Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine
and, more broadly, of religious belief. It is taught as an academic discipline
, typically in universities and seminaries
. It occupies itself with the unique content of analyzing the supernatural
, but also deals with religious epistemology
, asks and seeks to answer the question of revelation
. Revelation pertains to the acceptance of God
, or deities
, as not only transcendent or above the natural world, but also willing and able to interact with the natural world and, in particular, to reveal themselves to humankind. While theology has turned into a secular field
, religious adherents still consider theology to be a discipline that helps them live and understand concepts such as life and love and that helps them lead lives of obedience to the deities they follow or worship.
Theologians use various forms of analysis and argument (experiential
, and others) to help understand
, test, critique
, defend or promote any myriad of religious topics
. As in philosophy of ethics
and case law
, arguments often assume the existence of previously resolved questions, and develop by making analogies from them to draw new inferences in new situations.
The study of theology may help a theologian more deeply understand their own religious tradition
, another religious tradition, or it may enable them to explore the nature of divinity without reference to any specific tradition. Theology may be used to propagate
, reform, or justify
a religious tradition; or it may be used to compare
, challenge (e.g. biblical criticism
), or oppose (e.g. irreligion
) a religious tradition or worldview
. Theology might also help a theologian address some present situation or need through a religious tradition, or to explore possible ways of interpreting the world.
The term derives from the Greek
''theologia'' (θεολογία), a combination of ''theos'' (Θεός, 'god
') and ''logia
'' (λογία, 'utterances, sayings, oracle
s')—the latter word relating to Greek ''logos
'' (λόγος, 'word, discourse
, account, reasoning
'). The term would pass on to Latin as ''theologia'', then French as ''théologie'', eventually becoming the English ''theology''.
Through several variants (e.g., ''theologie'', ''teologye''), the English ''theology'' had evolved into its current form by 1362. The sense the word has in English depends in large part on the sense the Latin and Greek equivalents had acquired in patristic
Christian usage, although the English term has now spread beyond Christian contexts.
Greek ''theologia'' (θεολογία) was used with the meaning 'discourse on God' around 380 BC by Plato
in ''The Republic
divided theoretical philosophy into ''mathematike'', ''physike'', and ''theologike'', with the latter corresponding roughly to metaphysics
, which, for Aristotle, included discourse on the nature of the divine.
Drawing on Greek Stoic
distinguished three forms of such discourse:
''City of God'' VI
, concerning the myths of the Greek gods;
# rational, philosophical analysis of the gods and of cosmology; and
# civil, concerning the rites and duties of public religious observance.
Some Latin Christian authors, such as Tertullian
, followed Varro's threefold usage.
However, Augustine also defined ''theologia'' as "reasoning or discussion concerning the Deity."
[Augustine of Hippo. ''City of God']
Book VIII. i.
: "de divinitate rationem sive sermonem."
Latin author Boethius
, writing in the early 6th century, used ''theologia'' to denote a subdivision of philosophy as a subject of academic study, dealing with the motionless, incorporeal reality; as opposed to ''physica'', which deals with corporeal
, moving realities. Boethius' definition influenced medieval Latin usage.
Greek Christian sources, ''theologia'' could refer narrowly to devout and inspired knowledge of, and teaching about, the essential nature of God.
Latin sources, the term came to denote the rational study of the doctrine
s of the Christian religion
, or (more precisely) the academic discipline
which investigated the coherence and implications of the language and claims of the Bible and of the theological tradition (the latter often as represented in Peter Lombard
'', a book of extracts from the Church Fathers
In the Renaissance
, especially with Florentine Platonist apologists of Dante
's poetics, the distinction between 'poetic theology' (''theologia poetica
'') and 'revealed' or Biblical theology
serves as stepping stone for a revival of philosophy as independent of theological authority.
It is in this last sense, theology as an academic discipline involving rational study of Christian teaching, that the term passed into English in the 14th century, although it could also be used in the narrower sense found in Boethius and the Greek patristic authors, to mean rational study of the essential nature of God—a discourse now sometimes called theology proper
From the 17th century onwards, it also became possible to use the term ''theology'' to refer to study of religious ideas and teachings that are not specifically Christian (e.g., in the term ''natural theology
'', which denoted theology based on reasoning from natural facts independent of specifically Christian revelation) or that are specific to another religion (such as below).
''Theology'' can also now be used in a derived sense to mean "a system of theoretical principles; an (impractical or rigid) ideology."
