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A subculture is a group of people within a
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals i ...

culture
that differentiates itself from the parent culture to which it belongs, often maintaining some of its founding principles. Subcultures develop their own norms and values regarding cultural, political, and sexual matters. Subcultures are part of society while keeping their specific characteristics intact. Examples of subcultures include
hippie A hippie, also spelled hippy, especially in UK English, was a member of the counterculture of the 1960s, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world. The word ...

hippie
s,
goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, translit=''Gutþiuda''; la, Gothi) were a Germanic people who played a major role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the emergence of medieval Europe. In his book ''Getica'' (c. 551), ...
, bikers, and
skinhead A skinhead is a member of a subculture which originated among working class The working class (or labouring class) comprises those engaged in manual-labour occupations or industrial work, who are remunerated via waged or salaried cont ...

skinhead
s. The
concept Concepts are defined as abstract ideas A mental representation (or cognitive representation), in philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and nature of the mind and its relationship with the bo ...

concept
of subcultures was developed in
sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the scie ...
and
cultural studies #REDIRECT Cultural studies#REDIRECT Cultural studies Cultural studies is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture, its historical founda ...
. Subcultures differ from
counterculture A counterculture is a culture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, sometimes diametrically opposed to mainstream cultural mores.Eric Donald Hirsch. ''The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy''. Houg ...
s.


Definitions

The ''
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary A historical dictionary or dictionary on historical principles is a dictionary which deals not only with the latterday meanings of words but also the historica ...
'' defines subculture, in regards to sociological and cultural anthropology, as "an identifiable subgroup within a society or group of people, esp. one characterized by beliefs or interests at variance with those of the larger group; the distinctive ideas, practices, or way of life of such a subgroup." As early as 1950,
David Riesman David Riesman (September 22, 1909 – May 10, 2002) was a sociologist, educator, and best-selling commentator on American society. Career Born to a wealthy German Jewish family, he attended Harvard College Harvard College is the undergradua ...
distinguished between a
majority A majority, also called a simple majority to distinguish it from similar terms (see the "Related terms" section below), is the greater part, or more than half, of the total.See dictionary definitions of "majority" aMerriam-Webster
, "which passively accepted
commercially Commerce is the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale. Etymology The English-language word ''commerce'' has been derived from the Latin word ''commercium'', from ''com'' ("together") and ''merx'' ("merchandise"). History ...

commercially
provided styles and meanings, and a 'subculture' which actively sought a minority style ... and interpreted it in accordance with
subversive Subversion (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republ ...
values In ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy ...
". In his 1979 book '' Subculture: The Meaning of Style'',
Dick Hebdige Dick Hebdige (born 1951) is an expatriate British media theorist and sociologist, and a professor of art and media studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara. His work is commonly associated with the study of subculture A subcultu ...
argued that a subculture is a
subversion Subversion (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R ...

subversion
to normalcy. He wrote that subcultures can be perceived as negative due to their nature of criticism to the dominant societal standard. Hebdige argued that subculture brings together like-minded individuals who feel neglected by societal standards and allow them to develop a sense of identity. In 1995,
Sarah Thornton Sarah L. Thornton (born 1965) is a writer, ethnographer and sociologist of culture. Thornton has authored three books and many articles about artists, the art market, technology and design, the history of music technology, dance clubs, raves, ...
, drawing on
Pierre Bourdieu Pierre Bourdieu (; 1 August 1930 – 23 January 2002) was a French sociologist, anthropologistAn anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of aspects of humans within past and present Society, so ...
, described "subcultural capital" as the cultural knowledge and commodities acquired by members of a subculture, raising their status and helping differentiate themselves from members of other groups. In 2007, Ken Gelder proposed to distinguish subcultures from countercultures based on the level of immersion in society.Gelder 2007 Gelder further proposed six key ways in which subcultures can be identified through their: # often negative relations to work (as 'idle', 'parasitic', at play or at leisure, etc.); # negative or ambivalent relation to class (since subcultures are not 'class-conscious' and do not conform to traditional class definitions); # association with territory (the 'street', the 'hood', the club, etc.), rather than property; # movement out of the home and into non-domestic forms of belonging (i.e. social groups other than the
family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members and of society. Ideally, families would off ...

