HOME

TheInfoList




A storm surge, storm flood, tidal surge, or storm tide is a
coastal flood Coastal flooding normally occurs when dry and low-lying land is submerged by seawater. The range of a coastal flooding is a result of the elevation of floodwater that penetrates the inland which is controlled by the topography of the coastal land ex ...
or
tsunami A tsunami ( ; from ja, 津波, lit=harbour wave, ) is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a . s, s and other s (including detonations, landslides, , and other dis ...

tsunami
-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low-pressure weather systems, such as
cyclone In meteorology, a cyclone () is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure, counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere as viewed from above (opposite to an ...

cyclone
s. It is measured as the rise in water level above the normal tidal level, and does not include waves. The main
meteorological Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the ...
factor contributing to a storm surge is high-speed wind pushing water towards the coast over a long fetch. Other factors affecting storm surge severity include the shallowness and orientation of the water body in the storm path, the timing of
tide Tides are the rise and fall of sea level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average In colloquial, ordinary language, an average is a single number taken as representative of a list of numbers, usually the sum of ...

tide
s, and the atmospheric pressure drop due to the storm. Most casualties during tropical cyclones occur as the result of storm surges and surges are a major source of damage to infrastructure and property during storms. Some theorize that as extreme weather becomes more intense and
sea level rises
sea level rises
due to
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...
, storm surge is expected to cause more risk to coastal populations. Communities and governments can adapt by building hard infrastructure, like surge barriers, soft infrastructure, like
coastal dunes A dune is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical body Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the s ...
or
mangroves A mangrove is a shrub or tree that grows in coastal saline water, saline or brackish water. The term is also used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. Mangroves occur worldwide in the tropics and subtropics and even some te ...

mangroves
, improving coastal construction practices and building social strategies such as early warning, education and evacuation plans.


Mechanics

At least five processes can be involved in altering
tide Tides are the rise and fall of sea level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average In colloquial, ordinary language, an average is a single number taken as representative of a list of numbers, usually the sum of ...

tide
levels during storms.


Direct wind effect

Strong surface winds cause surface currents at a 45° angle to the wind direction, by an effect known as the
Ekman Spiral 200px, Ekman spiral effect.1. Wind2. force from above3. Effective direction of the current4. Coriolis effect The Ekman spiral is a structure of currents or winds near a horizontal boundary in which the flow direction rotates as one moves away ...
. Wind stresses cause a phenomenon referred to as "wind set-up", which is the tendency for water levels to increase at the downwind shore and to decrease at the upwind shore. Intuitively, this is caused by the storm blowing the water toward one side of the basin in the direction of its winds. Because the Ekman Spiral effects spread vertically through the water, the effect is proportional to depth. The surge will be driven into bays in the same way as the astronomical tide.


Atmospheric pressure effect

The pressure effects of a tropical cyclone will cause the water level in the open ocean to rise in regions of low
atmospheric pressure Atmospheric pressure, also known as barometric pressure (after the barometer A barometer is a scientific instrument that is used to measure air pressure in a certain environment. Pressure tendency can forecast short term changes in the weather. ...
and fall in regions of high atmospheric pressure. The rising water level will counteract the low atmospheric pressure such that the total pressure at some plane beneath the water surface remains constant. This effect is estimated at a increase in sea level for every
millibar The bar is a metric unit of pressure Pressure (symbol: ''p'' or ''P'') is the force In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), ...
(hPa) drop in atmospheric pressure. For example, a major storm with a 100 millibar pressure drop would be expected to have a water level rise from the pressure effect.


Effect of the Earth's rotation

The Earth's rotation causes the
Coriolis effect In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior throug ...

Coriolis effect
, which bends currents to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. When this bend brings the currents into more perpendicular contact with the shore, it can amplify the surge, and when it bends the current away from the shore it has the effect of lessening the surge.


Effect of waves

The effect of waves, while directly powered by the wind, is distinct from a storm's wind-powered currents. Powerful wind whips up large, strong waves in the direction of its movement. Although these surface waves are responsible for very little water transport in open water, they may be responsible for significant transport near the shore. When waves are breaking on a line more or less parallel to the beach, they carry considerable water shoreward. As they break, the water moving toward the shore has considerable momentum and may run up a sloping beach to an elevation above the mean water line, which may exceed twice the wave height before breaking.


