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New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
is composed of five
borough A borough is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for ...
s:
The Bronx The Bronx () is a borough of New York City New York City is composed of five boroughs: The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. Each borough is coextensive with a respective Administrative divisions of New York (state)#Count ...
,
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the te ...

Brooklyn
,
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
,
Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by po ...

Queens
, and
Staten Island Staten Island () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use o ...

Staten Island
. Each borough is coextensive with a respective
county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ...
of
New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Col ...
. The boroughs of Queens and the Bronx are also Queens County and Bronx County. The other three counties are named differently from their boroughs: Manhattan is New York County, Brooklyn is Kings County, and Staten Island is Richmond County. All five boroughs came into existence with the creation of modern New York City in 1898, when New York County, Kings County, part of Queens County, and Richmond County were consolidated within one municipal government under a new
City CharterA city charter or town charter (generically, municipal charter) is a legal document (''charter A charter is the grant of authority or rights Rights are law, legal, social, or ethics, ethical principles of Liberty, freedom or entitlement; that ...
. All former municipalities within the newly consolidated city were eliminated. New York City was originally confined to Manhattan Island and the smaller surrounding islands that formed New York County. As the city grew northward, it began annexing areas on the mainland, absorbing territory from
Westchester County Westchester County is located in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North ...
into New York County in 1874 (
West Bronx The West Bronx is a region in the New York City borough of the Bronx. The region lies west of the Bronx River and roughly corresponds to the western half of the borough. The West Bronx is more densely populated than the East Bronx, and is closer ...
) and 1895 (
East Bronx The East Bronx is the part of the New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from , or NYC for short, is the in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is als ...
). During the 1898 consolidation, this territory was organized as the Borough of the Bronx, though still part of New York County. In 1914, Bronx County was split off from New York County so that each borough was then coterminous with a county. When the western part of Queens County was consolidated with New York City in 1898, that area became the Borough of Queens. In 1899, the remaining eastern section of Queens County was split off to form Nassau County, thereafter making the borough and county of Queens coterminous.


Terminology

The term ''borough'' was adopted in 1898 to describe a form of
governmental administration The term administration, as used in the context of government, differs according to jurisdiction. United States In Americans, American usage, the term generally refers to the Federal government of the United States#Executive branch, executive bra ...

governmental administration
for each of the five fundamental constituent parts of the newly consolidated city. Under the 1898 City Charter adopted by the New York State Legislature, a borough is a
municipal corporation A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body An Academy school in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west a ...
that is created when a county is merged with populated areas within it. The limited powers of the boroughs are inferior to the authority of the
government of New York City A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...
, contrasting significantly with the powers of boroughs as that term is used in
Connecticut Connecticut () is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 United States census, 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, second-highest level of List of U.S. states and territories by H ...
,
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ea ...
, and
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...
, where a borough is an independent level of government, as well as with borough forms used in other states and in
Greater London Greater London is an Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, administrative area governed by the Greater London Authority, and a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that covers the bulk of the same area ...

Greater London
.


Background

New York City is often referred to collectively as the five boroughs, which can unambiguously refer to the city proper as a whole, avoiding confusion with any particular borough or with the Greater New York metropolitan area. The term is also used by politicians to counter a frequent focus on Manhattan and thereby to place all five boroughs on equal footing. In the same vein, the term ''outer boroughs'' refers to all of the boroughs excluding Manhattan, even though the geographic center of the city is along the Brooklyn–Queens border.


