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The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a
mixed-use Traditional mixed-use development pattern in a city center: North_Macedonia.html"_style="text-decoration:_none;"class="mw-redirect"_title="Bitola,_North_Macedonia">Bitola,_North_Macedonia_ Mixed-use_development_is_a_term_used_for_two_related_ ...
or residential area, existing either as part of a
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a pe ...
or
urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as cities, towns, conurbations or ...

urban area
or as a separate residential community within
commuting Commuting is periodically recurring travel between one's place of residence and place of work or study, where the traveler leaves the boundary of their home community. It sometimes refers to any regular or often repeated traveling between l ...
distance of a city. Suburbs might have their own political jurisdiction, especially in the United States, but this is not always the case, especially in the United Kingdom where most suburbs are located within the administrative boundaries of cities. In most
English-speaking countries#REDIRECT English-speaking world ...
, suburban areas are defined in contrast to
central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions and generalised locations * Central Africa, a region in the centre of Africa continent, also known as ...

central
or
inner-city The term ''inner city'' has been used, especially in the United States, as a euphemism for lower-income residential districts that often refer to African-American neighborhoods, in a downtown or city centre area. Sociologists sometimes turn the ...
areas, but in
Australian English Australian English (AusE,AusEng, AuE, AuEng, en-AU) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Australia. Australian English is the country's national and ''de facto'' common language. English is the first language of the major ...
and
South African English South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Proto-Germanic ''*sunþaz'' ("south" ...
, ''suburb'' has become largely synonymous with what is called a "
neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English, Australian English and Canadian English) or neighborhood (American English; see spelling differences) is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods ar ...
" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixt ...

Australia
,
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the second-most populous country, the seventh-largest country by land area, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Oce ...

India
,
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million m ...
,
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 smaller islands, covering a total area of . New Zealand ...
, the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...
, and parts of the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, 326 India ...
and
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering , making it the world's second-largest country by total ...

Canada
, new suburbs are routinely
annexed upCivilians and coalition military forces wave Kuwaiti and Saudi Arabian flags as they celebrate the reversal of the annexation of Kuwait by Iraq (28 February 1991). Annexation (Latin ''ad'', to, and ''nexus'', joining) is the administrative ac ...
by adjacent cities. In others, such as
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a territory claimed and occupied mostly by Moro ...
,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of Fr ...
, and much of the United States and Canada, many suburbs remain separate
municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. The term ''municipality'' may also mean the ...
or are governed as part of a larger
local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state. This particular usage of the word government refers specifically to a level of administration that is both geographically-locali ...
area such as a
county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
. In the United States, beyond the suburbs are
exurbs Exurban development (left side) blends into suburban development (right side) in Loudoun County, Virginia, in the western part of the Baltimore–Washington_metropolitan_area">Loudoun_County,_Virginia,_in_the_western_part_of_the_Baltimore–Washi ...
, or "exurban areas", with less density but linked to the metropolitan area economically and by commuters. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower
population densities#REDIRECT Population density {{R from other capitalisation ...

population densities
than
inner city The term ''inner city'' has been used, especially in the United States, as a euphemism for lower-income residential districts that often refer to African-American neighborhoods, in a downtown or city centre area. Sociologists sometimes turn the ...
neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, and most residents
commute Commute, commutation or commutative may refer to: * Commuting, the process of travelling between a place of residence and a place of work Mathematics * Commutative property, a property of a mathematical operation whose result is insensitive to the ...
to central cities or other business districts; however, there are many exceptions, including
industrial suburb An industrial suburb is a community, near a large city, with an industrial economy. These communities may be established as tax havens or as places where zoning promotes industry, or they may be industrial towns that become suburbs by urban sprawl ...
s,
planned communities 250px, Abuja, in Nigeria, which was built mainly in the 1980s, was the fastest growing city in the world between 2000 and 2010, with an increase of 139.7%, and still expanding rapidly A planned community, planned city, or planned town is any c ...
, and
satellite cities Satellite cities or satellite towns are smaller municipalities that are adjacent to a major city which is the core of a metropolitan area. They differ from mere suburbs, subdivisions and especially bedroom communities in that they have municipal ...
. Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land.


Etymology and usage

The English word is derived from the
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French: ) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century. Rather than a unified language, Old French was really a linkage of Romance dialects, mutually intelligible yet diverse, spoke ...
''subburbe'', which is in turn derived from the Latin ''suburbium'', formed from ''sub'' (meaning "under" or "below") and ''urbs'' ("city"). The first recorded usage of the term in English, was by
John Wycliffe John Wycliffe (; also spelled ''Wyclif'', ''Wiclef'', ''Wickliffe'' and other variants; 1320s – 31 December 1384) was an English scholastic philosopher, theologian, biblical translator, reformer, priest, and a seminary professor at the Unive ...
in 1380, when the form ''subarbis'' was used, according to the ''
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press (OUP). It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive res ...
''.


Australia and New Zealand

In Australia and also New Zealand, suburban areas (in the wider sense noted in the lead paragraph) have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities (see suburbs and localities). The terms ''inner suburb'' and ''outer suburb'' are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the
city centre A city centre is the commercial, cultural and often the historical, political, and geographic heart of a city, especially those in the Western world. The term "city centre" is primarily used in British English and Canadian English, and closely equ ...
(which would not be referred to as 'suburbs' in most other countries), and the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term 'middle suburbs' is also used.
Inner suburbs ''Inner suburb'' is a term used for a variety of suburban communities that are generally located very close to the centre of a large city (the inner city and central business district). Their urban density is lower than the inner city or central ...
, such as
Te Aro Te Aro is an inner-city suburb of Wellington, New Zealand. It comprises the southern part of the central business district including the majority of the city's entertainment district and covers the mostly flat area of city between The Terrace and C ...
in
Wellington Wellington ( mi, Te Whanganui-a-Tara ) is the capital city of New Zealand. It is located at the south-western tip of the North Island, between Cook Strait and the Remutaka Range. Wellington is the major population centre of the southern North Is ...
,
Eden Terrace Eden Terrace is an inner city suburb of Auckland, located 2 km south of the Auckland CBD, in the North Island of New Zealand. Eden Terrace is one of Auckland's oldest suburbs, and also one of the smallest; at just 47 hectares only Newton is ...
in
Auckland Auckland ( mi, Tāmaki Makaurau) is a large metropolitan city in the North Island of New Zealand. The most populous urban area in the country, Auckland has an urban population of about It is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by A ...
,
Prahran Prahran (), also known colloquially as Pran, is an inner suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 5 km south-east of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the City of Stonnington local government area. At the 2016 Census Pra ...
in
Melbourne Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the capital and most-populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of , comprising a metropolitan area with ...
and Ultimo in
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug: ) is the capital city of the state of New South Wales, and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about on its periphery toward ...

Sydney
, are usually characterised by higher density
apartment An apartment (American English), or flat (British English, Indian English), is a self-contained housing unit (a type of residential real estate) that occupies only part of a building, generally on a single story. There are many names for ...
housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas. In New Zealand, most suburbs are not legally defined, which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by
Fire and Emergency New Zealand Fire and Emergency New Zealand is New Zealand's main firefighting and emergency services body. Fire and Emergency was formally established on 1 July 2017, after the New Zealand Fire Service, the National Rural Fire Authority, and 38 rural fire d ...
(formerly the New Zealand Fire Service), in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014, the
Ombudsman An ombudsman (, also , ), ombudsperson, ombud, ombuds, or public advocate is an official who is charged with representing the interests of the public by investigating and addressing complaints of maladministration or a violation of rights. The o ...
of New Zealand ruled that the New Zealand Fire Service acted reasonably in refusing to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file.