family
); # stylistic ties to excess and exaggeration (with some exceptions); # refusal of the banalities of ordinary life and massification. Sociologists
Gary Alan Fine Gary Alan Fine (born May 11, 1950, in New York City) is an Americans, American sociology, sociologist and author. Life and career The son of Bernard David Fine and Bernice Estelle Tanz, Fine grew up in Manhattan and went to the Horace Mann Scho ...
and Sherryl Kleinman argued that their 1979 research showed that a subculture is a group that serves to motivate a potential member to adopt the artifacts, behaviors, norms, and values characteristic of the group.


History of studies

The evolution of subcultural studies has three main steps:


Subcultures and deviance

The earliest subcultures studies came from the so-called Chicago School, who interpreted them as forms of deviance and delinquency. Starting with what they called Social Disorganization Theory, they claimed that subcultures emerged on one hand because of some population sectors’ lack of socialisation with the mainstream culture and, on the other, because of their adoption of alternative axiological and normative models. As ,
Ernest Burgess Ernest Watson Burgess (May 16, 1886 – December 27, 1966) was a Canadian-American urban sociologist born in Tilbury, Ontario. He was educated at Kingfisher College in Oklahoma Oklahoma () is a state in the South Central region of the U ...
and
Louis Wirth Louis Wirth (August 28, 1897 – May 3, 1952) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), ...
suggested, by means of selection and segregation processes, there thus appear in society natural areas or moral regions where deviant models concentrate and are re-inforced; they do not accept objectives or means of action offered by the mainstream culture, proposing different ones in their place – thereby becoming, depending on circumstances, innovators, rebels or retreatists (
Richard Cloward Richard Andrew Cloward (December 25, 1926 – August 20, 2001) was an American sociologist and an activist. He influenced the Strain theory of criminal behavior and the concept of anomie In sociology Sociology is the study of soc ...

Richard Cloward
and
Lloyd Ohlin Lloyd Edgar Ohlin (August 27, 1918 – December 6, 2008) was an American sociologist and criminologist who taught at Harvard Law School, Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia Univ ...
). Subcultures, however, are not only the result of alternative action strategies but also of labelling processes on the basis of which, as Howard S. Becker explains, society defines them as outsiders. As Cohen clarifies, every subculture's style, consisting of image, demeanour and language becomes its recognition trait. And an individual's progressive adoption of a subcultural model will furnish him/her with growing status within this context but it will often, in tandem, deprive him/her of status in the broader social context outside where a different model prevails. Cohen used the term 'Corner Boys' which were unable to compete with their better secured and prepared peers. These lower-class boys did not have equal access to resources, resulting in the status of frustration and search for a solution.


Subcultures and resistance

In the work of John Clarke, Stuart Hall, Tony Jefferson and Brian Roberts of the Birmingham CCCS (
Centre for Contemporary Cultural StudiesThe Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) was a research centre at the University of Birmingham A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recu ...
), subcultures are interpreted as forms of resistance. Society is seen as being divided into two fundamental classes, the working class and the middle class, each with its own class culture, and middle-class culture being dominant. Particularly in the working class, subcultures grow out of the presence of specific interests and affiliations around which cultural models spring up, in conflict with both their parent culture and mainstream culture. Facing a weakening of class identity, subcultures are then new forms of collective identification expressing what Cohen called symbolic resistance against the mainstream culture and developing imaginary solutions for structural problems. As Paul Willis and
Dick Hebdige Dick Hebdige (born 1951) is an expatriate British media theorist and sociologist, and a professor of art and media studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara. His work is commonly associated with the study of subculture A subcultu ...
underline, identity and resistance are expressed through the development of a distinctive style which, by a re-signification and ‘bricolage’ operation, use cultural industry goods to communicate and express one's own conflict. Yet the cultural industry is often capable of re-absorbing the components of such a style and once again transforming them into goods. At the same time the mass media, while they participate in building subcultures by broadcasting their images, also weaken them by depriving them of their subversive content or by spreading a stigmatized image of them.