Changes

All five boroughs were created in 1898 during consolidation, when the city's current boundaries were established. The Bronx originally included parts of New York County outside of Manhattan that had previously been ceded by neighboring
Westchester County Westchester County is located in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North ...
in two stages; in 1874 ( southern Yonkers, and the towns of
Kingsbridge Kingsbridge is a market town and tourist hub in the South Hams South Hams is a local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguish from unofficial city ...
, West Farms, and
Morrisania Morrisania ( ) is a residential neighborhood in the southwestern Bronx, New York City, New York (state), New York. Its boundaries are the Cross-Bronx Expressway to the north, Crotona-Prospect Avenue to the east, East 161st Street to the south, and ...
) and then following a
referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct Direct may refer to: Mathematics * Directed set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number th ...

referendum
in 1894 (towns of
Westchester Westchester may refer to: __NOTOC__ Geography *Westchester Station, Nova Scotia, Canada United States *Westchester, Connecticut *Westchester, Florida *Westchester, Illinois *Westchester, Indiana *Westchester, Los Angeles, California *Westchester Co ...
, Williamsbridge, and the southern portion of Eastchester). Ultimately in 1914, the present-day separate Bronx County became the last county to be created in the State of New York. The borough of Queens consists of what formerly was only the western part of a then-larger Queens County. In 1899, the three eastern towns of Queens County that had not joined the city the year before—the towns of Hempstead,
North Hempstead The Town of North Hempstead is one of three Administrative divisions of New York#Town, towns in Nassau County, New York, Nassau County, New York (state), New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town population was 226,322. The town oc ...
, and Oyster Bay—formally seceded from Queens County to form the new Nassau County. The borough of Staten Island, concurrent with Richmond County, was officially the borough of Richmond until the name was changed in 1975 to reflect its common appellation, while leaving the name of the county unchanged.


Description of the boroughs

There are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods throughout the five boroughs of New York City, many with a definable history and character to call their own. *
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
(New York County) is the geographically smallest and most densely populated borough; is the symbol of New York City, as home to most of the city's
skyscraper A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as being at least 100 metres or 150 metres in height, though there is no universally accepted definition. Skyscrapers ar ...

skyscraper
s and prominent landmarks, including
Times Square Times Square is a major commercial intersection, tourist destination, entertainment center, and in the section of , at the junction of and . Brightly lit by numerous billboards and advertisements, it stretches from West to West Streets, an ...

Times Square
and
Central Park Central Park is an urban park in New York City located between the Upper West Side, Upper West and Upper East Sides of Manhattan. It is the List of New York City parks, fifth-largest park in the city by area, covering . It is the most visited ...

Central Park
; and may be locally known simply as ''The City''. Manhattan's (New York County's) population density of 72,033 people per square mile (27,812/km2) in 2015 makes it the
highest of any county in the United States
highest of any county in the United States
and higher than the density of any individual U.S. city. Manhattan is the cultural, administrative, and
financial center A financial centre, financial center, or financial hub is a location with a concentration of participants Participation or Participant may refer to: Politics *Participation (decision making), mechanisms for people to participate in social d ...
of New York City and contains the
headquarters Headquarters (commonly referred to as HQ) denotes the location where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are coordinated. In the United States, the corporate headquarters represents the entity at the center or the top ...

headquarters
of many major
multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whethe ...
s, the
United Nations Headquarters The United Nations is Headquarters, headquartered in New York City in a complex designed by a board of architects led by Wallace Harrison and built by the architectural firm Harrison & Abramovitz. The complex has served as the official headquarter ...
,
Wall Street Wall Street is an eight-block-long street in the Financial District This is a list of financial districts in cities around the world. Background A financial district is usually a central area in a city where financial services firms suc ...

Wall Street
, and a number of important
universities A university () is an of (or ) and which awards s in several . Universities typically offer both and programs in different schools or faculties of learning. The word ''university'' is derived from the ''universitas magistrorum et scholari ...

universities
. Manhattan is often described by Americans as the cultural, financial,
media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication) In mass communication, media are the communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, It ...
, and
entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creatio ...
capital of the world.Most of the borough is situated on
Manhattan Island Manhattan (), known regionally as the City and the urban core of the New York metropolitan area The New York metropolitan area is the largest metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated ...
, at the mouth of the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
. Several small islands are also part of the borough of Manhattan, including
Randall's Island Randalls Island (sometimes called Randall's Island) and Wards Island are conjoined islands, collectively called Randalls and Wards Islands, in New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States ...
,
Wards Island Randall's Island (sometimes called Randalls Island) and Wards Island are conjoined islands, collectively called Randall's and Wards Islands, in New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States ...