Britain and Ireland

In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, ''suburb'' merely refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries. Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, many suburbs are formerly separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's expansion, such as
Ealing Ealing () is a district in West London, England. It is west of Charing Cross. Located within the London Borough of Ealing, it is one of the borough's seven major towns (alongside Acton, Greenford, Hanwell, Northolt, Perivale and Southall). Eali ...
,
Bromley Bromley is a large town in Greater London, England, located in the historic county of Kent. It is south-east of Charing Cross, and had a population of 87,889 as of 2011. A market town, chartered in 1158, its location on a coaching route and the ...
, and
Guiseley Guiseley ( ) is a town in metropolitan borough of the City of Leeds, West Yorkshire, England. Historically part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, it is situated south of Otley and Menston and is now a north-western suburb of Leeds. It sits in the ...
.


North America

In the United States and Canada, ''suburb'' can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate
municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. The term ''municipality'' may also mean the ...
or
unincorporated area Sign at Heinola, an unincorporated community in Otter Tail County, Minnesota ">Minnesota.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Otter Tail County, Minnesota">Otter Tail County, Minnesota An unincorporated area is a r ...
outside a town or city.


History


Early history

The earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the
market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages, the right to host markets (market right), which distinguished it from a village or city. In Britain, small rural towns with a hinterland of v ...
. The word ''suburbani'' was first employed by the
Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in ...
statesman
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher and Academic Skeptic, who tried to uphold republican principles during the political crises that led to the establishm ...

Cicero
in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the
Eastern Han Dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and a warring interregnum known a ...
(until 190 AD, when
Dong Zhuo Dong Zhuo () (died 22 May 192), courtesy name Zhongying, was a military general and warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. At the end of the reign of the Eastern Han, Dong Zhuo was a general and powerful minister of the imp ...

Dong Zhuo
razed the city) the capital,
Luoyang Luoyang is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province. Governed as a prefecture-level city, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the east, Pingdingshan to the southeast, Nanya ...
, was mainly occupied by the emperor and important officials; the city's people mostly lived in small cities right outside Luoyang, which were suburbs in all but name. As populations grew during the
Early Modern Period#REDIRECT Early modern period#REDIRECT Early modern period {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
in Europe, towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the
countryside A rural landscape in Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000.">South_Karelia.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Lappeenranta, South Karelia">Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000. In gen ...
. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded. The peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were generally inhabited by the very poorest.


Origins of the modern suburb

Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop, whereby newly rich members of the middle classes began to purchase estates and villas on the outskirts of London. This trend accelerated through the 19th century, especially in cities like London and
Birmingham Birmingham ( ) is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England. It is the second-largest city, urban area and metropolitan area in England and the United Kingdom, with roughly 1.1 million inhabitants within the city area, ...
that were growing rapidly, and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. In Australia, where Melbourne would soon become the second-largest city in the British Empire, the distinctively Australasian suburb, with its loosely aggregated quarter-acre sections, developed in the 1850s and eventually became a component of the
Australian Dream The Australian Dream or Great Australian Dream is, in its narrowest sense, a belief that in Australia, home ownership can lead to a better life and is an expression of success and security. The term is derived from the American Dream, which firs ...
. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public
transit Transit may refer to: Arts and entertainment Film * ''Transit'' (1979 film), a 1979 Israeli film * ''Transit'' (2005 film), a film produced by MTV and Staying-Alive about four people in countries in the world * ''Transit'' (2006 film), a 2006 film ...
systems such as the
underground railways Rapid transit or mass rapid transit (MRT), also known as heavy rail, metro, subway, tube, U-Bahn, metropolitana or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas. Unlike buses or trams, rapid transit s ...
,
tram Preserved Kraków, Poland">Trams in Kraków">Kraków, Poland A tram (in North America streetcar or trolley) is a rail vehicle that runs on tramway track public urban streets; some include segments of segregated right-of-way. The lines or n ...
s and
bus trolleybus in Toronto , Netherlands A bus (contracted from omnibus, with variants multibus, motorbus, autobus, etc.) is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common ty ...

bus
es, it became possible for the majority of a city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the center for work. By the mid-19th century, the first major suburban areas were springing up around London as the city (then the largest in the world) became more overcrowded and unsanitary. A major catalyst for suburban growth was the opening of the
Metropolitan Railway The Metropolitan Railway (also known as the Met) was a passenger and goods railway that served London from 1863 to 1933, its main line heading north-west from the capital's financial heart in the City to what were to become the Middlesex suburbs ...
in the 1860s. The line later joined the capital's financial heart in the City to what were to become the suburbs of
Middlesex Middlesex (; abbreviation: Middx) is a historic county in southeast England. Its area is almost entirely within the wider urbanised area of London and mostly within the ceremonial county of Greater London, with small sections in neighbouring ce ...

Middlesex
. The line reached Harrow in 1880. Unlike other railway companies, which were required to dispose of surplus land, London's Met was allowed to retain such land that it believed was necessary for future railway use. Initially, the surplus land was managed by the Land Committee, and, from the 1880s, the land was developed and sold to domestic buyers in places like Willesden Park Estate, Cecil Park, near
Pinner Pinner is a town in Greater London, in the borough of Harrow, lying northwest from Charing Cross. It is within the bounds of the historic county of Middlesex and located close to the border with the borough of Hillingdon. The population of Pinn ...
and at Wembley Park. In 1912 it was suggested that a specially formed company should take over from the Surplus Lands Committee and develop suburban estates near the railway. However,
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "the war to end all wars", i ...
(1914-1918) delayed these plans until 1919, when, with the expectation of a postwar housing-boom, Metropolitan Railway Country Estates Limited (MRCE) formed. MRCE went on to develop estates at Kingsbury Garden Village near
Neasden Neasden is a suburban area in northwest London, England. It is located around the centre of the London Borough of Brent and is within the NW2 (Cricklewood) and NW10 (Willesden) postal districts. Neasden is near Wembley Stadium, the Welsh Harp, a ...
,
Wembley Park Wembley Park is a district of the London Borough of Brent, England. It is roughly centred on Bridge Road, a mile northeast of Wembley town centre and northwest from Charing Cross. The name Wembley Park refers to the area that, at its broadest, ...
, Cecil Park and Grange Estate at
Pinner Pinner is a town in Greater London, in the borough of Harrow, lying northwest from Charing Cross. It is within the bounds of the historic county of Middlesex and located close to the border with the borough of Hillingdon. The population of Pinn ...
and the Cedars Estate at
Rickmansworth Rickmansworth () is a town in southwest Hertfordshire, England, about northwest of central London and inside the perimeter of the M25 motorway. The town is mainly to the north of the Grand Union Canal (formerly the Grand Junction Canal) and the ...
and to found places such as
Harrow Garden Village Harrow Garden Village was a housing development in the 1930s around Rayners Lane Underground station in London, England, which until then had been a "country halt" on the Metropolitan line. This was Metro-land's flagship development, begun in by E ...
. The Met's marketing department coined the term "
Metro-land Metro-land (or Metroland) is a name given to the suburban areas that were built to the north-west of London in the counties of Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire and Middlesex in the early part of the 20th century that were served by the Metropolitan ...
" in 1915 when the ''Guide to the Extension Line'' became the ''Metro-land'' guide, priced at 1 d. This promoted the land served by the Met for the walker, visitor and later the house-hunter. Published annually until 1932 (the last full year of independence for the Met), the guide extolled the benefits of "The good air of the Chilterns", using language such as "Each lover of Metroland may well have his own favourite wood beech and coppice — all tremulous green loveliness in Spring and russet and gold in October". The dream as promoted involved a modern home in beautiful countryside with a fast railway-service to central London. By 1915 people from across London had flocked to live the new suburban dream in large newly-built areas across north-west London.


