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The Ashes is a
Test cricket Test cricket is the form of the sport of cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wi ...
series played between
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...
and
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...
. The term originated in a satirical obituary published in a British newspaper, ''
The Sporting Times ''The Sporting Times'' (founded 1865, ceased publication 1932) was a weekly British newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often typed in ...
'', immediately after Australia's 1882 victory at
The Oval The Oval, known for Naming rights#Stadium naming, sponsorship reasons as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, in south London. The Oval has been the home ground of Surrey County Cri ...

The Oval
, its first Test win on English soil. The obituary stated that English cricket had died, and "the body will be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia". The mythical ashes immediately became associated with the 1882–83 series played in Australia, before which the English captain
Ivo Bligh Ivo Francis Walter Bligh, 8th Earl of Darnley, (13 March 1859 – 10 April 1927), styled Hon. Ivo Bligh until 1900, lord of the manor, lord of the Manor of Cobham, Kent, was a British nobility, British noble, parliamentarian and cricketer. Blig ...
had vowed to "regain those ashes". The English media therefore dubbed the tour ''the quest to regain the Ashes''. After England had won two of the three Tests on the tour, a small urn was presented to Bligh by a group of
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Melbourne
women including
Florence Morphy Florence Rose Bligh (née Morphy), Countess of Darnley, Order of the British Empire, DBE (c. 186030 August 1944) was the Australian-born wife of Ivo Bligh, 8th Earl of Darnley. Life Florence Morphy was born in Victoria (Australia), Victoria, daught ...
, whom Bligh married within a year.Summary of Events
''
The Illustrated Australian News ''The Illustrated Australian News'' was a monthly news magazine '' 2512'', a monthly news magazine published in Réunion. A news magazine is a typed, printed, and published magazine, radio or television program, usually published weekly, cons ...
'', 20 February 1884, (foot of column 2) at
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Trove
The contents of the urn are reputed to be the ashes of a wooden
bail Bail is a set of pre-trial In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by it ...
, and were humorously described as "the ashes of Australian cricket". It is not clear whether that "tiny silver urn" is the same as the small terracotta urn given to the MCC by Bligh's widow after his death in 1927. The urn has never been the official trophy of the Ashes series, having been a personal gift to Bligh. However,
replica A replica is an exact copy, such as of a painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts t ...

replica
s of the urn are often held aloft by victorious teams as a symbol of their victory in an Ashes series. Since the 1998–99 Ashes series, a
Waterford Crystal Waterford Crystal is a manufacturer of lead glass, crystal, named after the city of Waterford, Republic of Ireland, Ireland. In January 2009, the main Waterford Crystal base on the edge of Waterford was closed due to the insolvency of Waterford ...
representation of the Ashes urn (called the Ashes Trophy) has been presented to the winners of an Ashes series as the official trophy of that series. Irrespective of which side holds the tournament, the urn remains in the MCC Museum at
Lord's Lord's Cricket Ground, commonly known as Lord's, is a cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch ...
; it has however been taken to Australia to be put on touring display on two occasions: as part of the
Australian Bicentenary The bicentenary of Australia was celebrated in 1988. It marked 200 years since the arrival of the First Fleet The First Fleet comprised the 11 Age of sail, ships that departed from Portsmouth, England on 13 May 1787 to New South Wales, the ...
celebrations in 1988 and to accompany the Ashes series in 2006–07. An Ashes series traditionally consists of five Tests, hosted in turn by England and Australia at least once every two years. The Ashes are regarded as being held by the team that most recently won the series. If the series is drawn, the team that currently holds the Ashes retains the trophy. There have been 72 Ashes series: Australia have won 34, England have won 32 and six series have been drawn.


1882 origins

The first Test match between England and Australia was played in
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Melbourne
, Australia, in 1877, though the Ashes legend started later, after the ninth Test, played in 1882. On their tour of England that year the Australians played just one Test, at
the Oval The Oval, known for Naming rights#Stadium naming, sponsorship reasons as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, in south London. The Oval has been the home ground of Surrey County Cri ...

the Oval
in London. It was a low-scoring affair on a difficult
wicket In cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two Bai ...

wicket
. Australia made a mere 63 runs in their first
innings An innings is one of the divisions of a cricket match during which one team takes its turn to batting (cricket), bat. Innings also means the period in which an individual player bats (acts as either striker or nonstriker). Innings, in cricket, a ...
, and England, led by A. N. Hornby, took a 38-run lead with a total of 101. In their second innings, Australia, boosted by a spectacular 55 runs off 60 deliveries from
Hugh Massie Hugh Hamon Massie (11 April 1854 – 12 October 1938) was a cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, ...

Hugh Massie
, managed 122, which left England only 85 runs to win. The Australians were greatly demoralised by the manner of their second-innings collapse, but fast bowler
Fred Spofforth Frederick Robert Spofforth (9 September 1853 – 4 June 1926), also known as "The Demon Bowler", was arguably the Australian cricket team The Australia men's national cricket team represents Australia Australia, officially the Common ...

Fred Spofforth
, spurred on by the
gamesmanship Gamesmanship is the use of dubious (although not technically illegal) methods to win or gain a serious advantage in a game or sport. It has been described as "Pushing the rules to the limit without getting caught, using whatever dubious methods poss ...
of his opponents, in particular W. G. Grace, refused to give in. "This thing can be done," he declared. Spofforth went on to devastate the English batting, taking his final four wickets for only two runs to leave England just eight runs short of victory. When
Ted Peate Edmund Peate (2 March 1855 – 11 March 1900) was an English professional cricketer who played for Yorkshire County Cricket Club and the English cricket team. Overview Born on 2 March 1855 in Holbeck near Leeds in Yorkshire, Peate's career, whic ...

Ted Peate
, England's last batsman, came to the crease, his side needed just ten runs to win, but Peate managed only two before he was bowled by Harry Boyle. An astonished Oval crowd fell silent, struggling to believe that England could possibly have lost on home soil. When it finally sank in, the crowd swarmed onto the field, cheering loudly and chairing Boyle and Spofforth to the pavilion. When Peate returned to the pavilion he was reprimanded by his captain for not allowing his partner,
Charles Studd Charles Thomas Studd, often known as C. T. Studd (2 December 1860 – 16 July 1931), was a British missionary A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to promote their faith or perform ministries of service, such as ed ...
(one of the best batsmen in England, having already hit two centuries that season against the colonists), to get the runs. Peate humorously replied, "I had no confidence in Mr Studd, sir, so thought I had better do my best." The momentous defeat was widely recorded in the British press, which praised the Australians for their plentiful "pluck" and berated the Englishmen for their lack thereof. A celebrated poem appeared in ''
Punch Punch commonly refers to: * Punch (combat), a strike made using the hand closed into a fist * Punch (drink), a wide assortment of drinks, non-alcoholic or alcoholic, generally containing fruit or fruit juice Punch may also refer to: Places * Pun ...
'' on Saturday, 9 September. The first verse, quoted most frequently, reads:
Well done, Cornstalks! Whipt us Fair and square, Was it luck that tript us? Was it scare? Kangaroo Land's 'Demon', or our own Want of 'devil', coolness, nerve, backbone?
On 31 August, in the Charles Alcock-edited magazine ''Cricket: A Weekly Record of The Game'', there appeared a mock obituary: On 2 September a more celebrated mock obituary, written by Reginald Shirley Brooks, appeared in ''
The Sporting Times ''The Sporting Times'' (founded 1865, ceased publication 1932) was a weekly British newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often typed in ...
''. It read:
Ivo Bligh Ivo Francis Walter Bligh, 8th Earl of Darnley, (13 March 1859 – 10 April 1927), styled Hon. Ivo Bligh until 1900, lord of the manor, lord of the Manor of Cobham, Kent, was a British nobility, British noble, parliamentarian and cricketer. Blig ...
promised that on 1882–83 tour of Australia, he would, as England's captain, "recover those Ashes". He spoke of them several times over the course of the tour, and the Australian media quickly caught on. The three-match series resulted in a two-one win to England, notwithstanding a fourth match, won by the Australians, whose status remains a matter of ardent dispute. In the 20 years following Bligh's campaign the term "the Ashes" largely disappeared from public use. There is no indication that this was the accepted name for the series, at least not in England. The term became popular again in Australia first, when
George Giffen George Giffen (27 March 1859 – 29 November 1927) was a cricketer Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two opposing teams, in ...

