamplona (; eu, Iruña or ; oc, Pampalona), historically known as Pampeluna in English, is the capital city of the Chartered Community of Navarre, in Spain , * gl, Reino de Espa ...
, as well as much of the French nobility. The memory of this translation was formerly celebrated in the abbey of Beauvais as the ''fête des Corps Saints''. On February 14, 1277, while work was being done at the church of St. John the Baptist (Johanniterkirche) in
Cologne Cologne ( ; german: Köln ; ksh, Kölle ) is the largest city of Germany, Germany's most populous States of Germany, state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and the List of cities in Germany by population, fourth-most populous city and one of t ...

Cologne
, the body of
Saint Cordula Saint Ursula (Latin for 'little female bear') is a legendary Romano-British culture, Romano-British Celtic Christianity, Christian saint, died on 21 October 383. Her feast day in the pre-1970 General Roman Calendar is 21 October. There is littl ...
, one of the companions of
Saint Ursula Saint Ursula (Latin for 'little female bear') is a legendary Romano-British culture, Romano-British Celtic Christianity, Christian saint who died on 21 October 383. Her feast day in the pre-1970 General Roman Calendar is 21 October. There is l ...
, was discovered. Her relics were found to be fragrant and on the forehead of the saint herself were written the words, "Cordula, Queen and Virgin". When
Albert the Great Albertus Magnus (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great or Albert of Cologne, was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany ...
, who had been residing in Cologne in his old age, had listened to the account of the finding of the relics, Some relics were translated from place to place, buffeted by the tides of wars and conflicts. The relics of Saint Leocadia were moved from
Toledo Toledo most commonly refers to: * Toledo, Spain, a city in Spain * Province of Toledo, Spain * Toledo, Ohio, a city in the United States Toledo may also refer to: Places Belize * Toledo District * Toledo Settlement Bolivia * Toledo, Oruro ...
to Oviedo during the reign of
Abd ar-Rahman II Abd ar-Rahman II () (792–852) was the fourth ''Umayyad'' Emir of Córdoba in the Al-Andalus Iberia The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Pénins ...
, and from Oviedo they were brought to
Saint-Ghislain Saint-Ghislain (; pcd, Saint-Guilagne; wa, Sint-Guilin) is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single having status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is sub ...
(in present-day
Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on cont ...

Belgium
). Her relics were venerated there by
Philip the Handsome Philip the Handsome, es, Felipe, french: Philippe, nl, Filips (22 July 1478 – 25 September 1506), also called the Fair, was ruler of the Burgundian Netherlands and titular ruler, titular Duke of Burgundy from 1482 to 1506 and the first Habsb ...

Philip the Handsome
and
Joanna of Castile Joanna I (6 November 1479 – 12 April 1555), historically known as Joanna the Mad ( es, link=no, Juana la Loca), was ''nominal'' Queen of Castile from 1504 to 1555. She was married by arrangement to Philip the Handsome, Archduke of Austria o ...

Joanna of Castile
, who recovered for Toledo a
tibia The tibia (; ), also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and anterior (frontal) of the two bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together ...

tibia
of the saint.
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alba (29 October 150711 December 1582), known as the Grand Duke of Alba (, pt, Grão Duque de Alba) in Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Esc ...
attempted unsuccessfully to rescue the rest of her relics. Finally, a Spanish Jesuit, after many travels, brought the rest of the saint's relics to
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
in 1586. From Rome they were brought to
Valencia Valencia ( va, València) is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia and the Municipalities of Spain, third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, surpassing 800,000 ...

Valencia
by sea, and then finally brought to Toledo from
Cuenca Cuenca may refer to: People * Cuenca (surname) Places Ecuador * Cuenca Canton, in the Azuay Province ** Cuenca, Ecuador, capital of Cuenca Canton and Azuay Province ** Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cuenca Peru * Cuenca District, Huarochirí * ...

Cuenca
.
Philip II of Spain Philip II) in Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption ...

Philip II of Spain
presided over a solemn ceremony commemorating the final translation of her relics to Toledo, in April 1587. Idesbald's relics were moved from their resting-place at the abbey of Ten Duinen after the
Geuzen Geuzen (; ; french: Les Gueux) was a name assumed by the confederacy of Calvinist Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism ...
("Sea Beggars") plundered the abbey in 1577; his relics were translated again to
Bruges Bruges ( , nl, Brugge ; ; german: Brügge ) is the capital and largest city of the Provinces of Belgium, province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country, and the seventh-largest city of the country b ...

Bruges
in 1796 to avoid having them destroyed by
Revolutionary A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates a revolution In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with mak ...
troops. The translation of the relics continued into modern times. On December 4, 1796, as a result of the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
, the
relics In religion, a relic is an object or article of religious significance from the past, it usually consists of the physical remains of a saint or the personal effects of the saint or venerated person preserved for purposes of veneration Veneratio ...

relics
of Saint Lutgardis were carried to
Ittre Ittre (Dutch language, Dutch: ''Itter ; Walloon language, Walloon: Ite)'' is a Wallonia, Walloon Municipalities of Belgium, municipality located in the Belgium, Belgian province of Walloon Brabant. Since the Fusion of the Belgian municipalities in ...
from Awirs. Her relics remain in Ittre.


Notable translations

Among the most famous translations is that of St Benedict of Nursia, author of the " Regula S. Benedicti", from
Cassino Cassino () is a ''comune'' in the province of Frosinone, central Italy, at the southern end of the region of Lazio, the last city of the Latin Valley. Cassino is located at the foot of Monte Cairo near the confluence of the Gari River, Gari and ...