The term ''theology'' has been deemed by some as only appropriate to the study of religions that worship a supposed deity
(a ''theos''), i.e. more widely than monotheism
; and presuppose a belief in the ability to speak and reason
about this deity (in ''logia
''). They suggest the term is less appropriate in religious contexts that are organized differently (i.e., religions without a single deity, or that deny that such subjects can be studied logically). ''Hierology
'' has been proposed, by such people as Eugène Goblet d'Alviella
(1908), as an alternative, more generic term.
As defined by Thomas Aquinas
, theology is constituted by a triple aspect: what is taught by God, teaches of God and leads to God ( la|Theologia a Deo docetur, Deum docet, et ad Deum ducit). This indicates the three distinct areas of God as theophanic revelation
, the systematic study of the nature of divine
and, more generally, of religious belief
, and the spiritual path
. Christian theology as the study of Christian belief and practice concentrates primarily upon the texts of the Old Testament
and the New Testament
as well as on Christian tradition. Christian theologians use biblical exegesis, rational analysis and argument. Theology might be undertaken to help the theologian better understand Christian tenets, to make comparisons between Christianity and other traditions, to defend Christianity against objections and criticism, to facilitate reforms in the Christian church, to assist in the propagation of Christianity, to draw on the resources of the Christian tradition to address some present situation or need, or for a variety of other reasons.
Islamic theological discussion that parallels Christian theological discussion is called ''Kalam
''; the Islamic analogue of Christian theological discussion would more properly be the investigation and elaboration of ''Sharia
'' or ''Fiqh
In Jewish theology, the historical absence of political authority has meant that most theological reflection has happened within the context of the Jewish community and synagogue
, including through rabbinical
discussion of Jewish law
(rabbinic biblical commentaries). Jewish theology is linked to ethics
and therefore has implications for how one behaves.
Some academic inquiries within Buddhism
, dedicated to the investigation of a Buddhist understanding of the world, prefer the designation Buddhist philosophy
to the term ''Buddhist theology'', since Buddhism lacks the same conception of a ''theos''. Jose Ignacio Cabezon, who argues that the use of ''theology'' is in fact appropriate, can only do so, he says, because "I take theology not to be restricted to discourse on God.… I take 'theology' not to be restricted to its etymological meaning. In that latter sense, Buddhism is of course ''a''theological, rejecting as it does the notion of God."
Within Hindu philosophy
, there is a tradition of philosophical speculation on the nature of the universe, of God (termed Brahman
, and/or Bhagavan
in some schools of Hindu thought) and of the ''ātman''
(soul). The Sanskrit
word for the various schools of Hindu philosophy is ''darśana
'' ('view, viewpoint'). Vaishnava theology
has been a subject of study for many devotees, philosophers and scholars in India
for centuries. A large part of its study lies in classifying and organizing the manifestations of thousands of gods and their aspects. In recent decades the study of Hinduism has also been taken up by a number of academic institutions in Europe, such as the Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies
and Bhaktivedanta College
In Japan, the term ''theology'' () has been ascribed to Shinto
since the Edo period
with the publication of Mano Tokitsuna's ''Kokon shingaku ruihen'' (). In modern times, other terms are used to denote studies in Shinto—as well as Buddhist—belief, such as ''kyōgaku'' () and ''shūgaku'' ().
English academic Graham Harvey has commented that Pagans
"rarely indulge in theology." Nevertheless, theology has been applied in some sectors across contemporary Pagan communities, including Wicca
. As these religions have given precedence to orthopraxy
, theological views often vary among adherents. The term is used by Christine Kraemer in her book ''Seeking The Mystery: An Introduction to Pagan Theologies'' and by Michael York
in ''Pagan Theology: Paganism as a World Religion
defines ''theology'' as "the science of things divine." The term can, however, be used for a variety of disciplines or fields of study. Theology considers whether the divine exists in some form, such as in physical
, or social realities
, and what evidence for and about it may be found via personal spiritual experiences or historical records of such experiences as documented by others. The study of these assumptions is not part of theology proper
, but is found in the philosophy of religion
, and increasingly through the psychology of religion
. Theology then aims to structure and understand these experiences and concepts, and to use them to derive normative prescriptions for how to live our lives
History of academic discipline
The history of the study of theology in institutions of higher education is as old as the history
of such institutions themselves. For instance:
was an early centre of Vedic learning
, possible from the 6th-century BC or earlier;
[Scharfe, Hartmut. 2002. ''Education in Ancient India''. Leiden: Brill.]
