HOME

TheInfoList




A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a
religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...

religion
or
creed A creed, also known as a confession of faith, symbol, or statement of faith, is a statement of the shared belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology ...
officially endorsed by a
sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social relation, social relatio ...
. A state with an official religion, while not
secular Secularity, also the secular or secularness (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through t ...
, is not necessarily a
theocracy Theocracy is a form of government in which one or more deities A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena that are not subject to the laws of nature.https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/superna ...

theocracy
. State religions are official or government-sanctioned establishments of a religion, but the state does not need to be under the control of the religion (as in a theocracy) nor is the state-sanctioned religion necessarily under the control of the state. Official religions have been known throughout
human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since the History of writing, advent of writing, from primary source, primary and ...
in almost all types of cultures, reaching into the
Ancient Near East The ancient Near East was the home of early civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characterized by urban development, social stratification, a form of government, and symbol A symbol is a mark ...
and
prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, ...
. The relation of
religious cult
religious cult
and the state was discussed by the ancient Latin scholar
Marcus Terentius Varro Marcus Terentius Varro (; 116–27 BC) was one of ancient Rome's greatest scholars and a prolific author. He is sometimes called Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his younger contemporary Varro Atacinus. Biography Varro was born in or near ...
, under the term of ''
theologia civilisPolitical theology is a term which has been used in discussion of the ways in which Theology, theological concepts or ways of thinking relate to politics. The term ''political theology'' is often used to denote religious thought about political princ ...
'' (). The first state-sponsored
Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism of the Catholic Church, errors in the Catholic Church. ...
was the
Armenian Apostolic Church , native_name_lang = hy , icon = Armenian Apostolic Church logo.png , icon_width = 100px , icon_alt = , image = Էջմիածնի_Մայր_Տաճար.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , al ...
, established in 301 CE. In
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
, as the term ''church'' is typically applied to a place of worship for
Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of ...

Christians
or organizations incorporating such ones, the term ''state church'' is associated with Christianity as sanctioned by the government, historically the
state church of the Roman Empire The state church of the Roman Empire refers to the church approved by the Roman emperors after Theodosius I issued the Edict of Thessalonica in 380, which recognized the catholic orthodoxy of Nicene Christians in the Great Church as the Roman Empi ...
in the last centuries of the Empire's existence, and is sometimes used to denote a specific modern national branch of Christianity. Closely related to state churches are ecclesiae, which are similar but carry a more minor connotation. In the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
, the majority of states with a predominantly
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...
population have
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
as their official religion, though the degree of religious restrictions on citizens' everyday lives varies by country. Rulers of
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
use both secular and religious power, while
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
's secular presidents are supposed to follow the decisions of religious authorities since the
1979 Islamic Revolution The Iranian Revolution ( fa, انقلاب ایران, Enqelâbe Irân, ); locally known as the Islamic Revolution (or the 1979 Revolution) was a series of events that culminated in the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty under Shah Shah (; f ...
.
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
, which also has Muslim-majority population, became a secular country after
Atatürk's Reforms Atatürk's Reforms ( tr, ) were a series of political, legal, religious, cultural, social, and economic policy changes, designed to convert the new Republic of Turkey into a secular, modern nation-state, implemented under the leadership of Must ...
, although unlike the
Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relatio ...

Russian Revolution
of the same time period, it did not result in the adoption of
state atheism State atheism is the incorporation of positive atheism or non-theism Nontheism or non-theism is a range of both religious and nonreligious attitudes characterized by the absence of espoused belief in a God God, in monotheistic thought, ...
. The degree to which an official national religion is imposed upon citizens by the state in contemporary society varies considerably; from high as in
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...
and
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...
to minimal or none at all as
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hu ...
,
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...
,
Iceland Iceland ( is, Ísland; ) is a Nordic Nordic most commonly refers to: * Nordic countries, written in plural as Nordics, the northwestern European countries, including Scandinavia, Fennoscandia and the List of islands in the Atlantic Ocean#N ...
, and
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...
.