Interwar suburban expansion in England

Suburbanisation in the interwar period was heavily influenced by the
garden city movement The garden city movement is a method of urban planning in which self-contained communities are surrounded by "greenbelts", containing proportionate areas of residences, industry, and agriculture. The idea was initiated in 1898 by Ebenezer Howar ...
of
Ebenezer Howard Sir Ebenezer Howard (29 January 1850 – 1 May 1928) was an English urban planner and founder of the garden city movement, known for his publication ''To-Morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform'' (1898), the description of a utopian city in which ...
and the creation of the first garden suburbs at the turn of the 20th century. The first garden suburb was developed through the efforts of
social reform A reform movement is a type of social movement that aims to bring a social or also a political system closer to the community's ideal. A reform movement is distinguished from more radical social movements such as revolutionary movements which reje ...
er
Henrietta Barnett Dame Henrietta Octavia Weston Barnett, DBE (''née'' Rowland; 4 May 1851 – 10 June 1936) was a notable English social reformer, educationist, and author. She and her husband, Samuel Augustus Barnett, founded the first "University Settlement" at ...
and her husband; inspired by
Ebenezer Howard Sir Ebenezer Howard (29 January 1850 – 1 May 1928) was an English urban planner and founder of the garden city movement, known for his publication ''To-Morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform'' (1898), the description of a utopian city in which ...
and the model housing development movement (then exemplified by
Letchworth Letchworth Garden City, commonly known as Letchworth, is a town in Hertfordshire, England, with a population of 33,600. It is a former civil parish. The town's name is taken from one of the three villages it surrounded (the other two being Wil ...

Letchworth
garden city), as well as the desire to protect part of
Hampstead Heath Hampstead Heath (locally known simply as the Heath) is a large, ancient London heath, covering . This grassy public space sits astride a sandy ridge, one of the highest points in London, running from Hampstead to Highgate, which rests on a band ...
from development, they established trusts in 1904 which bought 243 acres of land along the newly opened Northern line extension to
Golders Green Golders Green is an area in the London Borough of Barnet in England. A smaller suburban linear settlement, near a farm and public grazing area green of medieval origins, dates to the early 19th century. Its bulk forms a late 19th-century and earl ...
and created the
Hampstead Garden Suburb Hampstead Garden Suburb is an elevated suburb of London, north of Hampstead, west of Highgate and east of Golders Green. It is known for its intellectual, liberal, artistic, musical and literary associations. It is an example of early twentieth ...
. The suburb attracted the talents of architects including
Raymond Unwin Sir Raymond Unwin (2 November 1863 – 29 June 1940) was a prominent and influential English engineer, architect and town planner, with an emphasis on improvements in working class housing. Early years Raymond Unwin was born in Rotherham, Yorksh ...
and Sir
Edwin Lutyens Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens ( ; 29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944) was an English architect known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era. He designed many English country houses, war memorial ...

Edwin Lutyens
, and it ultimately grew to encompass over 800 acres. During the
First World War World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "the war to end all wars", i ...
the Tudor Walters Committee was commissioned to make recommendations for the post war reconstruction and housebuilding. In part, this was a response to the shocking lack of fitness amongst many recruits during World War One, attributed to poor living conditions; a belief summed up in a housing poster of the period "you cannot expect to get an A1 population out of C3 homes" - referring to military fitness classifications of the period. The Committee's report of 1917 was taken up by the government, which passed the Housing, Town Planning, &c. Act 1919, also known as the Addison Act after Dr.
Christopher Addison Christopher Addison, 1st Viscount Addison, (19 June 1869 – 11 December 1951) was a British medical doctor and politician. A member of the Liberal and Labour parties, he served as Minister of Munitions during the First World War and was later M ...
, the then Minister for Housing. The Act allowed for the building of large new housing estates in the suburbs after the
First World War World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "the war to end all wars", i ...
, and marked the start of a long 20th century tradition of state-owned housing, which would later evolve into
council estate Public housing (known as ''council housing'' or ''social housing'' in the UK) provided the majority of rented accommodation in the United Kingdom until 2011 when the number of households in private rental housing surpassed the number in social h ...
s. The Report also legislated on the required, minimum standards necessary for further suburban construction; this included regulation on the maximum housing density and their arrangement and it even made recommendations on the ideal number of bedrooms and other rooms per house. Although the
semi-detached A semi-detached house (often abbreviated to semi) is a single family duplex dwelling house that shares one common wall with the next house. The name distinguishes this style of house from detached houses, with no shared walls, and terraced houses, ...
house was first designed by the
Shaws Shaw's and Star Market are two American grocery store chains under united management based in West Bridgewater, Massachusetts, employing about 30,000 associates in 154 total stores. 133 stores are operated under the Shaw's banner in Maine, Massac ...
(a father and son architectural partnership) in the 19th century, it was during the suburban housing boom of the interwar period that the design first proliferated as a suburban icon, being preferred by
middle class The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy. Its usage has often been vague whether defined in terms of occupation, income, education or social status. The definition by any author is often chosen for political connot ...
home owners to the smaller
terraced house __NOTOC__ In agriculture, a terrace is a piece of sloped plane that has been cut into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms, which resemble steps, for the purposes of more effective farming. This type of landscaping is th ...
s. The design of many of these houses, highly characteristic of the era, was heavily influenced by the
Art Deco Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, tra ...
movement, taking influence from
Tudor Revival Tudor Revival architecture (also known as mock Tudor in the UK) first manifested itself in domestic architecture in the United Kingdom in the latter half of the 19th century. Based on revival of aspects that were perceived as Tudor architecture, ...
, chalet style, and even ship design. Within just a decade suburbs dramatically increased in size.
Harrow Weald Harrow Weald is a suburban district in Greater London, England. Located about 2 miles north of Harrow, Harrow Weald is formed from a leafy 1930s suburban development along with ancient woodland of Harrow Weald Common. It forms part of the London B ...
went from just 1,500 to over 10,000 while
Pinner Pinner is a town in Greater London, in the borough of Harrow, lying northwest from Charing Cross. It is within the bounds of the historic county of Middlesex and located close to the border with the borough of Hillingdon. The population of Pinn ...
jumped from 3,000 to over 20,000. During the 1930s, over 4 million new suburban houses were built, the 'suburban revolution' had made England the most heavily suburbanized country in the world, by a considerable margin.


North America

Boston and New York spawned the first major suburbs. The streetcar lines in Boston and the rail lines in Manhattan made daily commutes possible. No metropolitan area in the world was as well served by railroad commuter lines at the turn of the twentieth century as New York, and it was the rail lines to Westchester from the Grand Central Terminal commuter hub that enabled its development. Westchester's true importance in the history of American suburbanization derives from the upper-middle class development of villages including Scarsdale,
New Rochelle New Rochelle () is a city in Westchester County, New York, United States, in the southeastern portion of the state. In 2010, the city had a population of 77,062, making it the seventh-largest in the state of New York. History Etymology and ...
and Rye serving thousands of businessmen and executives from Manhattan.


Post-war suburban expansion

The suburban population in North America exploded during the post-World War II economic expansion. Returning veterans wishing to start a settled life moved in masses to the suburbs.
LevittownAerial view of Levittown, Pennsylvania circa 1959 Levittown is the name of seven large suburban housing developments created in the United States and one in Puerto Rico by William J. Levitt and his company Levitt & Sons. Built after World War II for ...
developed as a major prototype of mass-produced housing. Due to the influx of people in these suburban areas, the amount of shopping centers began to increase as suburban America took shape. These malls helped supply goods and services to the growing urban population. Shopping for different goods and services in one central location without having to travel to multiple locations, helped to keep shopping centers a component of these newly designed suburbs which were booming in population. The television helped contribute to the rise of shopping centers due to the increased advertisement on television in addition to a desire to have products shown in suburban life in various television programs. Another factor that led to the rise of these shopping centers was the building of many highways. The Highway Act of 1956 helped to fund the building of 64,000 kilometers across the nation by having $26 thousand-million to use, which helped to link many more to these shopping centers with ease. These newly built shopping centers, which were often large buildings full of multiple stores, and services, were being used for more than shopping, but as a place of leisure and a meeting point for those who lived within suburban America at this time. These centers thrived offering goods and services to the growing populations in suburban America. In 1957, 940 Shopping centers were built and this number more than doubled by 1960 to keep up with the demand of these densely populated areas.