George Giffen
, in his memoirs (''With Bat and Ball'', 1899), used the term as if it were well known. The true and global revitalisation of interest in the concept dates from 1903, when
Pelham Warner Sir Pelham Francis Warner, (2 October 1873 – 30 January 1963), affectionately and better known as Plum Warner or "the Grand Old Man" of English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, Wes ...
took a team to Australia with the promise that he would regain "the ashes". As had been the case on Bligh's tour 20 years before, the Australian media latched fervently onto the term and, this time, it stuck. Having fulfilled his promise, Warner published a book entitled ''How We Recovered the Ashes''. Although the origins of the term are not referred to in the text, the title served (along with the general hype created in Australia) to revive public interest in the legend. The first mention of "the Ashes" in ''
Wisden Cricketers' Almanack ''Wisden Cricketers' Almanack'', or simply ''Wisden'', colloquially the Bible of Cricket, is a cricket reference book published annually in the United Kingdom. The description "bible of cricket" was first used in the 1930s by Alec Waugh in a ...
'' occurs in 1905, while ''Wisdens first account of the legend is in the 1922 edition.


Urn

It took many years before the contests between England and Australia were consistently called "The Ashes", and so there was no concept of either a trophy or a physical representation of the ashes. As late as 1925, the following verse appeared in ''The Cricketers Annual'':
So here's to Chapman, Hendren and Hobbs, Gilligan, Woolley and Hearne May they bring back to the Motherland, The ashes which have no urn!
Nevertheless, several attempts had been made to embody the Ashes in a physical memorial. Examples include one presented to Warner in 1904, another to Australian captain M. A. Noble in 1909, and another to Australian captain W. M. Woodfull in 1934. The oldest, and the one to enjoy enduring fame, was the one presented to Bligh, later Lord Darnley, during the 1882–83 tour. The precise nature of the origin of this urn is matter of dispute. Based on a statement by Darnley in 1894, it was believed that a group of
Victorian Victorian or Victorians may refer to: 19th century * Victorian era, British history during Queen Victoria's 19th-century reign ** Victorian architecture ** Victorian house ** Victorian decorative arts ** Victorian fashion ** Victorian literature ...
ladies, including Darnley's later wife
Florence Morphy Florence Rose Bligh (née Morphy), Countess of Darnley, Order of the British Empire, DBE (c. 186030 August 1944) was the Australian-born wife of Ivo Bligh, 8th Earl of Darnley. Life Florence Morphy was born in Victoria (Australia), Victoria, daught ...
, made the presentation after the victory in the Third Test in 1883. More recent researchers, in particular Ronald Willis and Joy Munns have studied the tour in detail and concluded that the presentation was made after a private cricket match played over Christmas 1882 when the English team were guests of Sir William Clarke, at his property " Rupertswood", in
Sunbury, Victoria Sunbury () is a satellite city located north-west of Melbourne's Melbourne city centre, central business district, in the state of Victoria (Australia), Victoria, Australia. Its Local government areas of Victoria, local government area is the Ci ...
. This was before the matches had started. The prime evidence for this theory was provided by a descendant of Clarke. In August 1926 Ivo Bligh (now Lord Darnley) displayed the Ashes urn at the ''
Morning Post ''The Morning Post'' was a conservative daily newspaper published in London from 1772 to 1937, when it was acquired by ''The Daily Telegraph''. History The paper was founded by John Bell (publisher), John Bell. According to historian Robert Darn ...
'' Decorative Art Exhibition held in the Central Hall, Westminster. He made the following statement about how he was given the urn: A more detailed account of how the Ashes were given to Ivo Bligh was outlined by his wife, the Countess of Darnley, in 1930 during a speech at a cricket luncheon. Her speech was reported by the ''Times'' as follows: There is another statement which is not totally clear made by Lord Darnley in 1921 about the timing of the presentation of the urn. He was interviewed in his home at Cobham Hall by
Montague Grover
Montague Grover
and the report of this interview was as follows: He made a similar statement in 1926. The report of this statement in the ''Brisbane Courier'' was as follows: The contents of the urn are also problematic; they were variously reported to be the remains of a stump, bail or the outer casing of a ball, but in 1998 Darnley's 82-year-old daughter-in-law said they were the remains of her mother-in-law's veil, casting a further layer of doubt on the matter. However, during the tour of Australia in 2006/7, the MCC official accompanying the urn said the veil legend had been discounted, and it was now "95% certain" that the urn contains the ashes of a cricket bail. Speaking on Channel Nine TV on 25 November 2006, he said x-rays of the urn had shown the pedestal and handles were cracked, and repair work had to be carried out. The urn is made of
terracotta Terracotta, terra cotta, or terra-cotta (; Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance ...

terracotta
and is about tall and may originally have been a perfume jar. A label containing a six-line verse is pasted on the urn. This is the fourth verse of a song-lyric published in the ''
Melbourne Punch ''Melbourne Punch'' (from 1900, simply titled ''Punch'') was an Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian conti ...
'' on 1 February 1883:
When Ivo goes back with the urn, the urn; Studds,
Steel Steel is an alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appe ...

Steel
,
Read Read Read may refer to: * Reading Reading is the process of taking in the sense or meaning of letters, symbols, ''etc.'', especially by sight or touch. For educators and researchers, reading is a multifaceted process involving such areas ...
and Tylecote return, return; The
welkin Welkin may refer to: * Welkin Capital Management * Welkin Gunther, the List of Valkyria Chronicles characters#Squad 7, protagonist in ''Valkyria Chronicles'' * Welkin Mill, Lower Bredbury, Manchester cotton mill * Welkin Weasels, a series of fantas ...
will ring loud, The great crowd will feel proud, Seeing Barlow and
Bates BATES is an acronym for BAllistic Test and Evaluation System, which is a standardized system for measuring solid rocket A solid-propellant rocket or solid rocket is a rocket with a rocket engine that uses Rocket propellant#Solid chemical prope ...
with the urn, the urn; And the rest coming home with the urn.
In February 1883, just before the disputed Fourth Test, a velvet bag made by Mrs Ann Fletcher, the daughter of Joseph Hines Clarke and Marion Wright, both of
Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_ ...

Dublin
, was given to Bligh to contain the urn. During Darnley's lifetime there was little public knowledge of the urn, and no record of a published photograph exists before 1921. ''
The Illustrated London News ''The Illustrated London News'' appeared first on Saturday 14 May 1842, as the world's first illustrated An illustration is a decoration, interpretation or visual explanation of a text, concept or process, designed for integration in print a ...
'' published this photo in January 1921 (shown above). When Darnley died in 1927 his widow presented the urn to the
Marylebone Cricket Club Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) is a cricket club founded in 1787 and based since 1814 at Lord's Cricket Ground Lord's Cricket Ground, commonly known as Lord's, is a cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played betw ...
and that was the key event in establishing the urn as the physical embodiment of the legendary ashes. MCC first displayed the urn in the Long Room at
Lord's Lord's Cricket Ground, commonly known as Lord's, is a cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch ...
and since 1953 in the MCC Cricket Museum at the ground. MCC's wish for it to be seen by as wide a range of cricket enthusiasts as possible has led to its being mistaken for an official trophy. It is in fact a private memento, and for this reason it is never awarded to either England or Australia, but is kept permanently in the MCC Cricket Museum where it can be seen together with the specially made red and gold velvet bag and the scorecard of the 1882 match. Because the urn itself is so delicate, it has been allowed to travel to Australia only twice. The first occasion was in 1988 for a museum tour as part of the
Australian Bicentenary The bicentenary of Australia was celebrated in 1988. It marked 200 years since the arrival of the First Fleet The First Fleet comprised the 11 Age of sail, ships that departed from Portsmouth, England on 13 May 1787 to New South Wales, the ...
celebrations; the second was for the 2006/7 Ashes series. The urn arrived on 17 October 2006, going on display at the
Museum of Sydney The Museum of Sydney is a historical collection and exhibit, built on the ruins of the house of New South Wales' first Governor, Arthur Phillip Admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the hi ...

