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Threatened species are any
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
(including
animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells ...

animal
s,
plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel ...

plant
s and
fungi A fungus (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ...

fungi
) which are vulnerable to
endangerment Endangerment is a type of crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition,Farmer, Li ...
in the near future. Species that are threatened are sometimes characterised by the
population dynamics Population dynamics is the type of mathematics used to model and study the size and age composition of population Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city or town, region, country, or the world. ...
measure of ''
critical depensation In population dynamics, depensation is the effect on a population In biology, a population is a number of all the organisms of the same group or species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classificati ...
'', a mathematical measure of
biomass Biomass is plant or animal material used as fuel to produce electricity Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position ...

biomass
related to
population growth rate Population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population In biology, a population is a number of all the organisms of the same group or species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, ...
. This quantitative metric is one method of evaluating the degree of endangerment.


IUCN definition

The
International Union for Conservation of Nature The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization An international organization (also known as an international institut ...
(IUCN) is the foremost authority on threatened species, and treats threatened species not as a single category, but as a group of three categories, depending on the degree to which they are threatened: *
Vulnerable species A vulnerable species is a species which has been Conservation status, categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature that is threatened species, threatened with extinction unless the circumstances that are threatened species, t ...
*
Endangered species An endangered species is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group ...
* Critically endangered species Less-than-threatened categories are
near threatened A near-threatened species is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest gr ...
,
least concern A least-concern species is a species that has been Conservation status, categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as evaluated as not being a focus of species conservation because the specific species is still plenti ...
, and the no longer assigned category of
conservation dependent A conservation-dependent species is a species which has been conservation status, categorised as "Conservation Dependent" ("LR/cd") by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), i.e. as dependent on conservation efforts to prevent ...
. Species which have not been evaluated (NE), or do not have sufficient data (
data deficient#REDIRECT Data deficient {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...
) also are not considered "threatened" by the IUCN. Although ''threatened'' and ''vulnerable'' may be used interchangeably when discussing IUCN categories, the term ''threatened'' is generally used to refer to the three categories (critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable), while ''vulnerable'' is used to refer to the least at risk of those three categories. They may be used interchangeably in most contexts however, as all vulnerable species are threatened species (''vulnerable'' is a category of ''threatened species''); and, as the more at-risk categories of threatened species (namely ''endangered'' and ''critically endangered'') must, by definition, also qualify as vulnerable species, all threatened species may also be considered vulnerable. Threatened species are also referred to as a
red-listed The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data Book), founded in 1964, is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global Conservation movement, conserv ...
species, as they are listed in the
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species The International Union for Conservation of Nature The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization An internationa ...
.
Subspecies In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interacti ...
, populations and stocks may also be classified as threatened.


By country


Australia


Federal

The
Commonwealth of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from ...
(federal government) has legislation for categorising and protecting endangered species, namely the ''
Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 The ''Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999'' (''EPBC Act''), long title ''An Act relating to the protection of the environment and the conservation of biodiversity, and for related purposes'', is an Statute, Act of the ...
'', which is known in short as the ''EPBC Act''. This Act has six categories: extinct, extinct in the wild, critically endangered, endangered, vulnerable, and conservation dependent, as defined in Section 179 of the Act. These could be summarised as: *"Extinct" - "no reasonable doubt that the last member of the species has died"; *"Extinct in the wild" - "known only to survive in cultivation" and "despite exhaustive surveys" has not been seen in the wild; *"Critically endangered" - "extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the immediate future"; *"Endangered" - "very high risk of extinction in the wild in the near future"; *"Vulnerable" - "high risk of extinction in the wild in medium-term future"; and *"Conservation dependent" - "focus of a specific conservation program" without which the species would enter one of the above categories. The ''EPBC Act'' also recognises and protects threatened ecosystems such as plant communities, and
Ramsar Convention The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands. It is also known as the Convention on Wetlands. It is named after th ...

Ramsar Convention
wetlands used by
migratory bird Bird migration is the regular seasonal movement, often north and south along a flyway, between breeding and wintering grounds. Many species of bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class (biology), class ...

migratory bird
s. Lists of threatened species are drawn up under the Act and these lists are the primary reference to threatened species in Australia. The ''Species Profile and Threats Database'' (SPRAT) is a searchable
online database An online database is a database In computing, a database is an organized collection of Data (computing), data stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal #Des ...
about species and ecological communities listed under the ''EPBC Act''. It provides information on what the species looks like, its population and distribution, habitat, movements, feeding, reproduction and taxonomic comments. A ''Threatened Mammal Index'', publicly launched on 22 April 2020 and combined with the ''Threatened Bird Index'' (created 2018) as the ''Threatened Species Index'', is a research collaboration of the National Environmental Science Program’s Threatened Species Recovery Hub, the
University of Queensland , mottoeng = By means of knowledge and hard work , established = , endowment = A$224.3 million , budget = A$2.1 billion , type = Public research university A public university or public college is a university A university ( la, un ...

