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Telogen effluvium is a
scalp The scalp is the anatomical area bordered by the human face The face is the front of an animal's head that features the eyes Eyes are organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on ...
disorder characterized by the thinning or shedding of
hair Hair is a protein filament In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Ph ...

hair
resulting from the early entry of hair in the
telogen phase The hair follicle is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ ...
(the resting phase of the hair follicle).Marks, James G; Miller, Jeffery (2006). ''Lookingbill and Marks' Principles of Dermatology'' (4th ed.). Elsevier Inc. Page 263. .James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). ''Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology''. (10th ed.). Saunders. . It is in this phase that telogen hairs begin to shed at an increased rate, where normally the approximate rate of
hair loss Hair loss, also known as alopecia or baldness, refers to a loss of hair Hair is a protein filament In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, ...
(having no effect on one's appearance) is 125 hairs per day. There are 5 potential alterations in the hair cycle that could lead to this shedding: immediate anagen release, delayed anagen release, short anagen syndrome, immediate telogen release, and delayed telogen release. * Immediate anagen release occurs when follicles leave anagen and are stimulated to enter telogen prematurely. The effects become visible 2–3 months later with increased telogen effluvium. * Delayed anagen release, most commonly associated with
pregnancy Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring In biology, offspring are the young creation of living organisms, produced either by a Asexual reproduction, single organism or, in the case of sexual repr ...

pregnancy
, involves the prolongation of anagen under the effect of pregnancy hormones, resulting in delayed but synchronous and heavy postpartum hair shedding. * Short anagen syndrome is characterized by an idiopathic and persistent telogen hair shedding, as well as the inability to grow hair long. This is a result of the shortening of the duration of anagen, meaning a greater number of telogen hairs at any given time, and is responsible for the majority of chronic TE cases.   * Immediate telogen release generally occurs with drug-induced shortening of telogen leading to the premature reentrance of follicles to anagen, which causes a massive release of club (telogen) hairs. Drugs such as
minoxidil Minoxidil (2,4-diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine 3-oxide), sold under the brand name Rogaine among others, is a medication A medication (also called medicament, medicine, pharmaceutical drug, medicinal drug or simply drug) is a drug used to ...

minoxidil
can precipitate immediate telogen release. * Delayed telogen release involves a prolonged telogen phase followed by a delayed transition to anagen. This occurs in animals with synchronous hair cycles that shed their hair or winter coats seasonally. This is also sometimes responsible for seasonal hair loss in humans. Emotional or physiological stress may result in an alteration of the normal
hair cycle The hair follicle is an Organ (anatomy), organ found in Mammal, mammalian skin. It resides in the Dermis, dermal layer of the skin and is made up of 20 different cell types, each with distinct functions. The hair follicle regulates hair growth via a ...
and cause the disorder, with potential causes including
eating disorder An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating behaviors that negatively affect a person's health, physical or mental health, mental health. Only one eating disorder can be diagnosed at a given time. Types of eating disorders ...
s,
crash diet A very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) or very-low-energy diet (VLED), also known as semistarvation diet and crash diet, is a type of diet with very or extremely low daily food energy consumption. Although previously described as a fad diet, VLCD now have ...
s, pregnancy and
childbirth Childbirth, also known as labour or delivery, is the ending of pregnancy Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring In biology, offspring are the young born of living organism, organisms, produc ...

childbirth
,
chronic illness A chronic condition is a human health Health, according to the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a list of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for ...
, major
surgery Surgery ''cheirourgikē'' (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via la, chirurgiae, meaning "hand work". is a medical or dental specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a person to investigate or t ...
,
anemia Anemia (American and British English spelling differences#ae and oe, also spelled anaemia) is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen. When anemia c ...

anemia
, severe
emotional disorder Emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD; also known as behavioral and emotional disorders) refer to a disability classification used in educational settings that allows educational institutions to provide special education and related services to ...
s,
hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism (also called ''underactive thyroid'', ''low thyroid'' or ''hypothyreosis'') is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland The thyroid, or thyroid gland, is an endocrine gland in the neck consisting of two ...