Subcultures and distinction

The most recent interpretations see subcultures as forms of distinction. In an attempt to overcome the idea of subcultures as forms of deviance or resistance, they describe subcultures as collectivities which, on a cultural level, are sufficiently homogeneous internally and heterogeneous with respect to the outside world to be capable of developing, as Paul Hodkinson points out, consistent distinctiveness, identity, commitment and autonomy. Defined by
Sarah Thornton Sarah L. Thornton (born 1965) is a writer, ethnographer and sociologist of culture. Thornton has authored three books and many articles about artists, the art market, technology and design, the history of music technology, dance clubs, raves, ...
as taste cultures, subcultures are endowed with elastic, porous borders, and are inserted into relationships of interaction and mingling, rather than independence and conflict, with the cultural industry and mass media, as Steve Redhead and David Muggleton emphasize. The very idea of a unique, internally homogeneous, dominant culture is explicitly criticized. Thus forms of individual involvement in subcultures are fluid and gradual, differentiated according to each actor's investment, outside clear dichotomies. The ideas of different levels of subcultural capital (
Sarah Thornton Sarah L. Thornton (born 1965) is a writer, ethnographer and sociologist of culture. Thornton has authored three books and many articles about artists, the art market, technology and design, the history of music technology, dance clubs, raves, ...
) possessed by each individual, of the supermarket of style () and of style surfing (Martina Böse) replace that of the subculture's insiders and outsiders – with the perspective of subcultures supplying resources for the construction of new identities going beyond strong, lasting identifications.


Identifying

The study of subcultures often consists of the study of symbolism attached to
clothing A kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are items worn on the body. Typically, clothing is made of fabrics or textiles, but over time it has included garments made from a ...

clothing
,
music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and its associated concepts , , and ...

music
and other visible affectations by members of subcultures, and also of the ways in which these same symbols are interpreted by members of the dominant culture. Dick Hebdige writes that members of a subculture often signal their membership through a distinctive and symbolic use of style, which includes
fashion Fashion is a form of self-expression and autonomy at a particular period and place and in a specific context, of clothing, footwear, Lifestyle (sociology), lifestyle, Fashion accessory, accessories, makeup, hairstyle, and body posture. The term i ...

fashion
s, mannerisms and
argot A cant is the jargon Jargon is the specialized terminology Terminology is a general word for the group of specialized words or meanings relating to a particular field, and also the study of such terms and their use. This is also known as termino ...
. Subcultures can exist at all levels of organizations, highlighting the fact that there are multiple cultures or value combinations usually evident in any one organization that can complement but also compete with the overall organisational culture. In some instances, subcultures have been legislated against, and their activities regulated or curtailed.Hall, Stuart, Tony Jefferson, Resistance Through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Post-War Britain (Routledge, 1993). British
youth subculture A youth subculture is a youth-based subculture with distinct styles, behaviors, and interests. Youth subcultures offer participants an identity outside of that ascribed by social institutions such as family, work, home A home, or domi ...
s had been described as a moral problem that ought to be handled by the guardians of the dominant culture within the
post-war consensus The post-war consensus is a thesis that describes the political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), po ...
.