Housing

Very little housing had been built during the Great Depression and World War II, except for emergency quarters near war industries. Overcrowded and inadequate apartments was the common condition. Some suburbs had developed around large cities where there was rail transportation to the jobs downtown. However, the real growth in suburbia depended on the availability of automobiles, highways, and inexpensive housing. The population had grown, and the stock of family savings had accumulated the money for down payments, automobiles and appliances. The product was a great housing boom. Whereas, an average of 316,000 new housing non-farm units should have been constructed 1930s through 1945, there were 1,450,000 annually from 1946 through 1955. The
G.I. Bill The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, commonly known as the G.I. Bill, was a law that provided a range of benefits for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as G.I.s). The original G.I. Bill expired in 1956, but the term "G ...
guaranteed low cost loans for veterans, with very low down payments, and low interest rates. With 16 million eligible veterans, the opportunity to buy a house was suddenly at hand. In 1947 alone, 540,000 veterans bought one; their average price was $7300. The construction industry kept prices low by standardization – for example standardizing sizes for kitchen cabinets, refrigerators and stoves, allowed for mass production of kitchen furnishings. Developers purchased empty land just outside the city, installed tract houses based on a handful of designs, and provided streets and utilities, or local public officials race to build schools. The most famous development was
LevittownAerial view of Levittown, Pennsylvania circa 1959 Levittown is the name of seven large suburban housing developments created in the United States and one in Puerto Rico by William J. Levitt and his company Levitt & Sons. Built after World War II for ...
, in Long Island just east of New York City. It offered a new house for $1000 down, and $70 a month; it featured three bedrooms, fireplace, gas range and gas furnace, and a landscaped lot of 75 by 100 feet, all for a total price of $10,000. Veterans could get one with a much lower down payment. At the same time, African Americans were rapidly moving north and west for better jobs and educational opportunities than were available to them in the segregated South. Their arrival in Northern and Western cities en masse, in addition to being followed by race riots in several large cities such as
Philadelphia Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the sixth-most populous city in the United States and the most populous city in the state of Pennsylvania, with a 2019 estimated population o ...
,
Los Angeles Los Angeles (; es, Los Ángeles; "The Angels"), officially the City of Los Angeles and often abbreviated as L.A., is the largest city in California. With an estimated population of nearly four million people, it is the second most populous ...
,
Detroit (strait) , nicknames = The Motor City, Motown, Renaissance City, City of the Straits, The D, D-Town, Hockeytown, The Automotive Capital of the World, Rock City, The 313, The Arsenal of Democracy, The Town That Put The Worl ...
,
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive maps of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivisio ...
, and
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument and Lincoln Memorial on the National Mall, United States Capitol, Washington Metro, Air and Space Museum, White House, ...
, further stimulated white suburban migration. The growth of the suburbs was facilitated by the development of
zoning Zoning is a method of urban planning in which a municipality or other tier of government divides land into areas called zones, each of which has a set of regulations for new development that differs from other zones. Zones may be defined for a sin ...
laws,
redlining Redlining is the systematic denial of various services or goods by governments or the private sector either directly or through the selective raising of prices. The word itself is rooted back to the early 1930's after the color correlating prope ...
and numerous innovations in transport. The policy of redlining and other discriminatory measures built into federal housing policy furthered the racial segregation of postwar America for example by refusing to insure mortgages in and near African-American neighborhoods. The government's efforts were primarily designed to provide housing to white, middle-class or lower middle-class families. African-Americans and other people of color largely remained concentrated within decaying cores of urban poverty.Rothstein, Richard: The Color of Law. A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America, Liveright, 2017. After World War II, availability of
FHA loan An FHA insured loan is a US Federal Housing Administration mortgage insurance backed mortgage loan that is provided by an FHA-approved lender. FHA insured loans are a type of federal assistance. They have historically allowed lower-income American ...
s stimulated a housing boom in American suburbs. In the older cities of the northeast U.S.,
streetcar suburb A streetcar suburb is a residential community whose growth and development was strongly shaped by the use of streetcar lines as a primary means of transportation. Such suburbs developed in the United States in the years before the automobile, when t ...
s originally developed along train or trolley lines that could shuttle workers into and out of city centers where the jobs were located. This practice gave rise to the term "
bedroom community A bedroom is a room situated within a residential or accommodation unit characterised by its usage for sleeping. A typical western bedroom contains as bedroom furniture one or two beds (ranging from a crib for an infant, a single or twin bed for ...
", meaning that most daytime business activity took place in the city, with the working population leaving the city at night for the purpose of going home to sleep. Economic growth in the United States encouraged the suburbanization of American cities that required massive investments for the new infrastructure and homes. Consumer patterns were also shifting at this time, as purchasing power was becoming stronger and more accessible to a wider range of families. Suburban houses also brought about needs for products that were not needed in urban neighborhoods, such as lawnmowers and automobiles. During this time commercial shopping malls were being developed near suburbs to satisfy consumers' needs and their car–dependent lifestyle.Beauregard, Robert A. When America Became Suburban. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2006. Zoning laws also contributed to the location of residential areas outside of the city center by creating wide areas or "zones" where only residential buildings were permitted. These suburban residences are built on larger lots of land than in the central city. For example, the lot size for a residence in Chicago is usually deep, while the width can vary from wide for a row house to wide for a large stand–alone house. In the suburbs, where stand–alone houses are the rule, lots may be wide by deep, as in the Chicago suburb of
Naperville Naperville () is a city in DuPage and Will counties in the U.S. state of Illinois and a suburb of Chicago. Located west of Chicago, Naperville was founded in 1831 and developed into the fourth-largest city in Illinois by 2018. History In July ...
. Manufacturing and commercial buildings were segregated in other areas of the city. Alongside
suburbanization pattern in the US Suburbanization is a population shift from central urban areas into suburbs, resulting in the formation of (sub)urban sprawl. As a consequence of the movement of households and businesses out of the city centers, low-density, ...
, many companies began locating their offices and other facilities in the outer areas of the cities, which resulted in the increased density of older suburbs and the growth of lower density suburbs even further from city centers. An alternative strategy is the deliberate design of "new towns" and the protection of
green belt A green belt is a policy and land use zone designation used in land use planning to retain areas of largely undeveloped, wild, or agricultural land surrounding or neighboring urban areas. Similar concepts are greenways or green wedges which have a ...
s around cities. Some social reformers attempted to combine the best of both concepts in the
garden city movement The garden city movement is a method of urban planning in which self-contained communities are surrounded by "greenbelts", containing proportionate areas of residences, industry, and agriculture. The idea was initiated in 1898 by Ebenezer Howar ...
. In the U.S., 1950 was the first year that more people lived in suburbs than elsewhere. In the U.S, the development of the skyscraper and the sharp inflation of downtown real estate prices also led to downtowns being more fully dedicated to businesses, thus pushing residents outside the city center.