* the Platonic Academy
founded in Athens in the 4th-century BC seems to have included theological themes in its subject matter;
* the Chinese Taixue
teaching from the 2nd century BC;
* the School of Nisibis
was a centre of Christian learning from the 4th century AD;
in India was a site of Buddhist higher learning from at least the 5th or 6th century AD;
* the Moroccan University of Al-Karaouine
was a centre of Islamic learning from the 10th century, as was Al-Azhar University
The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church
by papal bull
as ''studia generalia
'' and perhaps from cathedral school
s. It is possible, however, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception. Later they were also founded by Kings (University of Naples Federico II
, Charles University in Prague
, Jagiellonian University in Kraków
) or municipal administrations (University of Cologne
, University of Erfurt
In the early medieval period
, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools, usually when these schools were deemed to have become primarily sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by monasteries. Christian theological learning was, therefore, a component in these institutions, as was the study of Church or Canon law
: universities played an important role in training people for ecclesiastical offices, in helping the church pursue the clarification and defence of its teaching, and in supporting the legal rights of the church over against secular rulers. At such universities, theological study was initially closely tied to the life of faith and of the church: it fed, and was fed by, practices of preaching
and celebration of the Mass
During the High Middle Ages, theology was the ultimate subject at universities, being named "The Queen of the Sciences" and served as the capstone to the Trivium
that young men were expected to study. This meant that the other subjects (including philosophy
) existed primarily to help with theological thought.
Christian theology's preeminent place in the university began to be challenged during the European Enlightenment
, especially in Germany.
[Howard, Thomas Albert. 2006. ]
Protestant Theology and the Making of the Modern German University
'' Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Other subjects gained in independence and prestige, and questions were raised about the place of a discipline that seemed to involve a commitment to the authority of particular religious traditions in institutions that were increasingly understood to be devoted to independent reason.
Since the early 19th century, various different approaches have emerged in the West to theology as an academic discipline. Much of the debate concerning theology's place in the university or within a general higher education curriculum centres on whether theology's methods are appropriately theoretical and (broadly speaking) scientific or, on the other hand, whether theology requires a pre-commitment of faith by its practitioners, and whether such a commitment conflicts with academic freedom.
In some contexts, theology has been held to belong in institutions of higher education primarily as a form of professional training for Christian ministry. This was the basis on which Friedrich Schleiermacher
, a liberal theologian, argued for the inclusion of theology in the new University of Berlin
For instance, in Germany
, theological faculties at state universities are typically tied to particular denominations, Protestant or Roman Catholic, and those faculties will offer denominationally-bound ''(konfessionsgebunden)'' degrees, and have denominationally bound public posts amongst their faculty; as well as contributing "to the development and growth of Christian knowledge" they "provide the academic training for the future clergy and teachers of religious instruction at German schools."
In the United States, several prominent colleges and universities were started in order to train Christian ministers. Harvard
, Boston University
, Duke University
, and Princeton
all had the theological training of clergy as a primary purpose at their foundation.
Seminaries and bible colleges have continued this alliance between the academic study of theology and training for Christian ministry. There are, for instance, numerous prominent examples in the United States, including Catholic Theological Union
in Chicago, The Graduate Theological Union
in Berkeley, Criswell College
in Dallas, The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary
in Louisville, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School
in Deerfield, Illinois, Andersonville Theological Seminary
in Camilla, Georgia, Dallas Theological Seminary
, North Texas Collegiate Institute in Farmers Branch, Texas and the Assemblies of God Theological Seminary
in Springfield, Missouri.
As an academic discipline in its own right
In some contexts, scholars pursue theology as an academic discipline without formal affiliation to any particular church (though members of staff may well have affiliations to churches), and without focussing on ministerial training. This applies, for instance, to many university departments in the United Kingdom
, including the Faculty of Divinity at the University of Cambridge
, the Department of Theology and Religion at the University of Exeter
, and the Department of Theology and Religious Studies at the University of Leeds
. Traditional academic prizes, such as the University of Aberdeen
's Lumsden and Sachs Fellowship
, tend to acknowledge performance in theology (or divinity
as it is known at Aberdeen) and in religious studies.
In some contemporary contexts, a distinction is made between theology, which is seen as involving some level of commitment to the claims of the religious tradition being studied, and religious studies
, which by contrast is normally seen as requiring that the question of the truth or falsehood of the religious traditions studied be kept outside its field. Religious studies involves the study of historical or contemporary practices or of those traditions' ideas using intellectual tools and frameworks that are not themselves specifically tied to any religious tradition and that are normally understood to be neutral or secular. In contexts where 'religious studies' in this sense is the focus, the primary forms of study are likely to include:
* Anthropology of religion
* Comparative religion
* History of religion
* Philosophy of religion
* Psychology of religion
* Sociology of religion
Sometimes, theology and religious studies are seen as being in tension, and at other times, they are held to coexist without serious tension. Occasionally it is denied that there is as clear a boundary between them.