Relationships with mainstream culture

It may be difficult to identify certain subcultures because their style (particularly clothing and music) may be adopted by mass culture for commercial purposes. Businesses often seek to capitalize on the subversive allure of subcultures in search of '' Cool'', which remains valuable in the selling of any product. This process of
cultural appropriation Cultural appropriation is the inappropriate or unacknowledged adoption of an element or elements of one culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms ...
may often result in the death or evolution of the subculture, as its members adopt new styles that appear alien to mainstream society. Music-based subcultures are particularly vulnerable to this process; what may be considered subcultures at one stage in their historiessuch as
jazz Jazz is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre ...
, goth,
punk Punk or punks may refer to: Genres, subculture, and related aspects * Punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre that emerged in the mid-1970s. Rooted in 1960s garage rock, punk bands rejected the perceived excesses of mainstream 1 ...
,
hip hop Hip hop or hip-hop is a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabil ...
and
rave culture A rave (from the verb A verb, from the Latin ''wikt:verbum#Latin, verbum'' meaning ''word'', is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (''bring'', ''read'', ''walk'', ''run'', ''learn''), an occurrence (''happen'', ''becom ...
smay represent mainstream taste within a short period. Some subcultures reject or modify the importance of style, stressing membership through the adoption of an
ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of ...
which may be much more resistant to commercial exploitation. The
punk subculture The punk subculture includes a diverse and widely known array of ideologies An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Ps ...
's distinctive (and initially shocking) style of clothing was adopted by mass-market fashion companies once the subculture became a media interest.
Dick Hebdige Dick Hebdige (born 1951) is an expatriate British media theorist and sociologist, and a professor of art and media studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara. His work is commonly associated with the study of subculture A subcultu ...
argues that the punk subculture shares the same "radical aesthetic practices" as
Dada Dada () or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century, with early centres in Zürich, Switzerland, at the Cabaret Voltaire (Zurich), Cabaret Voltaire (c. 1916). New York Dada began c. 1915, and after 1920 ...

Dada
and
surrealism Surrealism was a that developed in Europe in the aftermath of in which artists depicted unnerving, illogical scenes and developed techniques to allow the to express itself. Its aim was, according to leader , to "resolve the previously contradi ...

surrealism
:
Like Duchamp's 'ready mades' - manufactured objects which qualified as art because he chose to call them such, the most unremarkable and inappropriate items - a pin, a plastic clothes peg, a television component, a razor blade, a tampon - could be brought within the province of punk (un)fashion ... Objects borrowed from the most sordid of contexts found a place in punks' ensembles; lavatory chains were draped in graceful arcs across chests in plastic bin liners. Safety pins were taken out of their domestic 'utility' context and worn as gruesome ornaments through the cheek, ear or lip ... fragments of school uniform (white bri-nylon shirts, school ties) were symbolically defiled (the shirts covered in graffiti, or fake blood; the ties left undone) and juxtaposed against leather drains or shocking pink mohair tops.


Urban tribes

In 1985, French sociologist
Michel Maffesoli Michel Maffesoli (born 14 November 1944) is a French sociologist. He is a former pupil of Gilbert Durand and Julien Freund, and an emeritus ''Emeritus'' (; female: ''Emerita''), in its current usage, is an adjective used to designate a retir ...
coined the term ''urban tribe''. It gained widespread use after the publication of his '' The Time of the Tribes'' (1988). In 1996, this book was published in English. According to Maffesoli, urban tribes are microgroups of people who share common interests in urban areas. The members of these relatively small groups tend to have similar worldviews, dress styles and behavioral patterns. Their
social interactions In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals. Social relations derived from agency (sociology), individual agency form the basis of social structure and the basic object for analy ...
are largely
informal Formal, formality, informal or informality imply the complying with, or not complying with, some set theory, set of requirements (substantial form, forms, in Ancient Greek). They may refer to: Dress code and events * Formal wear, attire for forma ...
and emotionally laden, different from
late capitalism Late capitalism, or late-stage capitalism, is a term first used in print by German economist Werner Sombart around the turn of the 20th century. Since 2016, the term has been used in the United States and Canada to refer to perceived absurdities, ...
's
corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal person, legal ...

corporate
-
bourgeoisie Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic fieldIn linguisti ...

bourgeoisie
cultures, based on dispassionate logic. Maffesoli claims that punks are a typical example of an "urban tribe". Five years after the first English translation of ''Le temps des tribus'', writer
Ethan Watters Ethan Watters is an American journalist A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather information in form of text, audio or pictures, processes them to a news-worth form and disseminates it to the public. The act or process mainly don ...
claims to have coined the same
neologism A neologism (; from Greek νέο- ''néo-'', "new" and λόγος ''lógos'', "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted ...
in a ''
New York Times Magazine ''The New York Times Magazine'' is a Sunday magazine A Sunday magazine is a publication inserted into a Sunday newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events ...
'' article. This was later expanded upon the idea in his book ''Urban Tribes: A Generation Redefines Friendship, Family, and Commitment''. According to Watters, urban tribes are groups of never- between the ages of 25 and 45 who gather in common-interest groups and enjoy an urban
lifestyle Lifestyle often refers to: * Lifestyle (sociology), the way a person lives * ''Otium'', ancient Roman concept of a lifestyle * Style of life (german: Lebensstil), dealing with the dynamics of personality Lifestyle may also refer to: Business and ...
, which offers an alternative to traditional
family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members and of society. Ideally, families would off ...

family
structures.