Rainfall effect

The rainfall effect is experienced predominantly in
estuaries An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water Brackish water, also sometimes termed brack water, is water occurring in a natural environment having more salinity File:IAPSO Standard Seawater.jpg, upInternational Associatio ...

estuaries
. Hurricanes may dump as much as of rainfall in 24 hours over large areas and higher rainfall densities in localized areas. As a result,
surface runoff Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it ac ...
can quickly flood streams and rivers. This can increase the water level near the head of tidal estuaries as storm-driven waters surging in from the ocean meet rainfall flowing downstream into the estuary.


Sea depth and topography

In addition to the above processes, storm surge and wave heights on shore are also affected by the flow of water over the underlying topography, i.e. the shape and depth of the ocean floor and coastal area. A narrow , with deep water relatively close to the shoreline, tends to produce a lower surge but higher and more powerful waves. A wide shelf, with shallower water, tends to produce a higher storm surge with relatively smaller waves. For example, in Palm Beach on the southeast coast of
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...

Florida
, the water depth reaches offshore, and out. This is relatively steep and deep; storm surge is not as great but the waves are larger compared to the west coast of Florida. Conversely, on the Gulf side of Florida, the edge of the Floridian Plateau can lie more than offshore.
Florida Bay Florida Bay is the bay located between the southern end of the Florida Florida (, ) is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. With a population of over 21million, Florida is t ...
, lying between the Florida Keys and the mainland, is very shallow with depths between and . These shallow areas are subject to higher storm surges with smaller waves. Other shallow areas include much of the
Gulf of Mexico The Gulf of Mexico ( es, Golfo de México) is an ocean basin 400px, Diagrammatic cross-section of an ocean basin, showing the various geographic features In hydrology Hydrology (from Greek: wikt:ὕδωρ, ὕδωρ, "hýdōr" meaning ...

Gulf of Mexico
coast, and the
Bay of Bengal The Bay of Bengal is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface ...

Bay of Bengal
. The difference is due to how much flow area the storm surge can dissipate to. In deeper water, there is more area and a surge can be dispersed down and away from the hurricane. On a shallow, gently sloping shelf, the surge has less room to disperse, and is driven ashore by the wind forces of the hurricane. Topography of the land surface is another important element in storm surge extent. Areas, where the land lies less than a few meters above sea level, are at particular risk from storm surge inundation.


Storm size

The size of the storm also affects the surge height; this is due to the storm's area not being proportional to its perimeter. If a storm doubles in diameter, its perimeter also doubles, but its area quadruples. As there is proportionally less perimeter for the surge to dissipate to, the surge height ends up being higher.


Extratropical storms

Similar to tropical cyclones, extratropical cyclones cause an offshore rise of water. However, unlike most tropical cyclone storm surges, extratropical cyclones can cause higher water levels across a large area for longer periods of time, depending on the system. In North America, extratropical storm surges may occur on the Pacific and Alaska coasts, and north of 31°N on the Atlantic Coast. Coasts with sea ice may experience an "ice tsunami" causing significant damage inland. Extratropical storm surges may be possible further south for the
Gulf coast The Gulf Coast of the United States is the coastline The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or as a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean T ...
mostly during the wintertime, when extratropical cyclones affect the coast, such as in the
1993 Storm of the Century The 1993 Storm of the Century (also known as the 93 Superstorm, The No Name Storm, or the Great Blizzard of '93/1993) was a large cyclonic storm that formed over the Gulf of Mexico The Gulf of Mexico ( es, Golfo de México) is an ocean basin ...
. November 9–13, 2009, marked a significant extratropical storm surge event on the United States east coast when the remnants of Hurricane Ida developed into a nor'easter off the southeast U.S. coast. During the event, winds from the east were present along the northern periphery of the low-pressure center for a number of days, forcing water into locations such as
Chesapeake Bay The Chesapeake Bay ( ) is the largest estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed Coast, coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zo ...
. Water levels rose significantly and remained as high as above normal in numerous locations throughout the Chesapeake for a number of days as water was continually built-up inside the estuary from the onshore winds and freshwater rains flowing into the bay. In many locations, water levels were shy of records by only .


Measuring surge

Surge can be measured directly at coastal tidal stations as the difference between the forecast tide and the observed rise of water. Another method of measuring surge is by the deployment of pressure transducers along the coastline just ahead of an approaching tropical cyclone. This was first tested for
Hurricane Rita Hurricane Rita was the most intense tropical cyclone A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale ...