Whether or not reasoned discussion about the divine is possible has long been a point of contention. Protagoras
, as early as the fifth century BC
, who is reputed to have been exiled from Athens because of his agnosticism
about the existence of the gods, said that "Concerning the gods I cannot know either that they exist or that they do not exist, or what form they might have, for there is much to prevent one's knowing: the ''obscurity of the subject'' and the shortness of man's life."
Since at least the eighteenth century, various authors have criticized the suitability of theology as an academic discipline.
In 1772, Baron d'Holbach
labeled theology "a continual insult to human reason" in ''Le Bon sens''.
, an English politician and political philosopher, wrote in Section IV of his ''Essays on Human Knowledge'', "Theology is in fault not religion. Theology is a science that may justly be compared to the Box of Pandora
. Many good things lie uppermost in it; but many evil lie under them, and scatter plagues and desolation throughout the world."
, a Deistic
American political theorist and pamphleteer
, wrote in his three-part work ''The Age of Reason
'' (1794, 1795, 1807):
The study of theology, as it stands in Christian churches, is the study of nothing; it is founded on nothing; it rests on no principles; it proceeds by no authorities; it has no data; it can demonstrate nothing; and it admits of no conclusion. Not anything can be studied as a science, without our being in possession of the principles upon which it is founded; and as this is the case with Christian theology, it is therefore the study of nothing.
The German atheist
philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach
sought to dissolve theology in his work ''Principles of the Philosophy of the Future'': "The task of the modern era was the realization and humanization of God – the transformation and dissolution of theology into anthropology." This mirrored his earlier work ''The Essence of Christianity
'' (1841), for which he was banned from teaching in Germany, in which he had said that theology was a "web of contradictions and delusions."
The American satirist Mark Twain
remarked in his essay "The Lowest Animal
", originally written in around 1896, but not published until after Twain's death in 1910, that:
anis the only animal that loves his neighbor as himself and cuts his throat if his theology isn't straight. He has made a graveyard of the globe in trying his honest best to smooth his brother's path to happiness and heaven.… The higher animals have no religion. And we are told that they are going to be left out in the Hereafter. I wonder why? It seems questionable taste.
20th and 21st centuries
A. J. Ayer
, a British former logical-positivist
, sought to show in his essay "Critique of Ethics and Theology" that all statements about the divine are nonsensical and any divine-attribute is unprovable. He wrote: "It is now generally admitted, at any rate by philosophers, that the existence of a being having the attributes which define the god of any non-animistic religion cannot be demonstratively proved.…
l utterances about the nature of God are nonsensical."
philosopher Walter Kaufmann
, in his essay "Against Theology", sought to differentiate theology from religion in general:
[Kaufmann, Walter. 1963. ''The Faith of a Heretic''. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books. pp. 114, 127–28, 130.]
Theology, of course, is not religion; and a great deal of religion is emphatically anti-theological.… An attack on theology, therefore, should not be taken as necessarily involving an attack on religion. Religion can be, and often has been, untheological or even anti-theological.
However, Kaufmann found that "Christianity is inescapably a theological religion."
English atheist Charles Bradlaugh
believed theology prevented human beings from achieving liberty, although he also noted that many theologians of his time held that, because modern scientific research sometimes contradicts sacred scriptures, the scriptures must therefore be wrong. Robert G. Ingersoll
, an American agnostic lawyer, stated that, when theologians had power, the majority of people lived in hovels, while a privileged few had palaces and cathedrals. In Ingersoll's opinion, it was science that improved people's lives, not theology. Ingersoll further maintained that trained theologians reason no better than a person who assumes the devil must exist because pictures resemble the devil so exactly.
The British evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins
has been an outspoken critic of theology.
In an article published in ''The Independent
'' in 1993, he severely criticizes theology as entirely useless,
declaring that it has completely and repeatedly failed to answer any questions about the nature of reality or the human condition.
He states, "I have never heard any of them .e. theologians
ever say anything of the smallest use, anything that was not either platitudinously obvious or downright false."
He then states that, if all theology were completely eradicated from the earth, no one would notice or even care. He concludes:
The achievements of theologians don't do anything, don't affect anything, don't achieve anything, don't even mean anything. What makes you think that 'theology' is a subject at all?
on ''Encyclopædia Britannica
* Chattopadhyay, Subhasis"Reflections on Hindu Theology"
in Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India
120(12):664-672 (2014). ISSN 0032-6178. Edited by Swami Narasimhananda.