Types

The degree and nature of state backing for denomination or creed designated as a state religion can vary. It can range from mere endorsement (with or without financial support) with freedom for other faiths to practice, to prohibiting any competing religious body from operating and to persecuting the followers of other sects. In Europe, competition between
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic
and
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
denominations for state sponsorship in the 16th century evolved the principle ''
Cuius regio, eius religio () is a Latin phrase __NOTOC__ This is a list of Wikipedia articles of Latin phrases and their translation into English. To view all phrases on a single, lengthy document, see: * List of Latin phrases (full) The list also is divided alphabetic ...
'' (states follow the religion of the ruler) embodied in the text of the treaty that marked the
Peace of Augsburg The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman E ...
, 1555. In
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
,
Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England from 22 April 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for Wives of Henry VIII, his six marriages, including his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon ...
broke with Rome in 1534, being declared the
Supreme Head of the Church of England The title of Supreme Head of the Church of England was created in 1531 for King Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for his six marriages, and, in ...
, the official religion of England continued to be "Catholicism without the Pope" until after his death in 1547, while in
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
the
Church of Scotland The Church of Scotland (CoS; sco, The Scots Kirk; gd, Eaglais na h-Alba), also known by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis ...

Church of Scotland
opposed the religion of the ruler. In some cases, an administrative region may sponsor and fund a set of religious denominations; such is the case in
Alsace-Moselle The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (german: Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or ; gsw-als, 's Rìchslànd Elsàss-Lothrìnga; Moselle Franconian/ lb, D'Räichland Elsass-Loutrengen) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871 after ...
in
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
under its local law, following the pre-1905 French concordatory legal system and patterns in
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
. In some
communist state A communist state, also known as a Marxist–Leninist state, is a one-party state that is administered and governed by a communist party guided by Marxism–Leninism. Marxism–Leninism was the Ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Uni ...
s, notably in
North Korea North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. It borders China and Russia to the north, at the Yalu River, Yalu (Amnok) and Tu ...
and
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...
, the state sponsors religious organizations, and activities outside those state-sponsored religious organizations are met with various degrees of official disapproval. In these cases, state religions are widely seen as efforts by the state to prevent alternate sources of authority.


State churches

There is also a difference between a "state church" and the broader term of "state religion". A "state church" is a state religion created by a state for use exclusively by that state. An example of a "state religion" that is not also a "state church" is
Roman Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...

Roman Catholicism
in Costa Rica, which was accepted as the state religion in the 1949 Constitution, despite the lack of a
national church A national church is a Christian church associated with a specific ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such a ...
. In the case of a "state church", the state has absolute control over the church, but in the case of a "state religion", the church is ruled by an exterior body; in the case of Catholicism, the
Vatican Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Città del Vaticano; la, Status Civitatis Vaticanae),—' * german: Vatikanstadt, cf. '—' (in Austria: ') * pl, Miasto Watykańskie, cf. '—' * pt, Ci ...
has control over the church. In either case, the official state religion has some influence over the ruling of the state. As of 2012, there are only five state churches left, as most countries that once featured state churches have separated the church from their government.


Disestablishment

Disestablishment is the process of repealing a church's status as an organ of the state. In a state where an established church is in place, those opposed to such a move may be described as
antidisestablishmentarians
antidisestablishmentarians
. This word is, however, most usually associated with the debate on the position of the Anglican churches in the
British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands in the North Atlantic off the north-western coast of continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

British Isles
: the
Church of Ireland The Church of Ireland ( ga, Eaglais na hÉireann, ; sco, label=Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ul ...
(disestablished in
1871 Events January–March * – - : Prussians win a strategic victory. * – : The member states of the and the south German states, aside from Austria, unite into a single , known as the . The is declared the first as , in ...
), the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
in
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It ...

Wales
(disestablished in
1920 Events January * – : The Russian increases troops along the Polish border from 4 divisions to 20. * – in the United States: The second of the takes place with another 4,025 suspected communists and anarchists arrested and ...
), and the Church of England itself (which remains established in England).