Museum of Sydney
. It then toured to other states, with the final appearance at the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery on 21 January 2007. In the 1990s, given Australia's long dominance of the Ashes and the popular acceptance of the Darnley urn as "the Ashes", the idea was mooted that the victorious team should be awarded the urn as a trophy and allowed to retain it until the next series. As its condition is fragile and it is a prized exhibit at the MCC Cricket Museum, the MCC would not agree. Furthermore, in 2002, Bligh's great-great-grandson Lord Clifton, the heir-apparent to the Earldom of Darnley, argued that the Ashes urn should not be returned to Australia because it belonged to his family and was given to the MCC only for safe keeping. As a compromise, the MCC commissioned a larger replica of the urn in
Waterford Crystal Waterford Crystal is a manufacturer of lead glass, crystal, named after the city of Waterford, Republic of Ireland, Ireland. In January 2009, the main Waterford Crystal base on the edge of Waterford was closed due to the insolvency of Waterford ...
, known as the Ashes Trophy, to award to the winning team of each series starting with the 1998–99 Ashes. This did little to diminish the status of the Darnley urn as the most important icon in cricket, the symbol of this old and keenly fought contest.


Series and matches


Quest to "recover those ashes"

Later in 1882, following the famous Australian victory at The Oval, Bligh led an England team to Australia, as he said, to "recover those ashes". Publicity surrounding the series was intense, and it was at some time during this series that the Ashes urn was crafted. Australia won the First Test by nine wickets, but in the next two England were victorious. At the end of the Third Test, England were generally considered to have "won back the Ashes" 2–1. A fourth match was played, against a "United Australian XI", which was arguably stronger than the Australian sides that had competed in the previous three matches; this game, however, is not generally considered part of the 1882–83 series. It ''is'' counted as a Test, but as a standalone. This match ended in a victory for Australia.


1884 to 1896

After Bligh's victory, there was an extended period of English dominance. The tours generally had fewer Tests in the 1880s and 1890s than people have grown accustomed to in more recent years, the first five-Test series taking place only in 1894–95. England lost only four Ashes Tests in the 1880s out of 23 played, and they won all the seven series contested. There was more chopping and changing in the teams, given that there was no official board of selectors for each country (in 1887–88, two separate English teams were on tour in Australia) and popularity with the fans varied. The 1890s games were more closely fought, Australia taking its first series win since 1882 with a 2–1 victory in 1891–92. But England dominated, winning the next three series to 1896 despite continuing player disputes. The 1894–95 series began in sensational fashion when England won the First Test at Sydney by just 10 runs having followed on. Australia had scored a massive 586 (
Syd Gregory Sydney Edward Gregory (14 April 1870 – 1 August 1929), sometimes known as Edward Sydney Gregory, was a cricketer who played for New South Wales cricket team, New South Wales and Australia national cricket team, Australia. At the time of his re ...

Syd Gregory
201,
George Giffen George Giffen (27 March 1859 – 29 November 1927) was a cricketer Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two opposing teams, in ...

George Giffen
161) and then dismissed England for 325. But England responded with 437 and then dramatically dismissed Australia for 166 with
Bobby Peel Robert Peel (12 February 1857 – 12 August 1941) was an English professional cricketer who played first-class cricket for Yorkshire County Cricket Club, Yorkshire between 1883 and 1897. Primarily a left-arm orthodox spin, left-arm spin b ...
taking 6 for 67. At the close of the second last day's play, Australia were 113–2, needing only 64 more runs. But heavy rain fell overnight and next morning the two slow left-arm bowlers, Peel and Johnny Briggs, were all but unplayable. England went on to win the series 3–2 after it had been all square before the Final Test, which England won by 6 wickets. The English heroes were Peel, with 27 wickets in the series at an average of 26.70, and
Tom Richardson
Tom Richardson
, with 32 at 26.53. In 1896 England under the captaincy of W. G. Grace won the series 2–1, and this marked the end of England's longest period of Ashes dominance.


1897 to 1902

Australia resoundingly won the 1897–98 series by 4–1 under the captaincy of
Harry Trott George Henry Stevens "Harry" Trott (5 August 1866 – 9 November 1917) was an Australian cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre ...

Harry Trott
. His successor
Joe Darling Joseph Darling (21 November 1870 – 2 January 1946) was an Australian cricketer who played 34 Test cricket, Test matches as a specialist batsman between 1894 and 1905. As captain (cricket), captain, he led Australia in a total of 21 Tests, winn ...

Joe Darling
won the next three series in 1899, 1901–02 and the classic 1902 series, which became one of the most famous in the history of Test cricket. Five matches were played in 1902 but the first two were drawn after being hit by bad weather. In the First Test (the first played at
Edgbaston Edgbaston () is an affluent suburban area of central Birmingham, England, historically in Warwickshire, and curved around the southwest of the city centre. In the 19th century, the area was under the control of the Gough-Calthorpe family an ...

Edgbaston
), after scoring 376 England bowled out Australia for 36 (
Wilfred Rhodes Wilfred Rhodes (29 October 1877 – 8 July 1973) was an English professional cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a ...

Wilfred Rhodes
7/17) and reduced them to 46–2 when they followed on. Australia won the Third and Fourth Tests at
Bramall Lane Bramall Lane is a football Football is a family of team sport A team is a
Old Trafford Old Trafford () is a football Football is a family of team sport A team is a Old Trafford Old Trafford () is a association football, football stadium in Old Trafford (area), Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, and the hom ...
respectively. At Old Trafford, Australia won by just 3 runs after
Victor Trumper Victor Thomas Trumper (2 November 1877 – 28 June 1915) was an Australian cricketer known as the most stylish and versatile batsman of the Golden Age of cricket, capable of playing match-winning innings on wet wickets his contemporaries found ...

Victor Trumper
had scored 104 on a "bad wicket", reaching his hundred before lunch on the first day. England won the last Test at
The Oval The Oval, known for Naming rights#Stadium naming, sponsorship reasons as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, in south London. The Oval has been the home ground of Surrey County Cri ...

The Oval
by one wicket. Chasing 263 to win, they slumped to 48–5 before 104 gave them a chance. He reached his hundred in just 75 minutes. The last-wicket pair of
George Hirst George Herbert Hirst (7 September 1871 – 10 May 1954) was a professional English cricketer who played first-class cricket for Yorkshire County Cricket Club between 1891 and 1921, with a further appearance in 1929. One of the best all-ro ...
and Rhodes were required to score 15 runs for victory. When Rhodes joined him, Hirst reportedly said: "We'll get them in singles, Wilfred." In fact, they scored thirteen singles and a two. The period of Darling's captaincy saw the emergence of outstanding Australian players such as Trumper,
Warwick Armstrong Warwick Windridge Armstrong (22 May 1879 – 13 July 1947) was an Australian cricketer who played 50 Test cricket, Test matches between 1902 and 1921. An all-rounder, he captain (cricket), captained Australia in ten Test matches between 1920 and ...

Warwick Armstrong
, James Kelly,
Monty Noble Montague Alfred Noble (28 January 1873 – 22 June 1940) was an Australian cricketer Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two op ...

Monty Noble
,
Clem Hill Clement "Clem" Hill (18 March 18775 September 1945) was an Australian cricketer who played 49 Test cricket, Test matches as a specialist batsman between 1896 and 1912. He Captain (cricket), captained the Australia national cricket team, Austra ...

Clem Hill
,
Hugh Trumble Hugh Trumble (19 May 1867 – 14 August 1938) was an Australian cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pit ...

Hugh Trumble
and Ernie Jones.


Reviving the legend

After what the MCC saw as the problems of the earlier professional and amateur series they decided to take control of organising tours themselves, and this led to the first MCC tour of Australia in 1903–04. England won it against the odds, and
Plum Warner Sir Pelham Francis Warner, (2 October 1873 – 30 January 1963), affectionately and better known as Plum Warner or "the Grand Old Man" of English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, Wes ...
, the England captain, wrote up his version of the tour in his book ''How We Recovered The Ashes''. The title of this book revived the Ashes legend and it was after this that England v Australia series were customarily referred to as "The Ashes".