Sexual

The
sexual revolution The sexual revolution, also known as a time of sexual liberation, was a social movement that challenged traditional codes of behavior related to sexuality and interpersonal relationships throughout the United States from the 1960s to the 1980s ...
of the 1960s led to a countercultural rejection of the established sexual and gender norms, particularly in the urban areas of Europe, North and South America, Australia, and white South Africa. A more permissive social environment in these areas led to a proliferation of ''sexual subcultures'' – cultural expressions of non-normative sexuality. As with other subcultures, sexual subcultures adopted certain styles of fashion and gestures to distinguish them from the mainstream. Homosexuals expressed themselves through the
gay culture Gay men are male homosexuals Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction Sexual attraction is attraction on the basis of sexual desire or the quality of arousing such interest. Sexual attractiveness or sex appeal is an ...
, considered the largest sexual subculture of the 20th century. With the ever-increasing acceptance of homosexuality in the early 21st century, including its expressions in fashion, music, and design, the gay culture can no longer be considered a subculture in many parts of the world, although some aspects of gay culture like leathermen,
bears Bears are carnivora Carnivora is an order of placental Placentalia is one of the three extant subdivisions of the class of animals Mammalia Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Ita ...
, and feeders are considered subcultures within the gay movement itself.Jaime Hovey, ''Sexual subcultures'' entry in F. Malti-Douglas, ''Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender'', Vol. 4, Gale, 2007, pp. 1372-1373 The
butch and femme ''Butch'' and ''femme'' are terms used in the lesbian A lesbian is a Homosexuality, homosexual woman.Zimmerman, p. 453. The word ''lesbian'' is also used for women in relation to their sexual identity or sexual behavior, regardless of ...
identities or roles among some lesbians also engender their own subculture with stereotypical attire, for instance
drag king Drag kings are mostly female performance artists who dress in masculinity, masculine Drag (clothing), drag and personify male gender stereotypes as part of an individual or group routine. A typical drag show may incorporate dancing, acting, stan ...
s.Jaime Hovey, ''Sexual subcultures'' entry in F. Malti-Douglas, ''Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender'', Vol. 4, Gale, 2007, pp. 1374 A late 1980s development, the
queer ''Queer'' is an for people who are not or are not . Originally meaning "strange" or "peculiar", ''queer'' came to be used ly against those with same-sex desires or relationships in the late 19th century. Beginning in the late 1980s, queer ac ...

queer
movement can be considered a subculture broadly encompassing those that reject normativity in sexual behavior, and who celebrate visibility and activism. The wider movement coincided with growing academic interests in
queer studies Queer studies, sexual diversity studies, or LGBT studies is the study of issues relating to sexual orientation Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of Romance (love), romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of ...
and
queer theory Queer theory is a field of critical theory that emerged in the early 1990s out of queer studies (often, formerly, gay and lesbian studies) and women's studies. The term can have various meanings depending upon its usage, but has broadly been assoc ...
. Aspects of sexual subcultures can vary along other cultural lines. For instance, in the United States, down-low refers to African-American men who do not identify themselves with the gay or queer cultures, but who practice gay cruising, and adopt a specific hip-hop attire during this activity.