Wards Island
, and
Roosevelt Island #REDIRECT Roosevelt Island #REDIRECT Roosevelt Island Roosevelt Island is a narrow island in New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the U ...

Roosevelt Island
in the
East River The East River is a salt water tidal estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or as a line that forms the boundary be ...

East River
, and
Governors Island Governors Island is a island in New York Harbor, within the Boroughs of New York City, New York City borough of Manhattan. It is located approximately south of Manhattan Island, and is separated from Brooklyn to the east by the Buttermilk Ch ...

Governors Island
to the south in
New York Harbor New York Harbor is at the mouth of the Hudson River where it empties into New York Bay near the East River tidal estuary, and then into the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast of the United States. It is one of the largest Harbor#Natural harbors, ...

New York Harbor
;
Liberty Island Liberty Island is a federally owned island in Upper New York Bay in the United States. Its most notable feature is the Statue of Liberty (''Liberty Enlightening the World''), a large statue by Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi that was dedicated in ...

Liberty Island
, on which the
Statue of Liberty The Statue of Liberty (''Liberty Enlightening the World''; French: ''La Liberté éclairant le monde'') is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the United States. The copper statue, a ...

Statue of Liberty
stands, is a Manhattan
exclave An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly ...

exclave
. Manhattan Island is loosely divided into
Lower Lower may refer to: *Lower (surname)Lower is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Arthur R. M. Lower (1889–1988) Canadian historian * Britt Lower (born 1985), American actress * Cyrus B. Lower (1843–1924), American Civil War ...

Lower
,
Midtown
Midtown
, and
Uptown Uptown may refer to: Neighborhoods or regions in several cities United States * Uptown, entertainment district east of Downtown and Midtown Albuquerque, New Mexico * Uptown Charlotte, North Carolina * Uptown, area surrounding the University of Cin ...
regions. Uptown Manhattan is divided by Central Park into the
Upper East Side The Upper East Side, sometimes abbreviated UES, is a neighborhood in the borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing w ...

Upper East Side
and the
Upper West Side The Upper West Side (UWS) is a neighborhood in the boroughs of New York City, borough of Manhattan in New York City. It is bounded by Central Park on the east, the Hudson River on the west, 59th Street (Manhattan), West 59th Street to the south, ...

Upper West Side
, and above the park is
Harlem Harlem is a neighborhood in Upper Manhattan, New York City. It is bounded roughly by Frederick Douglass Boulevard, St. Nicholas Avenue, and Morningside Park (Manhattan), Morningside Park on the west; the Harlem River and 155th Street (Manhattan) ...

Harlem
. The borough also includes a small neighborhood on the United States mainland, called
Marble Hill Marble Hill is the name of: Australia *Marble Hill, South Australia, the vice-regal residence in the Adelaide Hills Ireland *Marble Hill, County Donegal, a village in County Donegal United Kingdom *Marble Hill House, a villa on the banks of ...

Marble Hill
. Marble Hill was originally part of Manhattan Island, but is now contiguous with the Bronx after having been severed from Manhattan Island by the construction of the
Harlem River Ship Canal Image:Henry Hudson Bridge.jpg, 367px, The mouth of the Spuyten Duyvil Creek with the Henry Hudson Bridge and the Spuyten Duyvil Bridge File:Inwoodhillpark.jpg, 322px, What was a southern meander of Spuyten Duyvil Creek is now a bay in Inwood P ...
south of the neighborhood, and having been connected to the mainland by the subsequent filling in of the
Harlem River The Harlem River is an tidal strait A tidal strait is technically not a river but a strait connecting two oceans or seas. Tidal straits are narrow seaways through which tidal currents flow. Tidal currents are usually unidirectional but sometim ...
's original path to the neighborhood's north. New York City's remaining four boroughs are collectively referred to as the outer boroughs. *
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the te ...