1905 to 1912

England and Australia were evenly matched until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. Five more series took place between 1905 and 1912. In 1905 England's captain
Stanley Jackson Sir Francis Stanley Jackson Jackson's obituary in the 1948 ''Wisden Cricketers' Almanack ''Wisden Cricketers' Almanack'', or simply ''Wisden'', colloquially the Bible of Cricket, is a cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and- ...
not only won the series 2–0, but also won the toss in all five matches and headed both the batting and the bowling averages. Monty Noble led Australia to victory in both 1907–08 and 1909. Then England won in 1911–12 by four matches to one.
Jack Hobbs Sir John Berry Hobbs (16 December 1882– 21 December 1963), always known as Jack Hobbs, was an English professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity. The t ...

Jack Hobbs
establishing himself as England's first-choice opening batsman with three centuries, while
Frank FosterFrancis or Frank Foster may refer to: Music * Frank Foster (musician) (1928–2011), American jazz saxophonist * Frank Foster (country singer) (born 1982), American country singer-songwriter active since 2011 Politics * Frank Foster (Michigan poli ...
(32 wickets at 21.62) and
Sydney Barnes Sydney Francis Barnes (19 April 1873 – 26 December 1967) was an English Professional sport#Cricket, professional cricketer who is regarded as one of the greatest Bowling (cricket), bowlers of all time. He was right-handed and bowled at a pace ...
(34 wickets at 22.88) formed a formidable bowling partnership. England retained the Ashes when it won the
1912 Triangular Tournament The 1912 Triangular Tournament was a Test cricket Test cricket is the form of the sport of cricket Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field ga ...
, which also featured
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...
. The Australian touring party had been severely weakened by a dispute between the board and players that caused
Clem Hill Clement "Clem" Hill (18 March 18775 September 1945) was an Australian cricketer who played 49 Test cricket, Test matches as a specialist batsman between 1896 and 1912. He Captain (cricket), captained the Australia national cricket team, Austra ...

Clem Hill
,
Victor Trumper Victor Thomas Trumper (2 November 1877 – 28 June 1915) was an Australian cricketer known as the most stylish and versatile batsman of the Golden Age of cricket, capable of playing match-winning innings on wet wickets his contemporaries found ...

Victor Trumper
, Warwick Armstrong,
Tibby Cotter Albert "Tibby" Cotter (3 December 1883 – 31 October 1917) was an Australian cricketer who played in 21 Test cricket, Tests between 1904 and 1912 (89 wickets, average 28.64), and 115 first-class matches between 1901 and 1914 (including 123 wicke ...
,
Sammy Carter Hanson "Sammy" Carter (15 March 1878 – 8 June 1948) was a cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch w ...
and
Vernon Ransford Vernon Seymour Ransford (20 March 1885 – 19 March 1958) was an Australian cricketer who played in 20 Test cricket, Tests between 1907 and 1912. His best series was the 1909 tour of England when he topped the Australian batting averages, helped ...
to be omitted.


1920 to 1933

After the war, Australia took firm control of both the Ashes and world cricket. For the first time, the tactic of using two express bowlers in tandem paid off as Jack Gregory and
Ted McDonald Edgar Arthur "Ted" McDonald (6 January 1891 – 22 July 1937) was a cricketer Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two opposing ...

Ted McDonald
crippled the English batting on a regular basis. Australia recorded overwhelming victories both in England and on home soil. It won the first eight matches in succession including a 5–0
whitewash Three different brands of kalsomine Whitewash, or calcimine, kalsomine, calsomine, or lime paint is a type of paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin ...
in 1920–1921 at the hands of Warwick Armstrong's team. The ruthless and belligerent Armstrong led his team back to England in 1921 where his men lost only two games late in the tour to narrowly miss out of being the first team to complete a tour of England without defeat. England won only one Test out of 15 from the end of the war until 1925. In a rain-hit series in 1926, England managed to eke out a 1–0 victory with a win in the final Test at The Oval. Because the series was at stake, the match was to be "timeless", i.e., played to a finish. Australia had a narrow first innings lead of 22. Jack Hobbs and
Herbert Sutcliffe Herbert Sutcliffe (24 November 1894 – 22 January 1978) was an English professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standard ...

Herbert Sutcliffe
took the score to 49–0 at the end of the second day, a lead of 27. Heavy rain fell overnight, and next day the pitch soon developed into a traditional sticky wicket. England seemed doomed to be bowled out cheaply and to lose the match. In spite of the very difficult batting conditions, however, Hobbs and Sutcliffe took their partnership to 172 before Hobbs was out for exactly 100. Sutcliffe went on to make 161 and England won the game comfortably. Australian captain
Herbie Collins Herbert (Herbie) Leslie Collins (21 January 1888 in Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales – 28 May 1959 in Little Bay, Sydney) was an Australian cricketer who played 19 Test cricket, Tests between 1921 and 1926. ...

Herbie Collins
was stripped of all captaincy positions down to club level, and some accused him of throwing the match. Australia's ageing post-war team broke up after 1926, with Collins,
Charlie Macartney Charles George Macartney (27 June 1886 – 9 September 1958) was an Australian cricketer who played in 35 Test cricket, Test matches between 1907 and 1926. He was known as "The Governor-General" in reference to his authoritative batting style a ...

Charlie Macartney
and
Warren Bardsley Warren "Curly" Bardsley (6 December 1882 – 20 January 1954) was an Australian Test cricketer. An opening batsman, Bardsley played 41 Tests between 1909 and 1926 and over 200 first-class games for New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviate ...

Warren Bardsley
all departing, and Gregory breaking down at the start of the 1928–29 series. Despite the debut of
Donald Bradman Sir Donald George Bradman, Companion of the Order of Australia, AC (27 August 1908 – 25 February 2001), nicknamed "The Don", was an Australian international cricketer, widely acknowledged as the greatest batsman of all time. Bradman's ...
, the inexperienced Australians, led by Jack Ryder, were heavily defeated, losing 4–1. England had a very strong batting side, with
Wally Hammond Walter Reginald Hammond (19 June 1903 – 1 July 1965) was an English first-class cricket First-class cricket is an official classification of the highest-standard international or domestic matches in the sport of cricket. A first-class matc ...

Wally Hammond
contributing 905 runs at an average of 113.12, and Hobbs, Sutcliffe and
Patsy Hendren Elias Henry Hendren (5 February 1889 – 4 October 1962), known as Patsy Hendren, was an English first-class cricket First-class cricket is an official classification of the highest-standard international or domestic matches in the sport of c ...
all scoring heavily; the bowling was more than adequate, without being outstanding. In 1930,
Bill Woodfull William Maldon Woodfull (22 August 1897 – 11 August 1965) was an Australian cricketer of the 1920s and 1930s. He captained both Victorian Bushrangers, Victoria and Australian cricket team, Australia, and was best known for his dignified and m ...

Bill Woodfull
led an extremely inexperienced team to England. Bradman fulfilled his promise in the 1930 series when he scored 974 runs at 139.14, which remains a world record Test series aggregate. A modest Bradman can be heard in a 1930 recording saying "I have always endeavoured to do my best for the side, and the few centuries that have come my way have been achieved in the hope of winning matches. My one idea when going into bat was to make runs for Australia." In the
Headingley Headingley is a suburb A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Televis ...
Test, he made 334, reaching 309* at the end of the first day, including a century before lunch. Bradman himself thought that his 254 in the preceding match, at
Lord's Lord's Cricket Ground, commonly known as Lord's, is a cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch ...
, was a better innings. England managed to stay in contention until the deciding final Test at The Oval, but yet another double hundred by Bradman, and 7/92 by
Percy Hornibrook Percival Mitchell Hornibrook (27 July 1899, Obi Obi, Queensland – 25 August 1976, Spring Hill, Queensland) was an Australian cricketer who played in 6 Test cricket, Tests from 1929 to 1930. Image:PHornibrook.jpg, left, Hornibrook's delivery C ...
in England's second innings, enabled Australia to win by an innings and take the series 2–1.
Clarrie Grimmett Clarence Victor Grimmett (25 December 1891 – 2 May 1980) was a New Zealand-born Australian cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of w ...
's 29 wickets at 31.89 for Australia in this high-scoring series were also important. Australia had one of the strongest batting line-ups ever in the early 1930s, with Bradman,
Archie Jackson Archibald Jackson (5 September 1909 – 16 February 1933), occasionally known as Archibald Alexander Jackson, was an Australian international cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven p ...