Social media

In a 2011 study, Brady Robards and Andy Bennett said that online identity expression has been interpreted as exhibiting subcultural qualities. However, they argue it is more in line with
neotribalism Neotribalism, also known as modern tribalism or neo-tribalism, is a sociological concept which postulates that human beings have evolved to live in tribal society, as opposed to mass society, and thus will naturally form social network A soci ...
than with what is often classified as subculture. Social networking
website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hyperte ...

website
s are quickly becoming the most used form of communication and means to distribute information and news. They offer a way for people with similar backgrounds, lifestyles, professions or hobbies to connect. According to a co-founder and executive creative strategist for RE-UP, as technology becomes a "life force," subcultures become the main bone of contention for brands as networks rise through cultural mash-ups and phenomenons. Where social media is concerned, there seems to be a growing interest among media producers to use subcultures for branding. This is seen most actively on social network sites with
user-generated content User-generated content (UGC), alternatively known as user-created content (UCC), is any form of content, such as images, videos, text, and audio, that has been posted by User (computing), users on online platforms such as social media and wikis. I ...
, such as
YouTube YouTube is an American online video sharing and social media platform Social media are interactive technologies that allow the Content creation, creation or information sharing, sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, an ...

YouTube
. Social media expert Scott Huntington cites one of the ways in which subcultures have been and can be successfully targeted to generate revenue: "It’s common to assume that subcultures aren’t a major market for most companies. Online apps for shopping, however, have made significant strides. Take Etsy, for example. It only allow vendors to sell handmade or vintage items, both of which can be considered a rather 'hipster' subculture. However, retailers on the site made almost $900 million in sales."


Discrimination

Discrimination Discrimination is the act of making unjustified distinctions between people based on the groups, classes, or other categories to which they belong or are perceived to belong. People may be discriminated on the basis of Racial discrimination, r ...
is sometimes directed towards a person based on their culture or subculture. In 2013, the
Greater Manchester Police Greater Manchester Police (GMP) is the territorial police forceA territorial police force is a police service that is responsible for an area defined by sub-national boundaries, distinguished from other police services which deal with the entire ...
in the United Kingdom began to classify attacks on subcultures such as
goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, translit=''Gutþiuda''; la, Gothi) were a Germanic people who played a major role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the emergence of medieval Europe. In his book ''Getica'' (c. 551), ...
,
emo Emo is a rock music Rock music is a broad genre of popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be enjoyed and performe ...

emo
s, punks and metalheads as hate crimes, in the same way they record abuse against people because of their religion, race, disability, sexual orientation or transgender identity. The decision followed the murder of Sophie Lancaster and beating of her boyfriend in 2007, who were attacked because they were goths. In 2012, emo killings in Iraq occurred, which consisted of between at least 6 and up to 70 teenage boys who were kidnapped, tortured and murdered in Baghdad and Iraq, due to being targeted because they dressed in a Westernized emo style.


See also

*
Alternative lifestyle An alternative lifestyle is a lifestyle perceived to be outside the cultural norm. The phrase may be used by someone to describe their own lifestyle or someone else's. Description of a related set of activities as an alternative lifestyle is a de ...
*
Art world ''The Microcosm of London'' (1808), an engraving of Christie's auction room The art world comprises everyone involved in producing, commissioning, presenting, Historic preservation, preserving, promoting, chronicling, Art criticism, criticizing, b ...
*
Cultural identity Cultural identity is a part of a person's identity Identity may refer to: Social sciences * Identity (social science), personhood or group affiliation in psychology and sociology Group expression and affiliation * Cultural identity, a per ...