University of Queensland
and
BirdLife Australia BirdLife Australia is the trading name of a company limited by guarantee In British, Irish and Australian company law Corporate law (also known as business law or enterprise law or sometimes company law) is the body of law governing the ...
. It does not show detailed data of individual species, but shows overall trends, and the data can be downloaded via a
web-app A web application (or web app) is application software that runs on a web server, unlike computer-based software programs that are run locally on the operating system (OS) of the device. Web applications are accessed by the user through a web brow ...

web-app
"to allow trends for different taxonomic groups or regions to be explored and compared". The Index uses
data visualisation Data visualization (often abbreviated ''data viz'') is an interdisciplinary field that deals with the graphic representation of data. It is a particularly efficient way of communicating when the data is numerous as for example a Time Series. ...
tools to show data clearly in graphic form, including a graph from 1985 to present of the main index, geographical representation, monitoring consistency and time series and species accumulation. In April 2020 the Mammal Index reported that there had been a decline of more than a third of threatened mammal numbers in the 20 years between 1995 and 2016, but the data also show that targeted conservation efforts are working. The ''Threatened Mammal Index'' "is compiled from more than 400,000 individual surveys, and contains population trends for 57 of Australia's threatened or near-threatened terrestrial and marine mammal species".


States and territories

Individual
states and territories of Australia The states and territories are federated administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many simila ...
are bound under the EPBC Act, but may also have legislation which gives further protection to certain species, for example
Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Western Australia
's '' Wildlife Conservation Act 1950''. Some species, such as Lewin's rail (''Lewinia pectoralis''), are not listed as threatened species under the EPBC Act, but they may be recognised as threatened by individual states or territories. Pests and weeds, climate change and habitat loss are some of the key threatening processes faced by native plants and animals listed by the
Department of Planning, Industry and Environment The New South Wales Department of Planning, Industry and Environment (DPIE) is a government department, department of the Government of New South Wales, New South Wales Government responsible for effective and sustainable planning and the develo ...
of
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
.


Germany

The
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
Federal Agency for Nature ConservationThe German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (german: Bundesamt für Naturschutz, BfN) is the German government's scientific authority with responsibility for national and international nature conservation. BfN is one of the government's departm ...
(german: Bundesamt für Naturschutz, BfN) publishes a regional Red List for Germany of at least 48000 animals and 24000 plants and fungi. The scheme for categorization is similar to that of the IUCN, but adds a "warning list", includes species endangered to an unknown extend, and rare species that are not endangered, but are highly at risk of extinction due to the small population.


Philippines


United States


Federal

Under the
Endangered Species Act The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA or "The Act"; 16 U.S.C. § 1531 et seq.) is the primary law in the United States for protecting imperiled species. Designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction Extinction is the te ...
in the United States, "threatened" is defined as "any species which is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range". It is the less protected of the two protected categories. The
Bay checkerspot butterfly The Bay checkerspot (''Euphydryas editha bayensis'') is a butterfly Butterflies are insect Insects or Insecta (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European ...
(''Euphydryas editha bayensis'') is an example of a threatened subspecies protected under the
Endangered Species Act The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA or "The Act"; 16 U.S.C. § 1531 et seq.) is the primary law in the United States for protecting imperiled species. Designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction Extinction is the te ...
.


States

Within the U.S., state wildlife agencies have the authority under the ESA to manage species which are considered endangered or threatened within their state but not within all states, and which therefore are not included on the national list of endangered and threatened species. For example, the
trumpeter swan The trumpeter swan (''Cygnus buccinator'') is a species of swan found in North America. The heaviest living bird native to North America, it is also the largest extant species of waterfowl, with a wingspan of 185 to 250 cm (6 ft 2 in to 8 ft 2 in) ...

trumpeter swan
(''Cygnus buccinator'') is threatened in the state of
Minnesota Minnesota () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Minnesota
, while large populations still remain in
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
and
Alaska Alaska (; ale, Alax̂sxax̂; ; ems, Alas'kaaq; Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, Yup'ik: ''Alaskaq''; tli, Anáaski) is a U.S. state in the Western United States, on the northwest extremity of the country's West Coast of the United State ...

Alaska
.


See also

* Biodiversity Action Plan *
IUCN Red List The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data Book), founded in 1964, is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global Conservation movement, conser ...
*
Illegal logging Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of laws. The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including using corruption, corrupt means to gain access to forests; extraction without permission, o ...

Illegal logging
*
Rare species A rare species is a group of organisms In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classified by taxonomy (biolog ...
*
Red Red is the color at the long wavelength end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet. It has a dominant wavelength Image:dominant wavelength.png, frame, Dominant/complementary wavelength example on the CIE color ...
and blue-listed *
Slash-and-burn Slash-and-burn agriculture is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest or woodland to create a Field (agriculture), field called a swidden. The method begins by cutting down the trees and woody plants in an ...
*
Threatened fauna of Australia Threatened species are any species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group ...


Notes and references


Further reading

*Sharrock, S. and Jones, M. 2009
Conserving Europe's threatened plants
Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) {{Portal bar, Environment, Ecology, Biology Biota by conservation status International Union for Conservation of Nature Environmental conservation Ecological restoration Population dynamics