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The theory of constructed emotion (formerly the conceptual act model of emotion) is a
social constructionist Social constructionism is a theory of knowledge Epistemology (; ) is the branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epist ...
theory in affective science proposed by
Lisa Feldman Barrett Lisa Feldman Barrett is a distinguished professor of psychology Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or some ...
to explain the experience and perception of
emotion Emotions are psychological state A mental state is a state of mind that an agent is in. Most simplistically, a mental state is a mental condition. It is a relation that connects the agent with a proposition. Several of these states are a comb ...

emotion
.


Motivation

Barrett proposed the theory to resolve what she calls the "emotion paradox," which she claims has perplexed emotion researchers for decades, and describes as follows: People have vivid and intense experiences of emotion in day-to-day life: they report seeing emotions like "anger", "sadness", and "happiness" in others, and they report experiencing "anger", "sadness" and so on themselves. Nevertheless, psychophysiological and neuroscientific evidence has failed to yield consistent support for the existence of such discrete categories of experience. Instead, the
empirical evidence Empirical evidence for a proposition In logic and linguistics, a proposition is the meaning of a declarative sentence (linguistics), sentence. In philosophy, "Meaning (philosophy), meaning" is understood to be a non-linguistic entity which is s ...
suggests that what exists in the brain and body is
affect Affect may refer to: * Affect (education) In education, affect is broadly defined as the attitudes, Emotion, emotions, and values present in an educational environment. The two main types of affect are professional affect and student affect. Pro ...
, and emotions are constructed by multiple brain networks working in tandem. Most other theories of emotion assume that emotions are , not learned, and are produced by dedicated circuits in the brain: an anger circuit, a fear circuit, and so on. The theory of constructed emotion calls this assumption into question. It suggests that these emotions (often called "
basic emotions Emotion classification, the means by which one may distinguish or contrast one emotion from another, is a contested issue in emotion research and in affective science. Researchers have approached the classification of emotions from one of two fun ...
") are not biologically hardwired, but instead are phenomena that emerge in consciousness "in the moment" from more fundamental ingredients.


Statement of the theory

The theory is given in simplified form as:
"In every waking moment, your brain uses past experience, organized as concepts, to guide your actions and give your sensations meaning. When the concepts involved are emotion concepts, your brain constructs instances of emotion."
In greater detail, instances of emotion are constructed throughout the entire brain by multiple brain networks in collaboration. Ingredients going into this construction include
interoception Interoception is contemporarily defined as the sense A sense is a biological system used by an organism for sensation, the process of gathering information about the world and responding to Stimulus (physiology), stimuli. (For example, in th ...

interoception
,
concept Concepts are defined as abstract ideas In common usage and in philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physi ...

concept
s, and . Interoceptive predictions provide information about the state of the body and ultimately produce basic, affective feelings of pleasure, displeasure, arousal, and calmness. Concepts are culturally embodied knowledge, including "emotion concepts". Social reality provides the collective agreement and language that make the perception of emotion possible among people who share a culture. As an analogy, consider the experience of color. People experience colors as discrete categories: blue, red, yellow, and so on, and these categories vary in different cultures. The physics of color, however, is actually continuous, with wavelengths measured in nanometers along a scale from ultraviolet to infrared. When a person experiences an object as "blue", she is (unconsciously) using her color concepts to categorize this wavelength. And in fact, people experience a whole range of wavelengths as "blue." Likewise, emotions are commonly thought of as discrete and distinct — fear, anger, happiness — while
affect Affect may refer to: * Affect (education) In education, affect is broadly defined as the attitudes, Emotion, emotions, and values present in an educational environment. The two main types of affect are professional affect and student affect. Pro ...
(produced by interoception) is continuous. The theory of constructed emotion suggests that at a given moment, the brain predicts and categorizes the present moment (of continuous affect) via interoceptive predictions and the "emotion concepts" from one's culture, to construct an instance of emotion, just as one perceives discrete colors. This process instantiates the experience of "having an emotion". For example, if someone's brain predicts the presence of a
snake Snakes are elongated, limbless, carnivorous A carnivore , meaning "meat Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food. Humans have hunted and killed animals for meat since prehistoric times. The advent of civilization allowed the dome ...

snake
as well as the unpleasant affect that would result upon encountering a snake ("interoceptive prediction"), that brain might categorize and construct an experience of "
fear Fear is an intensely unpleasant emotion Emotions are psychological state A mental state is a state of mind that an agent is in. Most simplistically, a mental state is a mental condition. It is a relation that connects the agent with a pr ...

fear
." This process takes place before any actual sensory input of a snake reaches conscious awareness. In contrast, a "
basic emotions Emotion classification, the means by which one may distinguish or contrast one emotion from another, is a contested issue in emotion research and in affective science. Researchers have approached the classification of emotions from one of two fun ...
" researcher would say that the person first sees the snake, and this sensory input triggers a dedicated "fear circuit" in the brain.


Earlier incarnations of the theory

Early incarnations of the theory were phrased in terms of core affect rather than interoception. Core affect is a neurophysiological state characterized along two dimensions: * Pleasure vs. displeasure, measured along a continuous scale from positive to negative. * High arousal vs. low arousal, measured along a continuous scale between these endpoints. According to the original conceptual act model, emotion is generated when a person categorizes his/her core affective state using knowledge about emotion. This theory combines elements of
linguistic relativity The hypothesis of linguistic relativity, also known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis , the Whorf hypothesis, or Whorfianism, is a principle suggesting that the structure of a language A language is a structured system of communication ...
and
affective neuroscience Affective neuroscience is the study of the nervous system, neural mechanisms of emotion. This interdisciplinary field combines neuroscience with the psychology, psychological study of personality psychology, personality, emotion, and Mood (psycho ...
. The term "core affect" was first used in print by Russell and Barrett in 1999 in ''Journal of Personality and Social Psychology'' where it is used to refer to the affective feelings that are part of every conscious state (as discussed by Wundt in his 1889 ''System der Philosophie''). The term "core affect" also appears to have been used as a phrase that relates to neuropsychological understanding of behavior as a morbid affect at the roots of any type of human behavior.


Other researchers

Joseph LeDoux Joseph E. LeDoux (born December 7, 1949) is an American neuroscientist whose research is primarily focused on survival circuits, including their impacts on emotions such as fear and anxiety. LeDoux is the Henry and Lucy Moses Professor of Science a ...
has reached similar views. The theory denies "essentialism" (and thus biological inheritance) of affect, such as the seven primary affective systems proposed by the affective neuroscientist
Jaak Panksepp Jaak Panksepp (June 5, 1943 – April 18, 2017) was an Estonian American, Estonian-American neuroscientist and psychobiology, psychobiologist who coined the term "affective neuroscience", the name for the field that studies the neural mechanisms ...
. Panksepp summarized the theory of constructed emotion as an "attributional–dimensional constructivist view of human emotions postulates that positive and negative core affects are the basic feelings—the primary processes—from which emotional concepts are cognitively and
socially constructed Social constructionism is a theory of knowledge Epistemology (; ) is the branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epist ...
".


References

{{Emotion-footer Emotion Psychological theories Social constructionism