Cultural identity
* Far-right subcultures *
Folk culture Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition ab ...
*
Heterosociality In sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of Empirical method, empir ...
*
High culture High culture encompasses the culture, cultural objects of aesthetic value, which a society collectively esteem as exemplary art, and the Intellectualism, intellectual works of philosophy, history, art and literature that a society consider represen ...
* History of Western subcultures in the 20th century *
Intercultural competence Cultural competence, also known as intercultural competence, is a continuous and life long journey to increase people's skills in being proficient in intercultural and intra cultural knowledgeDeardorff, D. K. (2009). ''The Sage handbook of intercul ...
* List of subcultures *
Low culture Low or LOW or lows, may refer to: People * Low (surname), listing people surnamed Low Places * Low, Quebec, Canada * Low, Utah, United States * Lo Wu station (MTR code LOW), Hong Kong; a rail station * Salzburg Airport (ICAO airport code: LOWS ...
*
Neotribalism Neotribalism, also known as modern tribalism or neo-tribalism, is a sociological concept which postulates that human beings have evolved to live in tribal society, as opposed to mass society, and thus will naturally form social network A soci ...
*
Popular culture Popular culture (also called mass culture or pop culture) is generally recognized by members of a society A society is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and ...
*
Subcultural theory In criminology, subcultural theory emerged from the work of the Chicago school (sociology), Chicago School on gangs and developed through the Symbolic interactionism, symbolic interactionism school into a set of theories arguing that certain group ...
*
Underclass The underclass is the segment of the population that occupies the lowest possible position in a class hierarchy, below the core body of the working class. The general idea that a class system includes a population ''under'' the working class has ...
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Underground culture Underground culture, or simply underground, is a term to describe various alternative cultures which either consider themselves different from the mainstream of society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persiste ...
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Urban cultureUrban culture is the culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and ...
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Urban sociology Urban sociology is the sociological Sociology is the study of society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or soci ...
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Youth subculture A youth subculture is a youth-based subculture with distinct styles, behaviors, and interests. Youth subcultures offer participants an identity outside of that ascribed by social institutions such as family, work, home A home, or domi ...


References


Citations


Sources

* * Gelder, Ken (2007). '' Subcultures: Cultural Histories and Social Practice'' (Routledge, March 2007; softcover ) * Hebdige, Dick (1979). '' Subculture: The Meaning of Style'' (Routledge, March 10, 1981; softcover ). Cited in Negus, Keith (1996). ''Popular Music in Theory: An Introduction''. Wesleyan University Press. . * Huq, Rupa (2006) 'Beyond subculture' (Routledge, 2006; softcover . Hardcover ) * Maffesoli, Michel (1996). ''The Time of the Tribes: The Decline of Individualism in Mass Society''. (London: Sage Publications. ) * McKay, George (1996) ''Senseless Acts of Beauty: Cultures of Resistance since the Sixties''. (London: Verso. .) * McKay, George (2005) ''Circular Breathing: The Cultural Politics of Jazz in Britain.'' Durham NC: Duke University Press. . * Riesman, David (1950). "Listening to popular music", ''American Quarterly'', 2, p. 359-71. Cited in Middleton, Richard (1990/2002). ''Studying Popular Music'', p. 155. Philadelphia: Open University Press. . * Thornton, Sarah (1995). ''Club Cultures: Music, Media, and Subcultural Capital''. Cambridge: Polity Press. Cited in Negus, Keith (1996). ''Popular Music in Theory: An Introduction''. Wesleyan University Press. . * Watters, Ethan (2003). ''Urban Tribes: A Generation Redefines Friendship, Family, and Commitment''. . * Hall, Stuart, Tony Jefferson (1993). ''Resistance Through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Post-War Britain''. Routledge, 1993. * * Goldstein-Gidoni, Ofra. "Producers of 'Japan' in Israel: ''Cultural appropriation'' in a non-colonial context." ''Ethnos:Journal of Anthropology'' 68.3 (2003): 365. Print. * Lewin, Phillip, J. Patrick Williams. "Reconceptualizing Punk through ''Ideology'' and Authenticity". ''Conference Papers—American Sociological Association''. 2007 Conference Papers, 2007. * Howes, David. ''Cross-cultural consumption: global markets, local realities''. New York: Routledge, 1996. Print. * * Francois, L. (2013, May 25). Subcultures: Big Opportunity for Social Brands to Generate Value. Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://www.socialmediatoday.com/content/subcultures-big-opportunity-social-brands-generate-value * Huntington, S. (2014, March 24). Subcultures and Social Media: Mass Differentiation. Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://socialmediadata.com/subcultures-and-social-media-mass-differentiation/ * * Беляев, И. А
Культура, субкультура, контркультура
/ И. А. Беляев, Н. А. Беляева // Духовность и государственность. Сборник научных статей. Выпуск 3; под ред. И. А. Беляева. — Оренбург: Филиал УрАГС в г. Оренбурге, 2002. — С. 5-18. * Berzano, L., Genova, C. (2015). Lifestyles and Subcultures. History and a New Perspective. New York, NY: Routledge.


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Subcultures: Big Opportunities for Social Brands to Generate Value


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