Hurricane Rita
in 2005. These types of sensors can be placed in locations that will be submerged and can accurately measure the height of water above them. After surge from a cyclone has receded, teams of surveyors map high-water marks (HWM) on land, in a rigorous and detailed process that includes photographs and written descriptions of the marks. HWMs denote the location and elevation of flood waters from a storm event. When HWMs are analyzed, if the various components of the water height can be broken out so that the portion attributable to surge can be identified, then that mark can be classified as storm surge. Otherwise, it is classified as storm tide. HWMs on land are referenced to a vertical datum (a reference coordinate system). During evaluation, HWMs are divided into four categories based on the confidence in the mark; only HWMs evaluated as "excellent" are used by
National Hurricane Center The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is the division of the United States' NOAA/National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting tropical weather systems between the IERS Reference Meridian, Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian ...

National Hurricane Center
in post-storm analysis of the surge. Two different measures are used for storm tide and storm surge measurements. Storm tide is measured using a geodetic vertical datum (
NGVD 29 The National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 is the official name since 1973 of the vertical datum A vertical datum, altimetric datum, or height datum is a reference surface for vertical position Vertical position or vertical location is a p ...
or
NAVD 88 The North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) is the vertical datum A vertical datum, altimetric datum, or height datum is a reference surface for vertical positions, such as the elevations of Earth features including terrain, bathymetry, ...
). Since storm surge is defined as the rise of water beyond what would be expected by the normal movement caused by tides, storm surge is measured using tidal predictions, with the assumption that the tide prediction is well-known and only slowly varying in the region subject to the surge. Since tides are a localized phenomenon, storm surge can only be measured in relationship to a nearby tidal station. Tidal bench mark information at a station provides a translation from the geodetic vertical datum to mean sea level (MSL) at that location, then subtracting the tidal prediction yields a surge height above the normal water height.


SLOSH

The National Hurricane Center forecasts storm surge using the SLOSH model, which is an abbreviation for Sea, Lake and Overland Surges from Hurricanes. The model is accurate to within 20 percent. SLOSH inputs include the central pressure of a tropical cyclone, storm size, the cyclone's forward motion, its track, and maximum sustained winds. Local topography, bay and river orientation, depth of the sea bottom, astronomical tides, as well as other physical features, are taken into account in a predefined grid referred to as a SLOSH basin. Overlapping SLOSH basins are defined for the southern and eastern coastline of the continental U.S. Some storm simulations use more than one SLOSH basin; for instance, Hurricane Katrina SLOSH model runs used both the Lake Ponchartrain /
New Orleans New Orleans (,New Orleans
basin, and the
Mississippi Sound The Mississippi Sound is a sound In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion (phy ...
basin, for the northern Gulf of Mexico landfall. The final output from the model run will display the maximum envelope of water, or MEOW, that occurred at each location. To allow for track or forecast uncertainties, usually several model runs with varying input parameters are generated to create a map of MOMs, or Maximum of Maximums. For hurricane evacuation studies, a family of storms with representative tracks for the region, and varying intensity, eye diameter, and speed, are modeled to produce worst-case water heights for any tropical cyclone occurrence. The results of these studies are typically generated from several thousand SLOSH runs. These studies have been completed by the
United States Army Corps of Engineers , colors = , battles = , battles_label = Wars , website = , commander1 = LTG Scott A. Spellmon , commander1_label = Comma ...
, under contract to the
Federal Emergency Management Agency The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is an agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is the Federal government of the United States, U.S. United States fe ...
, for several states and are available on their Hurricane Evacuation Studies (HES) website. They include coastal county maps, shaded to identify the minimum category of hurricane that will result in flooding, in each area of the county.


Impacts

Storm surge is responsible for significant property damage and loss of life as part of cyclones. Storm surge both destroys built infrastructure, like roads, and undermines foundations and building structures. Unexpected flooding in estuaries and coastal areas can catch populations unprepared, causing loss of life. The deadliest storm surge on record was the 1970 Bhola cyclone. Additionally, storm surge can cause or transform human-utilized land through other processes, hurting
soil fertility Soil fertility refers to the ability of soil File:Stagnogley.JPG, Surface-water-Gley soil, gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support li ...
, increasing
saltwater intrusion Saltwater intrusion is the movement of saline water Saline water (more commonly known as salt water) is water that contains a high concentration of solvation, dissolved salts (mainly sodium chloride). The salt concentration is usually expressed i ...
, hurting wildlife habitat, and spreading chemical or other contaminants from human storage.