Worldwide


United States

In the 20th century, many suburban areas, especially those not within the political boundaries of the city containing the central business area, began to see independence from the central city as an asset. In some cases, suburbanites saw self-government as a means to keep out people who could not afford the added suburban property maintenance costs not needed in city living. Federal
subsidies A subsidy or government incentive is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy. Although commonly extended from the government, the term ...
for suburban development accelerated this process as did the practice of
redlining Redlining is the systematic denial of various services or goods by governments or the private sector either directly or through the selective raising of prices. The word itself is rooted back to the early 1930's after the color correlating prope ...
by banks and other lending institutions. In some cities such as
Miami Miami (), officially the City of Miami, is a coastal metropolis located in southeastern Florida in the United States. It is the third most populous metropolis on the East coast of the United States, and it is the seventh largest in the country. ...
and
San Francisco San Francisco (/ˌsæn fɹənˈsɪskoʊ/; Spanish for "Saint Francis"), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is a cultural, commercial, and financial center in Northern California. San Francisco is the 16th most populous city in ...
, the main city is much smaller than the surrounding suburban areas, leaving the city proper with a small portion of the metro area's population and land area.
Mesa, Arizona Mesa ( ) is a city in Maricopa County, in the U.S. state of Arizona. It is a suburb about east of Phoenix in the East Valley section of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. It is bordered by Tempe on the west, the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Commu ...
and
Virginia Beach Virginia Beach is an independent city located on the southeastern coast of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. The population was 433,750 in 2009, and in 2019, it was estimated to be 449,974. Although mostly suburban in character ...
, the two most populous suburbs in the United States, are actually more populous than many of America's largest cities, including
Miami Miami (), officially the City of Miami, is a coastal metropolis located in southeastern Florida in the United States. It is the third most populous metropolis on the East coast of the United States, and it is the seventh largest in the country. ...
,
Minneapolis Minneapolis () is the most populous city in the US state of Minnesota and the seat of Hennepin County. With an estimated population of 429,606 as of 2019, it is the 46th most populous city in the US. Seven counties encompassing Minneapolis and i ...
,
New Orleans New Orleans (,New Orleans
Cleveland Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a major city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County. It is located along the southern shore of Lake Erie, across the U.S. maritime border with Canada and approximate ...

Cleveland
,
Tampa Tampa () is a major city that serves as the county seat of Hillsborough County, Florida, United States. It is on the west coast of Florida on Tampa Bay, near the Gulf of Mexico. Tampa is the largest city in the Tampa Bay area. With an estimated ...
,
St. Louis St. Louis () is the second-largest city in Missouri, United States. It sits near the confluence of the Mississippi and the Missouri Rivers, on the western bank of the latter. As of 2019, the city proper had an estimated population of around 3 ...
,
Pittsburgh Pittsburgh ( ) is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States and the county seat of Allegheny County. An estimated population of about 300,286 residents live within the city limits as of 2019, making it the 66th-largest city in th ...
,
Cincinnati Cincinnati ( ) is a major city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the government seat of Hamilton County. Settled in 1788, the city is located at the northern side of the confluence of the Licking and Ohio rivers, the latter of which marks the state ...

Cincinnati
, and others. Virginia Beach is now the largest city in all of Virginia, having long since exceeded the population of its neighboring primary city,
Norfolk Norfolk () is a county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the northwest, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest, and Suffolk to the south. Its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea and to the northwest, The Was ...
. While Virginia Beach has slowly been taking on the characteristics of an urban city, it will not likely achieve the population density and urban characteristics of Norfolk. It is generally assumed that the population of
ChesapeakeChesapeake often refers to: *Chesapeake people, a Native American tribe also known as the Chesepian * The Chesapeake, a.k.a. Chesapeake Bay *Delmarva Peninsula, also known as the Chesapeake Peninsula Chesapeake may also refer to: Populated places ...
, another Hampton Roads city, will also exceed that of Norfolk in 2018 if its current growth rate continues at its same pace.
Cleveland, Ohio Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a major city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County. It is located along the southern shore of Lake Erie, across the U.S. maritime border with Canada and approximate ...

Cleveland, Ohio
is typical of many American central cities; its municipal borders have changed little since 1922, even though the Cleveland urbanized area has grown many times over. Several layers of suburban municipalities now surround cities like
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st most populous city in the country. The city proper covers with an estimated population of 692, ...
,
Cleveland Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a major city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County. It is located along the southern shore of Lake Erie, across the U.S. maritime border with Canada and approximate ...

Cleveland
,
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive maps of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivisio ...

Chicago
,
Detroit (strait) , nicknames = The Motor City, Motown, Renaissance City, City of the Straits, The D, D-Town, Hockeytown, The Automotive Capital of the World, Rock City, The 313, The Arsenal of Democracy, The Town That Put The Worl ...
,
Los Angeles Los Angeles (; es, Los Ángeles; "The Angels"), officially the City of Los Angeles and often abbreviated as L.A., is the largest city in California. With an estimated population of nearly four million people, it is the second most populous ...
,
Dallas Dallas () is a city in the U.S. state of Texas and the largest city in and seat of Dallas County, with portions extending into Collin, Denton, Kaufman and Rockwall counties. With an estimated 2019 population of 1,343,573, it is the ninth most-po ...
,
Denver Denver (), officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. State of Colorado. Denver is located in the South Platte River Valley on the western edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range ...
,
Houston Houston ( ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas, fourth-most populous city in the United States, most populous city in the Southern United States, as well as the sixth-most populous in North America, with an estimated 2019 popu ...
,
New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2019 population of 8,336,817 distributed over about , New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the Unit ...