Archie Jackson
,
Stan McCabe Stanley Joseph McCabe (16 July 1910 – 25 August 1968) was an Australian cricketer who played 39 Test cricket, Test matches for Australia from 1930 to 1938. A short, stocky right-hander, McCabe was described by ''Wisden Cricketers' Almanac ...

Stan McCabe
,
Bill Woodfull William Maldon Woodfull (22 August 1897 – 11 August 1965) was an Australian cricketer of the 1920s and 1930s. He captained both Victorian Bushrangers, Victoria and Australian cricket team, Australia, and was best known for his dignified and m ...

Bill Woodfull
and
Bill Ponsford William Harold Ponsford Order of the British Empire, MBE (19 October 1900 – 6 April 1991) was an Australian cricketer. Usually playing as an Batting order (cricket), opening batsman, he formed a successful and long-lived partnership (cri ...

Bill Ponsford
. It was the prospect of bowling at this line-up that caused England's 1932–33 captain
Douglas Jardine Douglas Robert Jardine ( 1900 – 1958) was a cricketer who played 22 Test cricket, Test matches for England, captaining the side in 15 of those matches between 1931 and 1934. A right-handed Batting (cricket), batsman, he is best known for ...

Douglas Jardine
to adopt the tactic of fast
leg theory Leg theory is a bowling (cricket), bowling tactic in the sport of cricket. The term ''leg theory'' is somewhat archaic and seldom used any longer, but the basic tactic remains a play in modern cricket. Simply put, leg theory involves concentrating ...
, better known as
Bodyline Bodyline, also known as fast leg theory bowling, was a cricket Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two opposing teams, in whic ...

Bodyline
. Jardine instructed his
fast bowlers Pace bowling (also referred to as fast bowling) is one of two main approaches to bowling Bowling is a Throwing sports#Target sports, target sport and recreational activity in which a player rolls a bowling ball, ball toward Bowling pin, ...

fast bowlers
, most notably
Harold Larwood Harold Larwood (14 November 1904 – 22 July 1995) was a professional cricketer for Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club and the England cricket team The England cricket team represents England England is a Countries of the United ...

Harold Larwood
and
Bill Voce Bill Voce (8 August 1909 – 6 June 1984) was an English cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with ...
, to bowl at the bodies of the Australian batsmen, with the goal of forcing them to defend their bodies with their bats, thus providing easy catches to a stacked leg-side field. Jardine insisted that the tactic was legitimate and called it "leg theory" but it was widely disparaged by its opponents, who dubbed it "Bodyline" (from "on the line of the body"). Although England decisively won the Ashes 4–1, Bodyline caused such a furore in Australia that diplomats had to intervene to prevent serious harm to Anglo-Australian relations, and the MCC eventually changed the
Laws of cricket The ''Laws of Cricket'' is a code which specifies the rules of the game of cricket Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two oppos ...
to curtail the number of leg side fielders. Jardine's comment was: "I've not travelled 6,000 miles to make friends. I'm here to win the Ashes". Some of the Australians wanted to use Bodyline in retaliation, but Woodfull flatly refused. He famously told England manager
Pelham Warner Sir Pelham Francis Warner, (2 October 1873 – 30 January 1963), affectionately and better known as Plum Warner or "the Grand Old Man" of English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, Wes ...

Pelham Warner
, "There are two teams out there. One is playing cricket; the other is making no attempt to do so" after the latter had come into the Australian rooms to express sympathy after a Larwood bouncer had struck the Australian skipper in the heart and felled him.


1934 to 1953

On the batting-friendly
wickets In cricket, the term wicket has several meanings: * It is one of the two sets of three Stump (cricket), stumps and two Bail (cricket), bails at either end of the Cricket pitch, pitch. The Fielding (cricket), fielding team's players can hit the ...

wickets
that prevailed in the late 1930s, most Tests up to the Second World War still gave results. It should be borne in mind that Tests in Australia prior to the war were all played to a finish, with many batting records set during this period. The 1934 Ashes series began with the notable absence of Larwood, Voce and Jardine. The MCC had made it clear, in light of the revelations of the bodyline series, that these players would not face Australia. The MCC, although it had earlier condoned and encouraged bodyline tactics in the 1932–33 series, laid the blame on Larwood when relations turned sour. Larwood was forced by the MCC to either apologise or be removed from the Test side. He went for the latter. Australia recovered the Ashes in 1934 and held them until 1953, though no Test cricket was played during the Second World War. As in 1930, the 1934 series was decided in the final Test at The Oval. Australia, batting first, posted a massive 701 in the first innings. Bradman (244) and Ponsford (266) were in record-breaking form with a partnership of 451 for the second wicket. England eventually faced a massive 707-run target for victory and failed, Australia winning the series 2–1. This made Woodfull the only captain to regain the Ashes and he retired upon his return to Australia. In 1936–37 Bradman succeeded Woodfull as Australian captain. He started badly, losing the first two Tests heavily after Australia were caught on
sticky wicket A sticky wicket (or sticky dog, or glue pot) is a metaphor A metaphor is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produ ...

sticky wicket
s. However, the Australians fought back and Bradman won his first series in charge 3–2. The 1938 series was a high-scoring affair with two high-scoring draws, resulting in a 1–1 result, Australia retaining the Ashes. After the first two matches ended in stalemate and the Third Test at Old Trafford never started due to rain, Australia then scraped home by five wickets inside three days in a low-scoring match at Headingley to retain the urn. In the timeless Fifth Test at The Oval, the highlight was
Len Hutton Sir Leonard Hutton (23 June 1916 – 6 September 1990) was an English cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cri ...
's then world-record score of 364 as England made 903-7 declared. Bradman and
Jack Fingleton John Henry Webb Fingleton (28 April 190822 November 1981) was an Australian cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a crick ...

Jack Fingleton
injured themselves during Hutton's marathon effort, and with only nine men, Australia fell to defeat by an innings and 579 runs, the heaviest in Test history. The Ashes resumed after the war when England toured in 1946–47 and, as in 1920–21, found that Australia had made the better post-war recovery. Still captained by Bradman and now featuring the potent new-ball partnership of
Ray Lindwall Raymond Russell Lindwall (3 October 1921 – 23 June 1996) was a cricketer who represented Australia national cricket team, Australia in 61 Test cricket, Tests from 1946 to 1960. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest fast bowling, fast b ...

Ray Lindwall
and
Keith Miller Keith Ross Miller, (28 November 1919 – 11 October 2004) was an Australian Test cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a ...

Keith Miller
, Australia were convincing 3–0 winners. Aged 38 and having been unwell during the war, Bradman had been reluctant to play. He batted unconvincingly and reached 28 when he hit a ball to
Jack Ikin John Thomas Ikin (7 March 1918 – 15 September 1984) was an English cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch ...
; England believed it was a catch, but Bradman stood his ground, believing it to be a bump ball. The umpire ruled in the Australian captain's favour and he appeared to regain his fluency of yesteryear, scoring 187. Australia promptly seized the initiative, won the First Test convincingly and inaugurated a dominant post-war era. The controversy over the Ikin catch was one of the biggest disputes of the era. In 1948 Australia set new standards, completely outplaying its hosts to win 4–0 with one draw. This Australian team, led by Bradman, who turned 40 during his final tour of England, has gone down in history as ''The Invincibles''. Playing 34 matches on tour—three of which were not first-class—and including the five Tests, they remained unbeaten, winning 27 and drawing 7. Bradman's men were greeted by packed crowds across the country, and records for Test attendances in England were set in the
Second The second (symbol: s, also abbreviated: sec) is the base unit of time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, th ...
and Fourth Tests at Lord's and Headingley respectively. Before a record attendance of spectators at Headingley, Australia set a world record by chasing down 404 on the last day for a seven-wicket victory. The 1948 series ended with one of the most poignant moments in cricket history, as Bradman played his final innings for Australia in the Fifth Test at The Oval, needing to score only four runs to end with a career
batting average Batting average is a statistic in cricket, baseball, and softball that measures the performance of batsmen in cricket and batters in baseball and softball. The development of the baseball statistic was influenced by the cricket statistic. Cricket ...
of exactly 100. However, Bradman made a second-ball duck, bowled by an
Eric Hollies William Eric Hollies (5 June 1912 – 16 April 1981) was an English cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch ...
googly that sent him into retirement with a career average of 99.94. Bradman was succeeded as Australian captain by Lindsay Hassett, who led the team to a 4–1 series victory in 1950–51. The series was not as one-sided as the number of wins suggest, with several tight matches. The tide finally turned in 1953 when England won the final Test at The Oval to take the series 1–0, having narrowly avoided defeat in the preceding Test at Headingley. This was the beginning of one of the greatest periods in English cricket history with players such as captain Len Hutton, batsmen Denis Compton, Peter May (cricketer), Peter May, Tom Graveney, Colin Cowdrey, bowlers Fred Trueman, Brian Statham, Alec Bedser, Jim Laker, Tony Lock, wicket-keeper Godfrey Evans and all-rounder Trevor Bailey.