Brooklyn
(Kings County), on the western tip of
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic ...
, is the city's most populous borough. Brooklyn is known for its cultural, social, and ethnic diversity, an independent art scene, distinct neighborhoods, and a distinctive architectural heritage.
Downtown Brooklyn Downtown Brooklyn is the third largest central business district in New York City, United States (following Midtown Manhattan and Lower Manhattan), and is located in the northwestern section of the borough (New York City), borough of Brooklyn. Th ...
is the largest central core neighborhood in the outer boroughs. The borough has a long beachfront shoreline including
Coney Island Coney Island is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomic ...
, established in the 1870s as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the country.
Marine Park A marine park is a designated park A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation Recreation is an activity of leisure Leisure has often been defined as a quality of exp ...
and Prospect Park are the two largest parks in Brooklyn. Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of
entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship is the creation or extraction of value. With this definition, entrepreneurship is viewed as change, generally entailing risk beyond what is normally encountered in starting a business, which may include other values than simply ...
and
high tech High technology (high tech), also known as frontier technology (frontier tech), is technology Technology ("science of craft", from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( e ...
nology startup firms, and of
postmodern art Postmodern art is a body of art movements that sought to contradict some aspects of modernism or some aspects that emerged or developed in its aftermath. In general, movements such as intermedia, installation art, conceptual art and multimedi ...
and
design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a prototype A prototype is an early sample, mode ...

design
. *
Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by po ...

Queens
(Queens County), on Long Island north and east of Brooklyn, is geographically the largest borough, the most
ethnically diverse The term multiculturalism has a range of meanings within the contexts of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. ...

ethnically diverse
county in the United States, as well as the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. Historically a collection of small towns and villages founded by the
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...

Dutch
, the borough has since developed both commercial and residential prominence.
Downtown Flushing There are multiple Chinatowns in the borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, off ...
has become one of the busiest central core neighborhoods in the outer boroughs. Queens is the site of
Citi Field Citi Field is a baseball park located in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in New York City. Completed in 2009, it is the home field of the New York Mets of the National League East division of Major League Baseball. The stadium was built as a repla ...

Citi Field
, the
baseball stadium A baseball park, also known as a ballpark or diamond, is a stadium, venue where baseball is played. A baseball park consists of the baseball field, playing field and the surrounding spectator seating. While the diamond and the areas denoted by ...
of the
New York Mets The New York Mets are an American professional baseball Professional baseball is organized baseball in which players are selected for their talents and are paid to play for a specific team or club system. It is played in baseball league, lea ...
, and hosts the annual U.S. Open tennis tournament at
Flushing Meadows-Corona Park Flushing may refer to: Places * Flushing, Cornwall, a village in the United Kingdom * Flushing, Queens, New York City ** Flushing Bay, a bay off the north shore of Queens ** Flushing Chinatown (法拉盛華埠), a community in Queens ** Flushing ...
. Additionally, two of the three busiest airports serving the New York metropolitan area,
John F. Kennedy International Airport John F. Kennedy International Airport (colloquially referred to as JFK Airport) is an international airport in Queens, New York City, and one of the primary airports serving New York City. The airport is the busiest international air passeng ...
and
LaGuardia Airport LaGuardia Airport is a civil airport in East Elmhurst, Queens, East Elmhurst, Queens, New York City. Covering in its present form, the facility was established in 1929 and began operating as public airport in 1939. It is named after former F ...

LaGuardia Airport
, are located in Queens. (The third is
Newark Liberty International Airport Newark Liberty International Airport , originally Newark Metropolitan Airport and later Newark International Airport, is an international airport An international airport is an airport An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilit ...
in ,
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ea ...
.) *
The Bronx The Bronx () is a borough of New York City New York City is composed of five boroughs: The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. Each borough is coextensive with a respective Administrative divisions of New York (state)#Count ...
(Bronx County) is New York City's northernmost borough and the only New York City borough that is part of the United States mainland, aside from Marble Hill, Manhattan. It is the location of
Yankee Stadium Yankee Stadium is a baseball park located in Concourse, Bronx, Concourse, the Bronx, Bronx, New York City. It is the home field for the New York Yankees of Major League Baseball (MLB) and New York City FC of Major League Soccer (MLS), as well as ...