Mitigation

Although meteorological surveys alert about hurricanes or severe storms, in the areas where the risk of coastal flooding is particularly high, there are specific storm surge warnings. These have been implemented, for instance, in the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
,
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
, the United States, and the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
. Similarly educating coastal communities and developing local evacuation plans can reduce the relative impact on people. A prophylactic method introduced after the
North Sea Flood of 1953 The 1953 North Sea flood was a major flood caused by a heavy storm at the end of Saturday, 31 January 1953 and morning of the next day. The storm surge struck the Netherlands The Netherlands ( nl, Nederland ), informally referred to as Ho ...

North Sea Flood of 1953
is the construction of dams and storm-surge barriers (
flood barrier A flood barrier, surge barrier or storm surge barrier is a specific type of floodgate floodgates created to protect from typhoon surges Floodgates, also called stop gates, are adjustable gates used to control water flow in flood barriers, rese ...
s). They are open and allow free passage, but close when the land is under threat of a storm surge. Major storm surge barriers are the
Oosterscheldekering The Oosterscheldekering ( English: Eastern Scheldt storm surge barrier), between the islands Schouwen-Duiveland and Noord-Beveland, is the largest of the Delta Works, a series of dams and Flood barrier, storm surge barriers, designed to protect the ...

Oosterscheldekering
and
Maeslantkering The Maeslantkering ("Maeslant barrier" in Dutch) is a storm surge barrier on the Nieuwe Waterweg, in South Holland, Netherlands. It was constructed from 1991 to 1997. Part of the Delta Works, the barriers are controlled by a supercomputer, and a ...

Maeslantkering
in the Netherlands, which are part of the
Delta Works The Delta Works ( nl, Deltawerken) is a series of construction projects in the southwest of the Netherlands to protect a large area of land around the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta from the sea. Constructed between 1954 and 1997, the works cons ...
project; the
Thames Barrier The Thames Barrier is a retractable barrier system that is designed to prevent the floodplain File:Flood plain 7991.JPG, Riparian vegetation on the floodplain of the Lynches River, close to Johnsonville, South Carolina. These tupelo an ...
protecting
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
; and the
Saint Petersburg Dam The Saint Petersburg Flood Prevention Facility Complex ( rus, Ко́мплекс защи́тных сооруже́ний Санкт-Петербу́рга от наводне́ний, kómpleks zashchítnykh sooruzhéniy Sankt-Peterbúrga ot n ...
in
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
. Another modern development (in use in the Netherlands) is the creation of housing communities at the edges of wetlands with floating structures, restrained in position by vertical pylons. Such wetlands can then be used to accommodate runoff and surges without causing damage to the structures while also protecting conventional structures at somewhat higher low-lying elevations, provided that dikes prevent major surge intrusion. Other soft adaptation methods can include changing structures so that they are elevated to avoid flooding directly, or increasing natural protections like
mangroves A mangrove is a shrub or tree that grows in coastal saline water, saline or brackish water. The term is also used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. Mangroves occur worldwide in the tropics and subtropics and even some te ...

mangroves
or
dune A dune is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical body Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the ...

dune
s For mainland areas, storm surge is more of a threat when the storm strikes land from seaward, rather than approaching from landward.


Reverse storm surge

Water can also be sucked away from shore prior to a storm surge. This was the case on the western Florida coast in 2017, just before
Hurricane Irma Hurricane Irma was an extremely powerful Cape Verde hurricane that caused widespread destruction across its path in September 2017. Irma was the first Category 5 hurricane to strike the Leeward Islands french: Îles-Sous-le-Vent , im ...

Hurricane Irma
made landfall, uncovering land usually underwater. This phenomenon is known as a reverse storm surge, or a negative storm surge.


Historic storm surges

The deadliest storm surge on record was the 1970 Bhola cyclone, which killed up to 500,000 people in the area of the
Bay of Bengal The Bay of Bengal is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface ...

Bay of Bengal
. The low-lying coast of the Bay of Bengal is particularly vulnerable to surges caused by tropical cyclones. The deadliest storm surge in the twenty-first century was caused by the
Cyclone Nargis Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm Nargis ( ur, نرگس ) was an extremely destructive and deadly tropical cyclone that caused the worst natural disaster in the recorded history of Myanmar during early May 2008. The cyclone made landfall (meteorol ...
, which killed more than 138,000 people in
Myanmar Myanmar, ); UK pronunciations: US pronunciations incl. . Note: Wikipedia's IPA conventions require indicating /r/ even in British English although only some British English speakers pronounce r at the end of syllables. As John C. Wells, John ...