New York City
,
San Francisco San Francisco (/ˌsæn fɹənˈsɪskoʊ/; Spanish for "Saint Francis"), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is a cultural, commercial, and financial center in Northern California. San Francisco is the 16th most populous city in ...
,
Sacramento ) , image_map = Sacramento County California Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Sacramento Highlighted.svg , mapsize = 250x200px , map_caption = Location within Sacramento Coun ...
,
Atlanta Atlanta () is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Georgia. With an estimated 2019 population of 506,811, it is also the 37th most populous city in the United States. The city serves as the cultural and economic center of ...
,
Miami Miami (), officially the City of Miami, is a coastal metropolis located in southeastern Florida in the United States. It is the third most populous metropolis on the East coast of the United States, and it is the seventh largest in the country. ...
,
Baltimore Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the 30th most populous city in the United States, with an estimated population of 593,490 in 2019. Baltimore was designated an independent city by the ...
,
Milwaukee Milwaukee (, ) is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin and the fifth-largest city in the Midwestern United States. The seat of Milwaukee County, the city is located on Lake Michigan's southwestern shore and was incorporated in 1846. As of ...
,
Pittsburgh Pittsburgh ( ) is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States and the county seat of Allegheny County. An estimated population of about 300,286 residents live within the city limits as of 2019, making it the 66th-largest city in th ...
,
Philadelphia Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the sixth-most populous city in the United States and the most populous city in the state of Pennsylvania, with a 2019 estimated population o ...
, Phoenix, Roanoke,
St. Louis St. Louis () is the second-largest city in Missouri, United States. It sits near the confluence of the Mississippi and the Missouri Rivers, on the western bank of the latter. As of 2019, the city proper had an estimated population of around 3 ...
,
Salt Lake City Salt Lake City (often shortened to Salt Lake and abbreviated as SLC) is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Utah, as well as the seat of Salt Lake County, the most populous county in Utah. With an estimated population of 200, ...
,
Las Vegas Las Vegas (; Spanish for "The Meadows"), officially the City of Las Vegas and often known simply as Vegas, is the 28th-most populous city in the United States, the most populous city in the state of Nevada, and the county seat of Clark Count ...
,
Minneapolis Minneapolis () is the most populous city in the US state of Minnesota and the seat of Hennepin County. With an estimated population of 429,606 as of 2019, it is the 46th most populous city in the US. Seven counties encompassing Minneapolis and i ...
, and
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument and Lincoln Memorial on the National Mall, United States Capitol, Washington Metro, Air and Space Museum, White House, ...
. Suburbs in the United States have a prevalence of usually
detached A stand-alone house (also called a single-detached dwelling, detached residence or detached house) is a free-standing residential building. It is sometimes referred to as a single-family home, as opposed to a multi-family residential dwelling. ...
single-family homes. They are characterized by: * Lower
densities The density (more precisely, the volumetric mass density; also known as specific mass), of a substance is its mass per unit volume. The symbol most often used for density is ''ρ'' (the lower case Greek letter rho), although the Latin letter '' ...
than central cities, dominated by single-family homes on small plots of land – anywhere from 0.1 acres. and up – surrounded at close quarters by very similar dwellings. *
Zoning Zoning is a method of urban planning in which a municipality or other tier of government divides land into areas called zones, each of which has a set of regulations for new development that differs from other zones. Zones may be defined for a sin ...
patterns that separate residential and commercial development, as well as different intensities and densities of development. Daily needs are not within walking distance of most homes. * A greater percentage of
whites White is a racial classification and skin color specifier, generally used for people of European origin; although the definition can vary depending on context, nationality, and point of view. This term has at times been expanded to encompass p ...
(both non-Hispanic and, in some areas,
Hispanic The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano or ) refers to people, cultures, or countries related to Spain, the Hispanidad, Spanish language, culture, or people. The term commonly applies to countries with a cultural and historical link to Spain, formerly ...
) and lesser percentage of citizens of other ethnic groups than in urban areas. However,
black Black is a color which results from the absence or complete absorption of visible light. It is an achromatic color, without hue, like white and gray. It is often used symbolically or figuratively to represent darkness. Black and white have ofte ...
suburbanization grew between 1970 and 1980 by 2.6% as a result of central city neighborhoods expanding into older neighborhoods vacated by whites. *
Subdivisions Subdivision may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Subdivision (metre), in music * ''Subdivision'' (film), 2009 * "Subdivision", an episode of ''Prison Break'' (season 2) * ''Subdivisions'' (EP), by Sinch, 2005 * "Subdivisions" (song), by Rush, 198 ...
carved from previously rural land into multiple-home developments built by a single
real estate company Real estate is property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more general ...
. These subdivisions are often segregated by minute differences in home value, creating entire communities where family incomes and demographics are almost completely homogeneous.. *
Shopping mall#REDIRECT Shopping mall#REDIRECT Shopping mall {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
s and
strip mall A strip mall is a type of shopping center common in North America where the stores are arranged in a row, with a sidewalk in front. Strip malls are typically developed as a unit and have large parking lots in front. Many of them face major traffi ...
s behind large parking lots instead of a classic
downtown ''Downtown'' is a term primarily used in North America by English speakers to refer to a city's commercial, cultural and often the historical, political and geographic heart, and is often synonymous with its central business district (CBD). It i ...
shopping district This page lists shopping streets and districts by city. Typically these are open-air street-side upscale shopping districts that are destination locations in cities. They may be located along a designated street, or clustered in mixed-use commer ...
. * A road network designed to conform to a
hierarchy A hierarchy (from the Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another. Hierarchy ...
, including
cul-de-sac , England File:Cul de sac.jpg, A dead end in Alicante, Spain A dead end, also known as a cul-de-sac (, from French for 'bag-bottom'), no through road or no exit road, is a street with only one inlet or outlet. The term "dead end" is understood ...
, leading to larger residential streets, in turn leading to large collector roads, in place of the
grid pattern In urban planning, the grid plan, grid street plan, or gridiron plan is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid. The infrastructure cost for regular grid patterns is generally higher than for patter ...
common to most central cities and pre-World War II suburbs. * A greater percentage of one-
story Story or stories may refer to: Common uses * Story, a narrative (an account of imaginary or real people and events) ** Short story, a piece of prose fiction that typically can be read in one sitting * Story, or storey, a floor or level of a build ...
administrative buildings than in urban areas. * Compared to
rural A rural landscape in Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000.">South_Karelia.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Lappeenranta, South Karelia">Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000. In gen ...
areas, suburbs usually have greater population density, higher standards of living, more complex road systems, more franchised stores and restaurants, and less farmland and wildlife. By 2010, suburbs increasingly gained people in racial minority groups, as many members of minority groups gained better access to education and sought more favorable living conditions compared to inner city areas. Conversely, many white Americans also moved back to city centers. Nearly all major city
downtown ''Downtown'' is a term primarily used in North America by English speakers to refer to a city's commercial, cultural and often the historical, political and geographic heart, and is often synonymous with its central business district (CBD). It i ...
s (such as
Downtown Miami Downtown Miami is an urban city center, based around the Central Business District of Miami, Florida, United States. In addition to the central business district, the area also consists of the Brickell Financial District, Historic District, Govern ...
,
Downtown Detroit Downtown Detroit is the central business district and a residential area of the city of Detroit, Michigan, United States. Locally, downtown tends to refer to the 1.4 square mile region bordered by M-10 (Lodge Freeway) to the west, Interstate 75 (I ...
, Downtown Philadelphia,
Downtown Roanoke Downtown is the central business district of Roanoke, Virginia, United States. Located geographically at the center of the city, Downtown began its development with the completion of the Shenandoah Valley Railroad in 1882. Today the Downtown core i ...
, or
Downtown Los Angeles Downtown Los Angeles (DTLA) is the central business district of Los Angeles, California, as well as a diverse residential neighborhood of some 85,000 people, and covers . A 2013 study found that the district is home to over 500,000 jobs. It is also ...
) are experiencing a renewal, with large population growth, residential apartment construction, and increased social, cultural, and infrastructural investments, as have suburban neighborhoods close to city centers. Better
public transit Shanghai Metro is the second largest rapid transit system in the world by route length, after the Beijing Subway. Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, mass transit, or simply transit) is a system of tran ...
, proximity to work and cultural attractions, and frustration with suburban life and
gridlock Gridlock is a form of traffic congestion where "continuous queues of vehicles block an entire network of intersecting streets, bringing traffic in all directions to a complete standstill". The term originates from a situation possible in a grid ...
have attracted young Americans to the city centers.


Canadian suburbs

Canada is an urbanized nation where over 80% of the population live in urban areas (loosely defined), and roughly two-thirds live in one of
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering , making it the world's second-largest country by total ...

Canada
's 33
census metropolitan area The census geographic units of Canada are the census subdivisions defined and used by Canada's federal government statistics bureau Statistics Canada to conduct the country's quinquennial census. These areas exist solely for the purposes of statist ...
s (CMAs) with a population of over 100,000. However, of this metropolitan population, in 2001 nearly half lived in low-density neighborhoods, with only one in five living in a typical "urban" neighborhood. The percentage living in low-density neighborhoods varied from a high of nearly two-thirds of Calgary CMA residents (67%), to a low of about one-third of Montréal CMA residents (34%). Often, Canadian suburbs are less automobile-centred and
public transit Shanghai Metro is the second largest rapid transit system in the world by route length, after the Beijing Subway. Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, mass transit, or simply transit) is a system of tran ...
use is encouraged but can be notably unused. Throughout
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering , making it the world's second-largest country by total ...