1954 to 1971

In English cricket team in Australia in 1954-55, 1954–55, Australia's batsmen had no answer to the pace of Frank Tyson and Statham. After winning the First Test by an innings after being controversially sent in by Hutton, Australia lost its way and England took a hat-trick of victories to win the series 3–1. A dramatic series in 1956 saw a record that will probably never be beaten: off-spinner Jim Laker's monumental effort at Old Trafford Cricket Ground, Old Trafford when he bowled 68 of 191 overs to take 19 out of 20 possible Australian wickets in the Fourth Test. It was Australia's second consecutive innings defeat in a wet summer, and the hosts were in strong positions in the two drawn Tests, in which half the playing time was washed out. Bradman rated the team that won the series 2–1 as England's best ever. England's dominance was not to last. Australia won 4–0 in 1958–59, having found a high-quality spinner of their own in new skipper Richie Benaud, who took 31 wickets in the five-Test series, and paceman Alan Keith Davidson, Alan Davidson, who took 24 wickets at 19.00. The series was overshadowed by the furore over various Australian bowlers, most notably Ian Meckiff, whom the English management and media accused of throwing (cricket), illegally throwing Australia to victory. In 1961 Australia won a hard-fought series 2–1, their first Ashes series win in England for 13 years. After narrowly winning the Second Test at Lord's, dubbed "The Battle of the Ridge" because of a protrusion on the pitch that caused erratic bounce, Australia mounted a comeback on the final day of the Fourth Test at Old Trafford and sealed the series with Richie Benaud taking 6-70 during the English runchase. The tempo of the play changed over the next four series in the 1960s, held in 1962–63, 1964, 1965–66 and 1968. The powerful array of bowlers that both countries boasted in the preceding decade moved into retirement, and their replacements were of lesser quality, making it more difficult to force a result. England failed to win any series during the 1960s, a period dominated by draws as teams found it more prudent to save face than risk losing. Of the 20 Tests played during the four series, Australia won four and England three. As they held the Ashes, Australia's captains Bob Simpson (cricketer), Bob Simpson and Bill Lawry were happy to adopt safety-first tactics and their strategy of sedate batting saw many draws. During this period, spectator attendances dropped and media condemnation increased, but Simpson and Lawry flatly disregarded the public dissatisfaction. It was in the 1960s that the bipolar dominance of England and Australia in world cricket was seriously challenged for the first time. West Indies defeated England twice in the mid-1960s and South Africa, in two series before they were banned for apartheid, completely outplayed Australia 3–1 and 4–0. Australia had lost 2–1 during a tour of the West Indies in 1964–65, the first time it had lost a series to any team other than England. In 1970–71, Ray Illingworth led England to a 2–0 win in Australia, mainly due to John Snow (cricketer), John Snow's fast bowling, and the prolific batting of Geoffrey Boycott and John Edrich. It was not until the last session of what was the 7th Test (one match having been abandoned without a ball bowled) that England's success was secured. Lawry was sacked after the Sixth Test after the selectors finally lost patience with Australia's lack of success and dour strategy. Lawry was not informed of the decision privately and heard his fate over the radio.


1972 to 1987

The 1972 series finished 2–2, with England under Illingworth retaining the Ashes. In the 1974–75 series, with the England team breaking up and their best batsman Geoff Boycott refusing to play, Australian pace bowlers Jeff Thomson and Dennis Lillee wreaked havoc. A 4–1 result was a fair reflection as England were left shell shocked. England then lost the 1975 series 0–1, but at least restored some pride under new captain Tony Greig. Australia won the 1977 Centenary Test which was not an Ashes contest, but then a storm broke as Kerry Packer announced his intention to form World Series Cricket. WSC affected all Test-playing nations but it weakened Australia especially as the bulk of its players had signed up with Packer; the Australian Cricket Board (ACB) would not select WSC-contracted players and an almost completely new Test team had to be formed. WSC came after an era during which the duopoly of Australian and English dominance dissipated; the Ashes had long been seen as a cricket world championship but the rise of the West Indies in the late 1970s challenged that view. The West Indies would go on to record resounding Test series wins over Australia and England and dominated world cricket until the 1990s. With Greig having joined WSC, England appointed Mike Brearley as its captain and he enjoyed great success against Australia. Largely assisted by the return of Boycott, Brearley's men won the 1977 series 3–0 and then completed an overwhelming 5–1 series win against an Australian side missing its WSC players in 1978–79. Allan Border made his Test debut for Australia in 1978–79. Brearley retired from Test cricket in 1980 and was succeeded by Ian Botham, who started the Australian cricket team in England in 1981, 1981 series as England captain, by which time the WSC split had ended. After Australia took a 1–0 lead in the first two Tests, Botham was forced to resign or was sacked (depending on the source). Brearley surprisingly agreed to be reappointed before the Third Test at Headingley. This was a remarkable match in which Australia looked certain to take a 2–0 series lead after it had forced England to follow-on 227 runs behind. England, despite being 135 for 7, produced a second innings total of 356, Botham scoring 149*. Chasing just 130, Australia were sensationally dismissed for 111, Bob Willis taking 8–43. It was the first time since 1894–95 that a team following on had won a Test match. Under Brearley's leadership, England went on to win the next two matches before a drawn final match at The Oval. In 1982–83 Australia had Greg Chappell back from WSC as captain, while the England team was weakened by the enforced omission of their South African rebel tours, South African tour rebels, particularly Graham Gooch and John Emburey. Australia went 2–0 up after three Tests, but England won the Fourth Test by 3 runs (after a 70-run last wicket stand) to set up the final decider, which was drawn. In 1985 David Gower's England team was strengthened by the return of Gooch and Emburey as well as the emergence at international level of Tim Robinson (English cricketer), Tim Robinson and Mike Gatting. Australia, now captained by Allan Border, had itself been weakened by a rebel South African tour, the loss of Terry Alderman being a particular factor. England won 3–1. Despite suffering heavy defeats against the West Indies during the 1980s, England continued to do well in the Ashes. Mike Gatting was the captain in 1986–87 but his team started badly and attracted some criticism. Then Chris Broad (cricketer), Chris Broad scored three hundreds in successive Tests and bowling successes from Graham Dilley and Gladstone Small meant England won the series 2–1.