Yankee Stadium
, the baseball stadium of the
New York Yankees The New York Yankees are an American professional baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting (baseball), batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a pl ...
, and home to the largest cooperatively owned housing complex in the United States,
Co-op City Co-op City (short for Cooperative City) is a cooperative housing development located in the northeast section of the borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ...
. It is also home to the
Bronx Zoo The Bronx Zoo is a zoo A zoo (short for zoological garden; also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), ...
, the world's largest metropolitan zoo, which covers and houses over 6,000 animals. Directly to the zoo's north is the
New York Botanical Garden The New York Botanical Garden (NYBG) is a botanical garden at Bronx Park in the Bronx, New York City. Established in 1891, it is located on a site that contains a landscape with over one million living plants; the Enid A. Haupt Conservatory, a ...

New York Botanical Garden
, a botanical garden and National Historic Landmark.
Pelham Bay Park Pelham Bay Park is a located in the northeast corner of the of . It is, at , the largest public park in New York City. The park is more than three times the size of 's . The park is operated by the (NYC Parks). Pelham Bay Park contains man ...

Pelham Bay Park
is the largest park in New York City, at . *
Staten Island Staten Island () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use o ...

Staten Island
(Richmond County) is the most
suburb A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective ...
an in character of the five boroughs. Staten Island is connected to Brooklyn by the
Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge The Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge ( ; also referred to as the Verrazzano Bridge, locally as the Verrazzano, and formerly as the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge or Narrows Bridge) is a suspension bridge A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in whi ...
and to Manhattan by way of the
Staten Island Ferry The Staten Island Ferry is a passenger ferry A ferry is a vessel used to carry passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo, across a body of water. A passenger ferry with many stops, such as in Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; ...

Staten Island Ferry
, a free ferry and popular tourist attraction which provides unobstructed views of the Statue of Liberty,
Ellis Island Ellis Island is a federally-owned island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll A ...

Ellis Island
, and
Lower Manhattan Lower Manhattan, also known as Downtown Manhattan or Downtown New York, is the southernmost part of Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs ...

Lower Manhattan
. In central Staten Island, the
Staten Island Greenbelt The Staten Island Greenbelt is a system of contiguous public park A park is an area of naturally occurring, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats. Urba ...
spans approximately , including of walking trails and one of the last undisturbed forests in the city. Designated in 1984 to protect the island's natural lands, the Greenbelt comprises seven city parks.


Governance

Since 1914, each of New York City's five boroughs has been coextensive with a county of New York State – unlike most , which lie within a single
county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ...
or extend partially into another county, constitute a county in themselves, or are completely separate and
independent Independent or Independents may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Artist groups * Independents (artist group), a group of modernist painters based in the New Hope, Pennsylvania, area of the United States during the early 1930s * Independent ...
of any county. Each borough is represented by a borough president. Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island each have a Borough Hall with limited administrative functions. The Manhattan Borough President's office is situated in the
Manhattan Municipal Building The David N. Dinkins Municipal Building (originally the Municipal Building and later known as the Manhattan Municipal Building) is a 40-story, building at 1 Centre Street in Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as the City and the urb ...

Manhattan Municipal Building
. The Bronx Borough President's office used to be in its own
Bronx Borough Hall The Bronx Municipal Building, later known as Bronx Borough Hall and eventually as Old Bronx Borough Hall (1897–1969), was the original administrative headquarters of the Bronx Borough President and other local civic leaders. It was located i ...