Canada
, there are comprehensive plans in place to curb sprawl. Population and income growth in Canadian suburbs had tended to outpace growth in core urban or rural areas, but in many areas this trend has now reversed. The suburban population increased 87% between 1981 and 2001, well ahead of urban growth. The majority of recent population growth in Canada's three largest metropolitan areas (
Greater Toronto The Greater Toronto Area (GTA) is the most populous metropolitan area in Canada. It includes the City of Toronto and the regional municipalities of Durham, Halton, Peel, and York. In total, the region contains 25 urban, suburban, and rural munic ...
, Greater Montreal, Greater Montréal, and Greater Vancouver) has occurred in non-core municipalities. This trend is also beginning to take effect in Vancouver, and to a lesser extent, Montréal. In certain cities, particularly Edmonton and Calgary, suburban growth takes place within the city boundaries as opposed to in bedroom communities. This is due to annexation and large geographic footprint within the city borders. Calgary is unusual among Canadian cities because it has developed as a unicity - it has annexed most of its surrounding towns and large amounts of undeveloped land around the city. As a result, most of the communities that Calgarians refer to as "suburbs" are actually inside the city limits. In the 2016 census, the City of Calgary had a population of 1,239,220, whereas the Calgary Metropolitan Area had a population of 1,392,609, indicating the vast majority of people in the Calgary CMA lived within the city limits. The perceived low population density of Calgary largely results from its many internal suburbs and the large amount of undeveloped land within the city. The city actually has a policy of densifying its new developments.


Other countries

In many parts of the developed world, suburbs can be economically distressed areas, inhabited by higher proportions of recent immigrants, with higher delinquency rates and social problems. Sometimes the notion of suburb may even refer to people in real misery, who are kept at the limit of the city borders for economic, social, and sometimes ethnic reasons. An example in the developed world would be the ''banlieues'' of France, or the Million Programme, concrete suburbs of Sweden, even if the suburbs of these countries also include middle-class and upper-class neighborhoods that often consist of single-family houses. Thus some of the suburbs of most of the developed world are comparable to several inner city, inner cities of the U.S. The growth in the use of trains, and later automobiles and highways, increased the ease with which workers could have a job in the city while
commuting Commuting is periodically recurring travel between one's place of residence and place of work or study, where the traveler leaves the boundary of their home community. It sometimes refers to any regular or often repeated traveling between l ...
in from the suburbs. In the United Kingdom, as mentioned above, railways stimulated the first mass exodus to the suburbs. The
Metropolitan Railway The Metropolitan Railway (also known as the Met) was a passenger and goods railway that served London from 1863 to 1933, its main line heading north-west from the capital's financial heart in the City to what were to become the Middlesex suburbs ...
, for example, was active in building and promoting its own housing estates in the north-west of London, consisting mostly of detached houses on large plots, which it then marketed as "
Metro-land Metro-land (or Metroland) is a name given to the suburban areas that were built to the north-west of London in the counties of Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire and Middlesex in the early part of the 20th century that were served by the Metropolitan ...
". The Australian and New Zealand usage came about as outer areas were quickly surrounded in fast-growing cities, but retained the appellation ''suburb''; the term was eventually applied to the original core as well. In Australia,
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug: ) is the capital city of the state of New South Wales, and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about on its periphery toward ...

Sydney
's urban sprawl has occurred predominantly in the Greater Western Sydney, Western Suburbs. The locality of Olympic Park, Sydney, Olympic Park was designated an official suburb in 2009. In the UK, the government is seeking to impose minimum densities on newly approved housing schemes in parts of South East England. The goal is to "build sustainable communities" rather than housing estates. However, commercial concerns tend to delay the opening of services until a large number of residents have occupied the new neighbourhood. In Mexico, suburbs are generally similar to their United States counterparts. Houses are made in many different architectural styles which may be of European, American and International architecture and which vary in size. Suburbs can be found in Guadalajara, Mexico City, Monterrey, and most major cities. Lomas de Chapultepec is an example of an affluent suburb, although it is located inside the city and by no means is today a suburb in the strict sense of the word. In other countries, the situation is similar to that of Mexico, with many suburbs being built, most notably in Peru and Chile, which have experienced a boom in the construction of suburbs since the late 1970s and early 80s. As the growth of middle-class and upper-class suburbs increased, low-class squatter areas have increased, most notably Shanty town#Examples, "lost cities" in Mexico, Campamento (Chile), campamentos in Chile, Pueblos jóvenes, barriadas in Peru, villa miserias in Argentina, asentamientos in Guatemala and favelas of Brazil. Brazilian affluent suburbs are generally denser, more vertical and mixed in use inner suburbs. They concentrate infrastructure, investment and attention from the municipal seat and the best offer of mass transit. True sprawling towards neighboring municipalities is typically empoverished – (''the periphery'', in the sense of it dealing with Spatial planning, spatial Social exclusion, marginalization) –, with a very noticeable example being the rail suburbs of Rio de Janeiro – the North Zone, the Baixada Fluminense, the part of the West Zone associated with SuperVia's Ramal de Santa Cruz. These, in comparison with the inner suburbs, often prove to be remote, violent food deserts with inadequate sewer structure coverage, saturated mass transit, more precarious running water, electricity and communication services, and lack of urban planning and landscaping, while also not necessarily qualifying as actual or slums. They often are former agricultural land or wild areas settled through squatting, and grew in amount particularly due to mass rural exodus during the years of the military dictatorship. This is particularly true to São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Brasília, which grew with migration from more distant and empoverished parts of the country and dealt with overpopulation as a result. In Africa, since the beginning of the 1990s, the development of middle-class suburbs boomed. Due to the industrialization of many African countries, particularly in cities such as Cairo, Johannesburg and Lagos, the middle class has grown. In an illustrative case of South Africa, Reconstruction and Development Programme, RDP housing has been built. In much of Soweto, many houses are American in appearance, but are smaller, and often consist of a kitchen and living room, two or three bedrooms, and a bathroom. However, there are more affluent neighborhoods, more comparable to American suburbs, particularly east of the Soccer City, FNB Stadium. In Cape Town there is a distinct European style which is due to the European influence during the mid-1600s when the Dutch settled the Cape. Houses like these are called Cape Dutch Houses and can be found in the affluent suburbs of Constantia, Cape Town, Constantia and Bishopscourt, Cape Town, Bishopscourt. In the illustrative case of Rome, Italy, in the 1920s and 1930s, suburbs were intentionally created ''ex novo'' in order to give lower classes a destination, in consideration of the actual and foreseen massive arrival of poor people from other areas of the country. Many critics have seen in this development pattern (which was circularly distributed in every direction) also a quick solution to a problem of public order (keeping the unwelcome poorest classes together with the criminals, in this way better controlled, comfortably remote from the elegant "official" town). On the other hand, the expected huge expansion of the town soon effectively covered the distance from the central town, and now those suburbs are completely engulfed by the main territory of the town. Other newer suburbs (called
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) were created at a further distance from them. In Russia, the term suburb refers to high-rise residential apartments which usually consist of two bedrooms, one bathroom, a kitchen and a living room. These suburbs, however are usually not in poor neighborhoods, unlike the banlieues. In China, the term suburb is new, although suburbs are already being constructed rapidly. Chinese suburbs mostly consist of rows upon rows of apartment blocks and condos that end abruptly into the countryside. Also new town developments are extremely common. Single family suburban homes tend to be similar to their Western equivalents; although primarily outside Beijing and Shanghai, also mimic Spanish and Italian architecture. In Hong Kong, however, suburbs are mostly government-planned new towns containing numerous public housing estates. New Towns such as Tin Shui Wai may gain notoriety as a slum. However, other new towns also contain private housing estates and low density developments for the upper classes. In Japan, the construction of suburbs has boomed since the end of World War II and many cities are experiencing the urban sprawl effect. In Malaysia, suburbs are common, especially in areas surrounding the Klang Valley, which is the largest conurbation in the country. These suburbs also serve as major housing areas and commuter towns. Terraced house#In Malaysia and Singapore, Terraced houses, Semi-detached, semi-detached houses and shophouses are common concepts in suburbs. In certain areas such as Klang, Malaysia, Klang, Subang Jaya and Petaling Jaya, suburbs form the core of these places. The latter one has been turned into a Satellite town, satellite city of Kuala Lumpur. Suburbs are also evident in other major conurbations in the country including Penang (e.g. Pulau Tikus), Ipoh (e.g. Bercham), Johor Bahru (e.g. Tebrau), Kota Kinabalu (e.g. Likas), Kuching (e.g. Stampin), Melaka City (e.g. Batu Berendam) and Alor Setar (e.g. Anak Bukit).