Cassino
to Fleury, which Adrevald memorialized. In England, the lengthy travels of
St Cuthbert Cuthbert (c. 634 – 20 March 687), possibly Cutimbetas/ Stombast, was an Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group who inhabited England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United King ...
's remains to escape the
Vikings Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a in , with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In ...

Vikings
, and then his less respectful treatment after the
English Reformation The English Reformation took place in 16th-century England when the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church. These events were, in part, associated with the wider European Protestant Reformati ...
, have been much studied, as his coffin,
gospel book A Gospel Book, Evangelion, or Book of the Gospels (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast ...
and other items buried with him are now very rare representatives of
Anglo-Saxon art Anglo-Saxon art covers art produced within the Anglo-Saxons, Anglo-Saxon period of English history, beginning with the Migration period art, Migration period style that the Anglo-Saxons brought with them from the continent in the 5th century, ...
. Some well-known translations of relics include the removal of the body of
Saint Nicholas Saint Nicholas of Myra, ; la, Sanctus Nicolaus (traditionally 15 March 270 – 6 December 343), also known as Nicholas of Bari, was an early Christian The history of Christianity concerns the Christianity, Christian religion, Christend ...

Saint Nicholas
from
Myra Myra ( grc, Μύρα, ''Mýra'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided int ...

Myra
in
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of ...

Asia Minor
to
Bari Bari ( , ; nap, label= Barese, Bare ; lat, Barium; grc, Βάριον, translit=Bárion) is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari The Metropolitan City of Bari ( it, Città Metropolitana di Bari) is a Metropolitan cities of Italy, ...

Bari
,
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
in 1087. Tradesmen of Bari visited the relics of Saint Nicholas in 1087 after finding out their resting-place from the
monk A monk (, from el, μοναχός, ''monachos'', "single, solitary" via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (f ...

monk
s who guarded them. According to one account, the monks showed the resting-place but then became immediately suspicious: "Why you men, do you make such a request? You haven't planned to carry off the remains of the holy saint from here? You don't intend to remove it to your own region? If that is your purpose, then let it be clearly known to you that you parley with unyielding men, even if it mean our death." The tradesmen tried different tactics, including force, and manage to take hold of the relics. An anonymous chronicler writes about what happened when the inhabitants of Myra found out: Professor Nevzat Cevik, the Director of Archaeological Excavations in Demre (Myra), has recently recommended that the Turkish government should request the repatriation of St Nicholas' relics, alleging that it had always been the saint's intention to be buried in Myra. The Venetians, who also claimed to have some parts of St Nicholas, had another story: The Venetians brought the remains back to Venice, but on the way they left an arm of St Nicholas at Bari (The Morosini Codex 49A). In 828, Venetian merchants acquired the supposed relics of
Saint Mark the Evangelist Mark the Evangelist ( la, Marcus; el, Μᾶρκος, Mârkos; Aramaic: ܡܪܩܘܣ ''Marqōs'') is the traditionally ascribed author of the Gospel of Mark. Mark is said to have founded the Church of Alexandria, one of the Pentarchy, most importa ...

Saint Mark the Evangelist
from
Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic language, Coptic: Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the List of cities and towns in Egypt, third-largest city in Egypt after Cairo and Giza, ...

Alexandria
, Egypt. These are housed in
St Mark's Basilica The Patriarchal Cathedral Basilica of Saint Mark ( it, Basilica Cattedrale Patriarcale di San Marco), commonly known as St Mark's Basilica ( it, Basilica di San Marco; vec, Baxéłega de San Marco), is the cathedral A cathedral is a chu ...

St Mark's Basilica
; in 1968, a small fragment of bone was donated to the Coptic Church in Alexandria.


In recent times

A famous and recent example is the return of the relics of
John Chrysostom John Chrysostom (; gr, Ἰωάννης ὁ Χρυσόστομος; 14 September 407) was an important Early Church Father The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church were ancient and influential ...
and
Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nazianzus ( el, Γρηγόριος ὁ Ναζιανζηνός, ''Grēgorios ho Nazianzēnos''; c. 329''Liturgy of the Hours'' Volume I, Proper of Saints, 2 January. – 25 January 390), also known as Gregory the Theologian or Greg ...

Gregory of Nazianzus
to the
See of Constantinople The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople ( el, Οἰκουμενικὸν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, translit=Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos, ; la, Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constanti ...
(
Greek Orthodox Church The Greek Orthodox Church (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population ...

Greek Orthodox Church
) by
Pope John Paul II Pope John Paul II ( la, Ioannes Paulus II; it, Giovanni Paolo II; pl, Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła ; 18 May 19202 April 2005) was the head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Cathol ...

Pope John Paul II
in November 2004. Another modern example is the exhumation, display, and reburial of the relics of
Padre Pio Padre Pio, also known as Saint Pius of Pietrelcina ( it, Pio da Pietrelcina; 25 May 188723 September 1968), was an Italian Franciscan , image = FrancescoCoA PioM.svg , image_size = 250px , caption = A cro ...
in 2008–2009.


References


Further reading

* Patrick J. Geary, ''Furta Sacra'', Princeton University Press, 1975. * Eric W. Kemp, ''Canonization and Authority in the Western Church'', Oxford University Press, 1948.


External links

*
Relics
at the Catholic Encyclopedia

{{Authority control Catholic spirituality Catholic liturgy Christian saints