1989 to 2003

The Australian team of 1989 was comparable to the great Australian teams of the past, and resoundingly defeated England 4–0. Well led by Allan Border, the team included the young cricketers Mark Taylor (cricketer), Mark Taylor, Merv Hughes, David Boon, Ian Healy and Steve Waugh, who were all to prove long-serving and successful Ashes competitors. England, now led once again by David Gower, suffered from injuries and poor form. During the Fourth Test news broke that prominent England players had agreed to take part in a "rebel tour" of South Africa the following winter; three of them (Tim Robinson (English cricketer), Tim Robinson, Neil Foster and John Emburey) were playing in the match, and were subsequently dropped from the England side. Australia reached a cricketing peak in the 1990s and early 2000s, coupled with a general decline in England's fortunes. After re-establishing its credibility in 1989, Australia underlined its superiority with victories in the 1990–91, 1993, 1994–95, 1997, 1998–99, 2001 and 2002–03 series, all by convincing margins. Great Australian players in the early years included batsmen Border, Boon, Taylor and Steve Waugh. The captaincy passed from Border to Taylor in the mid-1990s and then to Steve Waugh before the 2001 series. In the latter part of the 1990s Waugh himself, along with his twin brother Mark Waugh, Mark, scored heavily for Australia and fast bowlers Glenn McGrath and Jason Gillespie made a serious impact, especially the former. The wicketkeeper-batsman position was held by Ian Healy for most of the 1990s and by Adam Gilchrist from 2001 to 2006–07. In the 2000s, batsmen Justin Langer, Damien Martyn and Matthew Hayden became noted players for Australia. But the most dominant Australian player was leg-spinner Shane Warne, whose first delivery in Ashes cricket in 1993, to dismiss Mike Gatting, became known as the Ball of the Century. Australia's record between 1989 and 2005 had a significant impact on the statistics between the two sides. Before the 1989 series began, the win-loss ratio was almost even, with 87 test wins for Australia to England's 86, 74 tests having been drawn. By the 2005 series Australia's test wins had increased to 115 whereas England's had increased to only 93 (with 82 draws). In the period between 1989 and the beginning of the 2005 series, the two sides had played 43 times; Australia winning 28 times, England 7 times, with 8 draws. Only a single England victory had come in a match in which the Ashes were still at stake, namely the First Test of the 1997 series. All others were consolation victories when the Ashes had been secured by Australia.


2005 to 2015

England were undefeated in Test matches through the 2004 calendar year. This elevated them to second in the ICC Test Championship. Hopes that the 2005 Ashes series would be closely fought proved well-founded, the series remaining undecided as the closing session of the final Test began. Experienced journalists including Richie Benaud rated the series as the most exciting in living memory. It has been compared with the great series of the distant past, such as 1894–95 and 1902. The First Test at
Lord's Lord's Cricket Ground, commonly known as Lord's, is a cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch ...
was convincingly won by Australia, but in the remaining four matches the teams were evenly matched and England fought back to win the Second Test by 2 runs, the smallest winning margin in Ashes history, and the second-smallest in all Tests. The rain-affected Third Test ended with the last two Australian batsmen holding out for a draw; and England won the Fourth Test by three wickets after forcing Australia to follow-on for the first time in 191 Tests. A draw in the final Test gave England victory in an Ashes series for the first time in 18 years and their first Ashes victory at home since 1985. Australia regained the Ashes on its home turf in the 2006–07 Ashes series, 2006–07 series with a convincing 5–0 victory, only the second time an Ashes series had been won by that margin. Glenn McGrath, Shane Warne and Justin Langer retired from Test cricket after that series, while Damien Martyn retired during the series. The 2009 Ashes series, 2009 series began with a tense draw in the First Test at SWALEC Stadium in Cardiff, with England's last-wicket batsmen James Anderson (cricketer), James Anderson and Monty Panesar surviving 69 balls. England then achieved its first Ashes win at Lord's since 1934 to go 1–0 up. After a rain-affected draw at Edgbaston, the fourth match at Headingley was convincingly won by Australia by an innings and 80 runs to level the series. Finally, England won the Fifth Test at
The Oval The Oval, known for Naming rights#Stadium naming, sponsorship reasons as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, in south London. The Oval has been the home ground of Surrey County Cri ...

The Oval
by a margin of 197 runs to regain the Ashes. Andrew Flintoff retired from Test cricket soon afterwards. The 2010–11 Ashes series, 2010–11 series was played in Australia. The First Test at Brisbane ended in a draw, but England won the Second Test, at Adelaide, by an innings and 71 runs. Australia came back with a victory at Perth in the Third Test. In the Fourth Test at Melbourne Cricket Ground, England batting second scored 513 to defeat Australia (98 and 258) by an innings and 157 runs. This gave England an unbeatable 2–1 lead in the series and so it retained the Ashes. England went on to win the series 3–1, beating Australia by an innings and 83 runs at Sydney in the Fifth Test, including their highest innings total since 1938 (644). England's series victory was its first on Australian soil for 24 years. The 2010–11 Ashes series was the only one in which a team had won three Tests by innings margins and it was the first time England had scored 500 or more four times in a single series. Australia's build-up to the 2013 Ashes series was far from ideal. Darren Lehmann took over as coach from Mickey Arthur following a string of poor results. A batting line-up weakened by the previous year's retirements of former captain Ricky Ponting and Mike Hussey was also shorn of opener David Warner (cricketer), David Warner, who was suspended for the start of the series following an off-field incident. England won a closely fought First Test by 14 runs, despite 19-year-old debutant Ashton Agar making a world-record 98 for a number 11 in the first innings. England then won a very one-sided Second Test by 347 runs while the rain-affected Third Test, held at a newly refurbished Old Trafford, was drawn, ensuring that England retained the Ashes. England won the Fourth Test by 74 runs after Australia lost their last eight second-innings wickets for only 86 runs. The final Test was drawn, giving England a 3–0 series win. In the second of two Ashes series held in 2013–14 Ashes series, 2013 (the series ended in 2014), this time hosted by Australia, the home team won the series five test matches to nil. This was the third time Australia has completed a clean sweep (or "whitewash") in Ashes history, a feat never matched by England. All six Australian specialist batsmen scored more runs than any Englishman with 10 centuries among them, with only debutant Ben Stokes scoring a century for England. Mitchell Johnson took 37 English wickets at 13.97 and Ryan Harris 22 wickets at 19.31 in the 5-Test series. Only Stuart Broad and all-rounder Stokes bowled effectively for England, with their spinner Graeme Swann retiring due to a chronic elbow injury after the decisive Third Test. Australia came into the 2015 Ashes series in England as favourites to retain the Ashes. Although England won the first Test in Cardiff, Australia won comfortably in the second Test at Lords. In the next two Tests, the Australian batsmen struggled, being bowled out for 136 in the first innings at Edgbaston, with England proceeding to win by eight wickets. This was followed by Australia being bowled out for 60 as Stuart Broad took five wickets and finished the spell with 8 for 15 in the first innings at Trent Bridge, the quickest – in terms of balls faced – a team has been bowled out in the first innings of a Test match. With victory by an innings and 78 runs on the morning of the third day of the Fourth Test, England regained the Ashes.


2017 to present

During the buildup, the 2017–18 Ashes series was regarded as a turning point for both sides. Australia were criticised for being too reliant on captain Steve Smith and vice-captain David Warner, while England was said to have a shoddy middle to lower order. Off the field, England all-rounder Ben Stokes was ruled out of the side indefinitely due to a police investigation. Australia won the first Test match in Brisbane by 10 wickets and the second Test at Adelaide by 120 runs in the first ever day-night Ashes test match. Australia regained The Ashes with an innings and 41 run win in the third Test at Perth; the final Ashes Test at the WACA Ground. Prior to the 2019 Ashes series, both teams were considered to have very strong bowling attacks but struggling batting orders. Australia had its top-order batsmen David Warner (cricketer), David Warner, Steve Smith (cricketer), Steve Smith and Cameron Bancroft available for international selection after being banned from international cricket for 9–12 months following the 2018 Australian ball-tampering scandal, ball-tampering scandal in South Africa, during which time India national cricket team, India had won its first ever Test series in Australia. However, Australia recovered to win the Sri Lanka cricket team in Australia in 2018–19, Test series against Sri Lanka 2–0. Despite winning the 2019 Cricket World Cup Final, Cricket World Cup in July 2019 for the first time, England had also been criticised for its fragile top-order in Tests. The retirement of opener Alastair Cook in August 2018 ensured potential top-order batsmen Rory Burns, Joe Denly and Jason Roy were able to secure a place in the side. Despite losing a Test series 2–1 in their England cricket team in the West Indies in 2018–19, tour of the West Indies, England then improved to win the Irish cricket team in England in 2019, one-off Test against Ireland, by 143 runs. The 2019 series was eventually drawn 2–2, with Australia retaining the Ashes. The 2021–22 Ashes series, 2021 Ashes series is scheduled for December 2021 through January 2022. Australia retained the Ashes in the 2021-22 Ashes series, after Scott Boland achieved the third best bowling figures in the history of Australian cricket at 6-7 (4 overs).