Traffic flows

Suburbs typically have longer travel times to work than traditional neighborhoods. Only the traffic ''within'' the short streets themselves is less. This is due to three factors: automobile dependency, almost-mandatory automobile ownership due to poor suburban commuter bus, bus systems, longer travel distances and the
hierarchy A hierarchy (from the Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another. Hierarchy ...
system, which is less efficient at distributing traffic than the traditional Grid plan, grid of streets. In the suburban system, most trips from one component to another component requires that cars enter a collector road, no matter how short or long the distance is. This is compounded by the hierarchy of streets, where entire neighborhoods and subdivision (land), subdivisions are dependent on one or two collector roads. Because all traffic is forced onto these roads, they are often heavy with traffic all day. If a traffic crash occurs on a collector road, or if road construction inhibits the flow, then the entire road system may be rendered useless until the blockage is cleared. The traditional "grown" grid, in turn, allows for a larger number of choices and alternate routes. Suburban systems of the sprawl type are also quite inefficient for cyclists or pedestrians, as the as the crow flies, direct route is usually not available for them either. This encourages car trips even for distances as low as several hundreds of yards or meters (which may have become up to several miles or kilometers due to the road network). Improved sprawl systems, though retaining the car detours, possess cycle paths and footpaths connecting across the arms of the suburban sprawl, sprawl system, allowing a more direct route while still keeping the cars out of the residential and side streets. More commonly, central cities seek ways to tax nonresidents working downtown – known as commuter taxes – as property tax bases dwindle. Taken together, these two groups of taxpayers represent a largely untapped source of potential revenue that cities may begin to target more aggressively, particularly if they're struggling. According to struggling cities, this will help bring in a substantial revenue for the city which is a great way to tax the people who make the most use of the highways and repairs. Today more companies settle down in suburbs because of low property costs.


Academic study

The history of suburbia is part of the study of urban history, which focuses on the origins, growth, diverse typologies, culture, and politics of suburbs, as well as on the gendered and family-oriented nature of suburban space. Many people have assumed that early-20th-century suburbs were enclaves for middle-class whites, a concept that carries tremendous cultural influence yet is actually stereotypical. Some suburbs are based on a society of working-class and minority residents, many of whom want to own their own house. Meanwhile, other suburbs have instituted "explicitly racist" policies to deter people deemed as "other", a practice most common in the United States in contrast to other countries around the world. Mary Corbin Sies argues that it is necessary to examine how "suburb" is defined as well as the distinction made between cities and suburbs, geography, economic circumstances, and the interaction of numerous factors that move research beyond acceptance of stereotyping and its influence on scholarly assumptions.


In popular culture

Suburbs and suburban living have been the subject for a wide variety of films, books, television shows and songs. French songs like ''La Zone'' by Fréhel (1933), ''Aux quatre coins de la banlieue'' by Marie-Louise Damien, Damia (1936), ''Ma banlieue'' by Reda Caire (1937), or ''Banlieue'' by Robert Lamoureux (1953), evoke the suburbs of Paris explicitly since the 1930s. Those singers give a sunny festive, almost bucolic, image of the suburbs, yet still few urbanized. During the fifties and the sixties, French singer-songwriter Léo Ferré evokes in his songs popular and proletarian suburbs of Paris, to oppose them to the city, considered by comparison as a bourgeois and conservative place. French cinema was although soon interested in urban changes in the suburbs, with such movies as ''Mon oncle'' by Jacques Tati (1958), ''L'Amour existe'' by Maurice Pialat (1961) or ''Two or Three Things I Know About Her'' by Jean-Luc Godard (1967). In his one-act opera ''Trouble in Tahiti'' (1952), Leonard Bernstein skewers American suburbia, which produces misery instead of happiness. The American photojournalist Bill Owens (photographer), Bill Owens documented the culture of suburbia in the 1970s, most notably in his book ''Suburbia (book), Suburbia''. The 1962 song "Little Boxes" by Malvina Reynolds lampoons the development of suburbia and its perceived bourgeois and Conformity, conformist values, while the 1982 song ''Subdivisions (song), Subdivisions'' by the Canadian band Rush (band), Rush also discusses suburbia, as does Rockin' the Suburbs by Ben Folds. The 2010 album ''The Suburbs (album), The Suburbs'' by the Canadian-based alternative band Arcade Fire dealt with aspects of growing up in suburbia, suggesting aimlessness, apathy and endless rushing are ingrained into the suburban culture and mentality. ''Suburb The Musical,'' was written by Robert S. Cohen and David Javerbaum. Over the Hedge is a syndicated comic strip written and drawn by Michael Fry and T. Lewis. It tells the story of a raccoon, turtle, a squirrel, and their friends who come to terms with their woodlands being taken over by suburbia, trying to survive the increasing flow of humanity and technology while becoming enticed by it at the same time. A film adaptation of Over the Hedge (film), Over the Hedge was produced in 2006. British television series such as ''The Good Life (1975 TV series), The Good Life'', ''Butterflies (TV series), Butterflies'' and ''The Fall and Rise of Reginald Perrin'' have depicted suburbia as well-manicured but relentlessly boring, and its residents as either overly conforming or prone to going Stir crazy (condition), stir crazy. In contrast, U.S. shows – such as ''Knots Landing'', ''Desperate Housewives'' and ''Weeds (TV series), Weeds'' – portray the suburbs as concealing darker secrets behind a façade of perfectly manicured lawns, friendly people, and beautifully kept houses. Films such as ''The 'Burbs'', ''Disturbia (film), Disturbia'' and ''Hot Fuzz'', have brought this theme to the cinema. This trope was also used in the episode of ''The X-Files'' "Arcadia (The X-Files), Arcadia" and on one level of the video game ''Psychonauts''.


See also

* Bibliography of suburbs * Boomburbs * Developed environments * Ethnoburb * Exurb * Faubourg * List of satellite cities by population * Microdistrict * Quarter (urban subdivision), Quarter * Human settlement, Settlement types * Rural–urban fringe * Slum


Notes


References


Bibliography

* Archer, John; Paul J.P. Sandul, and Katherine Solomonson (eds.), ''Making Suburbia: New Histories of Everyday America.'' Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2015. * Baxandall, Rosalyn and Elizabeth Ewen. ''Picture Windows: How the Suburbs Happened.'' New York: Basic Books, 2000. * Beauregard, Robert A. '' When America Became Suburban''. University of Minnesota Press, 2006. * Fishman, Robert. ''Bourgeois Utopias: The Rise and Fall of Suburbia''. Basic Books, 1987; in U.S. * * Galinou, Mireille. ''Cottages and Villas: The Birth of the Garden Suburb'' (2011), in England * * * Harris, Richard. ''Creeping Conformity: How Canada Became Suburban, 1900-1960'' (2004) * Hayden, Dolores. ''Building Suburbia: Green Fields and Urban Growth, 1820–2000''. Vintage Books, 2003. * * * * * * Stilgoe, John R. ''Borderland: Origins of the American Suburb, 1820–1939''. Yale University Press, 1989. * Jon C. Teaford, Teaford, Jon C. ''The American Suburb: The Basics''. Routledge, 2008.


External links


A Future Vision for the North American Suburb

Centre for Suburban Studies


* [http://www.endofsuburbia.com/ The end of suburbia] (documentary film) {{Authority control City Neighbourhoods, * Suburbs, Types of populated places Urban planning Squatting