PropertiesThe symmetric difference is equivalent to the union (set theory), union of both complement (set theory), relative complements, that is: : The symmetric difference can also be expressed using the Exclusive or, XOR operation ⊕ on the Predicate (mathematical logic), predicates describing the two sets in set-builder notation: : The same fact can be stated as the indicator function (denoted here by ) of the symmetric difference, being the XOR (or addition Modular arithmetic, mod 2) of the indicator functions of its two arguments: or using the Iverson bracket notation . The symmetric difference can also be expressed as the union of the two sets, minus their intersection (set theory), intersection: : In particular, ; the equality in this non-strict Subset, inclusion occurs if and only if and are disjoint sets. Furthermore, denoting and , then and are always disjoint, so and Partition of a set, partition . Consequently, assuming intersection and symmetric difference as primitive operations, the union of two sets can be well ''defined'' in terms of symmetric difference by the right-hand side of the equality :. The symmetric difference is commutativity, commutative and associativity, associative: : The empty set is identity element, neutral, and every set is its own inverse: : Thus, the power set of any set ''X'' becomes an abelian group under the symmetric difference operation. (More generally, any field of sets forms a group with the symmetric difference as operation.) A group in which every element is its own inverse (or, equivalently, in which every element has Order (group theory), order 2) is sometimes called a Boolean group; the symmetric difference provides a prototypical example of such groups. Sometimes the Boolean group is actually defined as the symmetric difference operation on a set. In the case where ''X'' has only two elements, the group thus obtained is the Klein four-group. Equivalently, a Boolean group is an elementary abelian group, elementary abelian 2-group. Consequently, the group induced by the symmetric difference is in fact a vector space over the finite field, field with 2 elements Z2. If ''X'' is finite, then the singleton (mathematics), singletons form a basis (linear algebra), basis of this vector space, and its Hamel dimension, dimension is therefore equal to the number of elements of ''X''. This construction is used in graph theory, to define the cycle space of a graph. From the property of the inverses in a Boolean group, it follows that the symmetric difference of two repeated symmetric differences is equivalent to the repeated symmetric difference of the Multiset#Operations, join of the two multisets, where for each double set both can be removed. In particular: : This implies triangle inequality: the symmetric difference of ''A'' and ''C'' is contained in the union of the symmetric difference of ''A'' and ''B'' and that of ''B'' and ''C''. Intersection distributivity, distributes over symmetric difference: : and this shows that the power set of ''X'' becomes a ring (mathematics), ring, with symmetric difference as addition and intersection as multiplication. This is the prototypical example of a Boolean ring. Further properties of the symmetric difference include: * if and only if . * , where , is 's complement, 's complement, respectively, relative to any (fixed) set that contains both. * , where is an arbitrary non-empty index set. * If is any function and are any sets in 's codomain, then The symmetric difference can be defined in any Boolean algebra (structure), Boolean algebra, by writing : This operation has the same properties as the symmetric difference of sets.
''n''-ary symmetric differenceThe repeated symmetric difference is in a sense equivalent to an operation on a multiset of sets giving the set of elements which are in an odd number of sets. As above, the symmetric difference of a collection of sets contains just elements which are in an odd number of the sets in the collection: :. Evidently, this is well-defined only when each element of the union is contributed by a finite number of elements of . Suppose is a multiset and . Then there is a formula for , the number of elements in , given solely in terms of intersections of elements of : :.
Symmetric difference on measure spacesAs long as there is a notion of "how big" a set is, the symmetric difference between two sets can be considered a measure of how "far apart" they are. First consider a finite set ''S'' and the counting measure on subsets given by their size. Now consider two subsets of ''S'' and set their distance apart as the size of their symmetric difference. This distance is in fact a metric (mathematics), metric, which makes the power set on ''S'' a metric space. If ''S'' has ''n'' elements, then the distance from the empty set to ''S'' is ''n'', and this is the maximum distance for any pair of subsets.Claude Flament (1963) ''Applications of Graph Theory to Group Structure'', page 16, Prentice-Hall Using the ideas of measure theory, the separation of measurable sets can be defined to be the measure of their symmetric difference. If μ is a sigma-finite, σ-finite measure space, measure defined on a sigma-algebra, σ-algebra Σ, the function : is a pseudometric space, pseudometric on Σ. ''dμ'' becomes a metric space, metric if Σ is considered modulo the equivalence relation ''X'' ~ ''Y'' if and only if . It is sometimes called Fréchet-Nikodym metric. The resulting metric space is separable space, separable if and only if L^2, L2(μ) is separable. If , we have: . Indeed, : If is a measure space and are measurable sets, then their symmetric difference is also measurable: . One may define an equivalence relation on measurable sets by letting and be related if . This relation is denoted . Given , one writes if to each there's some such that . The relation "" is a partial order on the family of subsets of . We write if and . The relation "" is an equivalence relationship between the subsets of . The ''symmetric closure'' of is the collection of all -measurable sets that are to some . The symmetric closure of contains . If is a sub--algebra of , so is the symmetric closure of . iff almost everywhere.
Hausdorff distance vs. symmetric differenceThe Hausdorff distance and the (area of the) symmetric difference are both pseudo-metrics on the set of measurable geometric shapes. However, they behave quite differently. The figure at the right shows two sequences of shapes, "Red" and "Red ∪ Green". When the Hausdorff distance between them becomes smaller, the area of the symmetric difference between them becomes larger, and vice versa. By continuing these sequences in both directions, it is possible to get two sequences such that the Hausdorff distance between them converges to 0 and the symmetric distance between them diverges, or vice versa.
See also* Algebra of sets * Boolean function * Complement (set theory) * Difference (set theory) * Exclusive or * Fuzzy set * Intersection (set theory) * Jaccard index * List of set identities and relations * Logical graph * Sigma-algebra#Separable_.CF.83-algebras, Separable sigma algebras * Set theory * Symmetry * Union (set theory)