Summary of results and statistics

In the 138 years since 1883, Australia have held the Ashes for approximately 82.5 years, and England for 55.5 years: Test results, up to and including the 3rd Test in the 2021-22 Ashes series in Australia:Australia and England have played an additional 16 Tests but the Ashes were not at stake in those games. Including these Tests, the win–loss record stands at 144 Australian wins, 108 English wins, and 94 draws (up to and including the 5th Test of the 2019 series). Se
Cricinfo statistics
Series results, up to and including the 2021-22 Ashes series: A team must win a series to gain the right to hold the Ashes. A drawn series results in the previous holders retaining the Ashes. Ashes series have generally been played over five Test matches, although there have been four-match series (1938; 1975) and six-match series (1970–71; 1974–75; 1978–79; 1981; 1985; 1989; 1993 and 1997). Australians have made 264 century (cricket), centuries in Ashes Tests, of which 23 have been scores over 200, while Englishmen have scored 212 centuries, of which 10 have been over 200. Australians have taken 10 wickets in a match on 41 occasions, Englishmen 38 times.


Match venues

The series alternates between the United Kingdom and Australia, and within each country each of the usually five matches is held at different grounds. In Australia, the grounds currently used are The Gabba in Brisbane (first staged an England–Australia Test in the 1932–33 season), Adelaide Oval (1884–85), the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG) (1876–77), and the Sydney Cricket Ground (SCG) (1881–82). A single Test was held at the Brisbane Showgrounds, Brisbane Exhibition Ground in 1928–29. Traditionally, Melbourne hosts the Boxing Day Test and Sydney hosts the New Year's Day Test. Additionally WACA Ground, the WACA in Perth (1970–71) hosted its 2017–18 Ashes series#3rd Test, final Ashes Test in 2017–18 and was due to be replaced by Perth Stadium for the 2021–22 Ashes series, 2021–22 series. However, Western Australia, Western Australian border restrictions and quarantine requirements during the COVID-19 pandemic led to a change in venue for the final Ashes Test to Bellerive Oval in Hobart. This will be the first Ashes Test match to be held in Tasmania. Cricket Australia proposed that the 2010–11 series consist of six Tests, with the additional game to be played at Bellerive Oval in Hobart. The England and Wales Cricket Board declined and the series was played over five Tests. In England and Wales, the grounds currently used are: Old Trafford Cricket Ground, Old Trafford in Manchester (1884),
The Oval The Oval, known for Naming rights#Stadium naming, sponsorship reasons as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, in south London. The Oval has been the home ground of Surrey County Cri ...

The Oval
in Kennington, South London (1884);
Lord's Lord's Cricket Ground, commonly known as Lord's, is a cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch ...
in St John's Wood, North London (1884);
Headingley Headingley is a suburb A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Televis ...
in Leeds (1899) and
Edgbaston Edgbaston () is an affluent suburban area of central Birmingham, England, historically in Warwickshire, and curved around the southwest of the city centre. In the 19th century, the area was under the control of the Gough-Calthorpe family an ...

Edgbaston
in Birmingham (1902). Additionally Sophia Gardens in Cardiff, Wales (2009); the Riverside Ground in Chester-le-Street, County Durham (2013) and Trent Bridge at West Bridgford (1899), have been used and one Test was also held at
Bramall Lane Bramall Lane is a football Football is a family of team sport A team is a [group (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working together to achieve their goal. As defined by Professor Leigh Thompson (academic), Le ...
in Sheffield in 1902. Traditionally the final Test of the series is played at the Oval. Sophia Gardens and the Riverside were excluded as Test grounds between the years of 2020 and 2024 and therefore will not host an Ashes Test until at least 2027. Trent Bridge is also not due to host an Ashes Test until 2027. *Including abandoned tests Historic Counties of England who play at the grounds Former Grounds which don't host Test Matches


Cultural references

The popularity and reputation of the cricket series has led to other sports and games using the name "Ashes" for contests between England and Australia. The best-known and longest-running of these events is the rugby league rivalry between Great Britain national rugby league team, Great Britain and Australia national rugby league team, Australia (see The Ashes (rugby league), rugby league "Ashes"). Use of the name "Ashes" was suggested by the Australian team when rugby league matches between the two countries commenced in 1908. Other examples included the television game shows ''Gladiators (TV series), Gladiators'' and ''Sale of the Century (Australian game show), Sale of the Century'', both of which broadcast special editions containing contestants from the Australian and English versions of the shows competing against each other. The term became further genericised in Australia in the first half of the twentieth century, and was used to describe many sports rivalries or competitions outside the context of Australia vs England. The Australian rules football Interstate matches in Australian rules football, interstate carnival, and the small silver casket which served as its trophy, were symbolically known as "the Ashes" of Australian football, and was spoken of as such until at least the 1940s. The soccer rivalry between Australia and New Zealand was described as "the soccer ashes of Australasia" until as late as the 1950s; ashes from cigars smoked by the two countries' captains were put into a casket in 1923 to make the trophy literal. The interstate rugby league State of Origin series#Interstate Rugby League prior to 1980, rivalry between Queensland and New South Wales was known for a time as Australia's rugby league ashes, and lawn bowls, bowls competitions between the two states also regularly used the term. Even some local rivalries, such as southern Western Australia's annual Great Southern Football Carnival, were locally described as "the ashes". This genericised usage is no longer common, and "the Ashes" would today be assumed only to apply to a contest between Australia and England. The Ashes featured in the film ''The Final Test'', released in 1953, based on a television play by Terence Rattigan. It stars Jack Warner (actor), Jack Warner as an England cricketer playing the last Test of his career, which is the last of an Ashes series; the film includes cameo appearances of English captain
Len Hutton Sir Leonard Hutton (23 June 1916 – 6 September 1990) was an English cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cri ...
and other players who were part of England's 1953 triumph. Douglas Adams's 1982 science fiction comedy novel ''Life, the Universe and Everything'' – the third part of ''The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy'' series – features the urn containing the Ashes as a significant element of its plot. The urn is stolen by alien robots, as the burnt stump inside is part of a key needed to unlock the "Wikkit Gate" and release an imprisoned world called Krikkit. ''Bodyline (miniseries), Bodyline'', a fictionalised television miniseries based on the "
Bodyline Bodyline, also known as fast leg theory bowling, was a cricket Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two opposing teams, in whic ...

Bodyline
" Ashes series of 1932–33, was screened in Australia in 1984. The cast included Gary Sweet as
Donald Bradman Sir Donald George Bradman, Companion of the Order of Australia, AC (27 August 1908 – 25 February 2001), nicknamed "The Don", was an Australian international cricketer, widely acknowledged as the greatest batsman of all time. Bradman's ...
and Hugo Weaving as England captain
Douglas Jardine Douglas Robert Jardine ( 1900 – 1958) was a cricketer who played 22 Test cricket, Test matches for England, captaining the side in 15 of those matches between 1931 and 1934. A right-handed Batting (cricket), batsman, he is best known for ...

Douglas Jardine
. In the 1938 film ''The Lady Vanishes'', Charters and Caldicott, played by Basil Radford and Naunton Wayne are two cricket fans who are desperate to get home from Europe in order to see the last day's play in the 3rd Test at Manchester. It is not until they see a newsboy's poster near the end of the film that they discover that the match had been abandoned, due to floods.


See also

* History of Test cricket from 1877 to 1883 * History of Test cricket from 1884 to 1889 * History of Test cricket from 1890 to 1900


Notes


References


Further reading

* * * * * * * * * * * Willis, R
''Cricket's Biggest Mystery: The Ashes''
The Lutterworth Press (1987), . *


Other

* ''Wisden's Cricketers Almanack'' (various editions)


External links


Ashes to Ashes
An audio history of the first hundred years of the Ashes, narrated by John Arlott
Cricinfo's Ashes
website
The Origin of the Ashes – Rex Harcourt
* Listen to a youn
Don Bradman speaking
after the 1930 Ashes tour {{DEFAULTSORT:Ashes The Ashes, Australia in international cricket Cricket awards and rankings Cricket rivalries England in international cricket Recurring events established in 1882 Recurring sporting events established in 1882 Test cricket competitions