hypothyroidism
, and
drug A drug is any chemical substance that causes a change in an organism's physiology or psychology when consumed. Drugs are typically distinguished from food and substances that provide nutritional support. Consumption of drugs can be via insuffl ...

drug
s.Freedberg, et al. (2003). ''Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine''. (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill. . Diagnostic tests, which may be performed to verify the diagnosis, include a trichogram,
trichoscopy Trichoscopy is a method of hair and scalp evaluation and is used for diagnosing hair and scalp diseases. The method is based on dermoscopy. In trichoscopy hair and scalp structures may be visualized at many-fold magnification. Currently magnificat ...
and
biopsy A biopsy is a medical test A medical test is a medical procedureA medical procedure is a course of action intended to achieve a result in the delivery of healthcare. A medical procedure with the intention of determining, measuring, or diagno ...

biopsy
. Effluvium can present with similar appearance to
alopecia totalis Alopecia totalis is the loss of all skull and facial hair. Its causes are unclear, but believed to be autoimmune. Research suggests there may be a genetic component linked to developing alopecia totalis; the presence of DRB1*0401 and DQB1*0301, bo ...
, with further distinction by clinical course, microscopic examination of plucked follicles, or biopsy of the scalp. Histology would show telogen
hair follicle The hair follicle is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given org ...

hair follicle
s in the
dermis The dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis (skin), epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis (anatomy), cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from s ...
with minimal inflammation in effluvium, and dense peribulbar infiltrate in
alopecia totalis Alopecia totalis is the loss of all skull and facial hair. Its causes are unclear, but believed to be autoimmune. Research suggests there may be a genetic component linked to developing alopecia totalis; the presence of DRB1*0401 and DQB1*0301, bo ...
.
Vitamin D Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroid 250px, The parent steroid skeleton. The B-ring of the parent steroid is broken between C9 and C10 to yield D vitamins. A secosteroid () is a type of steroid , hypothetical a steroid with ...
levels may also play a role in the normal hair cycle. Many new cosmetic treatments have been reported, including stemoxydine, Nioxin,
minoxidil Minoxidil (2,4-diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine 3-oxide), sold under the brand name Rogaine among others, is a medication A medication (also called medicament, medicine, pharmaceutical drug, medicinal drug or simply drug) is a drug used to ...

minoxidil
, and a leave-on technology combination:
caffeine Caffeine is a central nervous system The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structu ...

caffeine
,
niacinamide Niacinamide or Nicotinamide (NAM) is a form of vitamin B3 found in food and used as a dietary supplement A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement one's diet by taking a pill Pill or The Pill may refer t ...

niacinamide
,
panthenol Panthenol (also called pantothenol) is the alcohol Analog (chemistry), analog of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), and is thus a provitamin of B5. In organisms, it is quickly oxidized to pantothenic acid. It is a viscous transparent liquid at room t ...

panthenol
,
dimethicone Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), also known as dimethylpolysiloxane or dimethicone, belongs to a group of polymeric organosilicon compounds that are commonly referred to as silicones. PDMS is the most widely used silicon-based organic compound, organi ...
, and an
acrylate polymer Acrylate polymers are a group of polymers prepared from acrylate monomers. These plastics are noted for their transparency, resistance to breakage, and elasticity. They are also commonly known as acrylics or polyacrylates. Acrylate polymer is common ...
(CNPDA). This treatment has shown to increase the diameter of existing, individual scalp hair fibres by 2–5 μm, yielding a significant increase of approximately 10% in the cross-sectional area of each hair. Additionally, CNPDA-thickened hairs also demonstrate altered mechanical properties of thicker fibres; increased suppleness/pliability, and increased ability to withstand force without breaking.


See also

*
Anagen effluvium Anagen effluvium is the pathologic loss of anagen or growth-phase hairs. Classically, it is caused by radiation therapy to the head and systemic chemotherapy, especially with alkylating agents.Freedberg, et al. (2003). ''Fitzpatrick's Dermatology ...
*
Noncicatricial alopecia Non scarring hair loss, also known as noncicatricial alopecia is the loss of hair without any scarring being present.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). ''Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology''. (10th ed.). Saunders ...


References


External links

{{Disorders of skin appendages Conditions of the skin appendages Human hair Hair diseases