Myanmar
in May 2008. The next deadliest in this century was caused by the
Typhoon Haiyan Typhoon Haiyan, known in the Philippines as Super Typhoon Yolanda, was considered a one of the most powerful tropical cyclone A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low- ...

Typhoon Haiyan
(Yolanda), which killed more than 6,000 people in the central
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
in 2013 and resulted in economic losses estimated at $14 billion (USD).Yap, Karl Lester M.; Heath, Michael (2013-11-12)
"Yolanda's Economic Cost P600 billion"
. Bloomberg News, ''BusinessMirror.com.ph''. Retrieved 2013-11-14.
The
Galveston Hurricane of 1900 The Great Galveston hurricane, known regionally as the Great Storm of 1900, was the List of disasters in the United States by death toll, deadliest natural disaster in United States history and the List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes, fifth-d ...

Galveston Hurricane of 1900
, a Category 4 hurricane that struck
Galveston, Texas Galveston ( ) is a coastal The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area where land meets the ocean The ocean (also the sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The oce ...
, drove a devastating surge ashore; between 6,000 and 12,000 lives were lost, making it the deadliest
natural disaster A natural disaster is a major adverse event An adverse event (AE) is any untoward medical occurrence in a patient or clinical investigation subject administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have a causal relations ...
ever to strike the United States. The highest storm tide noted in historical accounts was produced by the 1899
Cyclone Mahina Cyclone Mahina was the deadliest cyclone in recorded Australian history, and also likely the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Southern Hemisphere. Mahina struck Bathurst Bay, Cape York Peninsula Cape York Peninsula is a l ...
, estimated at almost at
Bathurst Bay Bathurst Bay is a bay in the Suburbs and localities (Australia), localities of Lakefield, Queensland, Lakefield and Starcke, Queensland, Starcke in the Shire of Cook, Queensland, Australia. In the 19th century it was the base for the Pearl hunti ...
,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
, but research published in 2000 concluded that the majority of this likely was wave run-up because of the steep coastal topography. However, much of this storm surge was likely due to Mahina's extreme intensity, as computer modeling required an intensity of (the same intensity as the lowest recorded pressure from the storm) to produce the recorded storm surge. In the United States, one of the greatest recorded storm surges was generated by
Hurricane Katrina Hurricane Katrina was a large and destructive List of Category 5 Atlantic hurricanes, Category 5 Atlantic hurricane that caused over 1,800 fatalities and $125 billion in damage in late August 2005, especially in the city of New Orleans and ...
on August 29, 2005, which produced a maximum storm surge of more than in southern
Mississippi Mississippi () is a U.S. state, state in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States, bordered to the north by Tennessee; to the east by Alabama; to the south by the Gulf of Mexico; to the southwest by Louisiana; a ...
, with a storm surge height of in Pass Christian. Another record storm surge occurred in this same area from
Hurricane Camille Hurricane Camille was the second most intense tropical cyclone A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm, storm system characterized by a Low-pressure area, low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, Beaufort s ...
in 1969, with a storm tide of , also at Pass Christian. A storm surge of occurred in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
during
Hurricane Sandy Hurricane Sandy (unofficially referred to as Superstorm Sandy) was the deadliest, the most destructive, and the strongest tropical cyclone, hurricane of the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm inflicted nearly $70 billion (2012 USD) ...
in October 2012.


See also

*
Coastal flooding Coastal flooding normally occurs when dry and low-lying land is submerged by seawater. The range of a coastal flooding is a result of the elevation of floodwater that penetrates the inland which is controlled by the topography Topography is ...
* Meteotsunami * Tsunami-proof building *
Rogue wave Rogue waves (also known as freak waves, monster waves, episodic waves, killer waves, extreme waves, and abnormal waves) are unusually large, unpredictable and suddenly appearing surface waves that can be extremely dangerous to ship A ship i ...
* Ishiguro Storm Surge Computer


Notes


References

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links


European Space Agency storm Surge Project home pages
* from NIRAPAD disaster response organisation.
NOAA NWS National Hurricane Center storm surge page
*
DeltaWorks.Org
North Sea Flood of 1953, includes images, video and animations. * UK storm surge model outputs and real-time tide gauge information from th
National Tidal and Sea Level Facility
{{DEFAULTSORT:Storm Surge Flood Water waves Tropical cyclone meteorology Severe weather and convection