Bronx Borough Hall
but has been in the
Bronx County Courthouse The Bronx County Courthouse, also known as the Mario Merola Building, is a historic courthouse building located in the Concourse and Melrose neighborhoods of the Bronx The Bronx () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in var ...

Bronx County Courthouse
for decades. Since the abolition of the
Board of Estimate A Board of Estimate is a governing body in many counties and municipalities, particularly in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United S ...
in 1990 (due to a 1989 ruling of the
U.S. Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States of America The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a coun ...

U.S. Supreme Court
), the borough presidents have minimal executive powers, and there is no legislative function within a borough. Executive functions in New York City are the responsibility of the
Mayor of New York City The mayor of New York City, officially Mayor of the City of New York, is head of the executive branch of the Government of New York City. The Mayoralty in the United States, mayor's office administers all city services, public property, police ...
, while legislative functions reside with the
New York City Council The New York City Council is the lawmaking Lawmaking is the process of crafting legislation. In its purest sense, it is the basis of governance. This form of law making is also applied in India. It is a process which works in India on the bas ...

New York City Council
. The borough presidents primarily act as spokesmen, advocates, and for their boroughs, have budgets from which they can allocate relatively modest sums of money to community organizations and projects, and appoint the members of the 59 largely advisory community boards in the city's various neighborhoods. The Brooklyn and Queens borough presidents also appoint trustees to the local public library systems in those boroughs. Being coextensive with an individual county, each borough also elects a
district attorney In the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, s ...
, as does every other county of New York State. While the district attorneys of Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Staten Island are popularly referred to as such by the media (e.g., "Manhattan D.A.
Cyrus Vance, Jr. Cyrus Roberts Vance Jr. (born June 14, 1954) is an American attorney and politician serving as the New York County District Attorney, District Attorney of New York County, New York (state), New York, also known as the Manhattan District Attorney. ...
", or "Brooklyn D.A. Kenneth P. Thompson"), they are technically and legally the district attorneys of New York County, Kings County and Richmond County, respectively. There is no such distinction made for the district attorneys of the other two counties, Queens and the Bronx, since these boroughs share the respective counties' names. Because the five district attorneys are, technically speaking, state officials (since the counties are considered to be arms of the state government), rather than officials of the city government, they are not subject to the term limitations that govern other New York City officials such as the mayor, the New York City Public Advocate, members of the city council, or the borough presidents. Some Civil law (common law), civil court judges also are elected on a borough-wide basis, although they generally are eligible to serve throughout the city.


Sixth borough

The term sixth borough is used to describe any of a number of places that have been metaphorically called a part of New York City because of their geographic location, demographics (they include large numbers of former New Yorkers), special affiliation, or cosmopolitanism, cosmopolitan character. They have included adjacent cities and counties in the New York metropolitan area as well as in other states, U.S. territory, U.S. territories, and foreign countries. In 2011, New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg referred to the city's waterfront (area), waterfront and waterways as a composite sixth borough during presentations of planned rehabilitation projects along the city's shoreline, including Governor's Island in the Upper New York Bay. The Hudson Waterfront in the U.S. state of
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ea ...
lies opposite Manhattan on the North River (Hudson River), Hudson River, and during the New Netherland, Dutch colonial era, was under the jurisdiction of New Amsterdam and known as Bergen, New Netherland, Bergen. Jersey City, New Jersey, Jersey City and Hoboken, New Jersey, Hoboken in Hudson County, New Jersey, Hudson County, New Jersey, are sometimes referred to as the sixth borough, given their proximity and connections by Port Authority Trans Hudson, rapid transit PATH trains. Fort Lee, New Jersey, in Bergen County, New Jersey, Bergen County, opposite Upper Manhattan and connected by the George Washington Bridge, has also been called the sixth borough. Miami and nearby areas in Florida, Philadelphia, and China are locales entirely outside the city's metropolitan area that have been called New York City's sixth borough.


See also

* Flags of New York City * List of counties in New York


References

{{Administrative divisions of New York Boroughs of New York City, Government of New York City