Current state recognized religions


Buddhism

Governments where
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
, either a specific form of it, or Buddhism as a whole, has been established as an official religion: *
Bhutan Bhutan (; dz, འབྲུག་ཡུལ་, Druk Yul, ), officially known as the Kingdom of Bhutan ( dz, འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་, Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in the Eastern Himalayas. It is bordered by Chin ...
: The
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
defines Buddhism as the "spiritual heritage of Bhutan". The Constitution of Bhutan is based on
Buddhist philosophy Buddhist philosophy refers to the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding ...
. It also mandates that the
Druk Gyalpo The Druk Gyalpo (; lit. Dragon King) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's p ...
(King) should appoint the
Je Khenpo The Je Khenpo (; "The Chief Abbot of the Central Monastic Body of Bhutan"), formerly called the ''Dharma Raja'' by orientalists, is the title given to the senior religious hierarch of Bhutan Bhutan (; dz, འབྲུག་ཡུལ་, ...
and
Dratshang Lhentshog The Dratshang Lhentshog ( Dzongkha: ; Wylie: ''grwa-tshang lhan-tshogs'') is the Commission for the Monastic Affairs of Bhutan. Under the 2008 Constitution, it is the bureaucracy that oversees the Drukpa Kagyu sect that is the state religion A ...
(The Commission for Monastic Affairs). *
Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is in area, bordered by Thailand to Cambodia–T ...
: The
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
declared Buddhism as the official religion of the country. About 98% of the Cambodia's population is Buddhist. *
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...
: The constitution of Sri Lanka states under Chapter II, Article 9, "The Republic of Sri Lanka shall give to Buddhism the high place in hierarchy and accordingly it shall be the duty of the Head of State and Head of Government to protect and foster the Buddha Sasana" and hence making Buddhism as the official religion of the nation. In some countries, Buddhism is not recognized as a state religion, but holds special status: *
Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia. It is located at the centre of the Mainland Southeast Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, spanning , wi ...
: Article 67 of the Thai constitution : "The State should support and protect Buddhism. In supporting and protecting Buddhism, ..the State should promote and support education and dissemination of dharmic principles of Theravada Buddhism .. and shall have measures and mechanisms to prevent Buddhism from being undermined in any form. The State should also encourage Buddhists to participate in implementing such measures or mechanisms. *
Laos , national_anthem = "Pheng Xat Lao "Pheng Sat Lāo" () is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that officially symbolizes a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often r ...
: According to the Lao Constitution, Buddhism is given special privilege in the country. The state respects and protects all the lawful activities of Buddhism. *
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...
: Government supports the re-emergence of Buddhism after 70 years of Communist Rule, as it is described as the traditional religion of the Mongols. Buddhist traditions are encouraged among the citizens. The Government contributed to the restoration of several Buddhist sites that are important religious, historical, and cultural centers. Ethnic Mongolian traditionalists declared that Buddhism is the "natural religion" of the country, followed by more than 93% of the population in various forms. *
Myanmar Myanmar, ); UK pronunciations: US pronunciations incl. . Note: Wikipedia's IPA conventions require indicating /r/ even in British English although only some British English speakers pronounce r at the end of syllables. As John C. Wells, John ...
: Section 361 of the
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
states that "The Union recognizes special position of Buddhism as the faith professed by the great majority of the citizens of the Union." *
Kalmykia Kalmykia (russian: Калмыкия, r=Kalmykiya, p=kɐlˈmɨkʲɪjə; xal-RU, Хальмг, ''Haľmg'' ), officially the Republic of Kalmykia,; xal-RU, Хальмг Таңһч, ''Haľmg Tañğç'' is a republic A republic () is a form o ...
is also sometimes called the Buddhist Republic. The Government supports Buddhism and also encourages Buddhist teachings and traditions. It also builds various Buddhist temples and sites. Various efforts are taken by the Government for the revival of Buddhism in the republic.


Christianity

The following states recognize some form of
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
as their state or official religion or recognize a special status for it (by denomination):


Catholicism

Jurisdictions where
Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...

Catholicism
has been established as a state or official religion: * : Article 75 of the Constitution of Costa Rica confirms that "The Catholic and Apostolic Religion is the religion of the State, which contributes to its maintenance, without preventing the free exercise in the Republic of other forms of worship that are not opposed to universal morality or good customs." * : The
Constitution of Liechtenstein The Constitution of Liechtenstein was Promulgation, promulgated on 5 October 1921, replacing the 1862 Constitution of Liechtenstein, 1862 constitution. It was granted by Johann II, Prince of Liechtenstein, and established the rule of partial parli ...
describes the Catholic Church as the state religion and enjoying "the full protection of the State". The constitution does however ensure that people of other faiths "shall be entitled to practise their creeds and to hold religious services to the extent consistent with morality and public order". (archived fro
the original
on 2009-03-26).
* : Article 2 of the
Constitution of Malta The current Constitution of Malta ( mt, Konstituzzjoni ta' Malta) was adopted as a legal order on 21 September 1964, and is the self-declared supreme law of the land. Therefore, any law or action in violation of the Constitution is null and void. Be ...
declares that "the religion of Malta is the Catholic and Apostolic Religion". * : Article 9 of the
Constitution of Monaco The Constitution of Monaco, first adopted in 1911 after the Monégasque Revolution The Monégasque Revolution of 1910 was a series of confrontations by the subjects of Monaco Monaco (; ), officially the Principality of Monaco (french: Pr ...
describes the "Catholic, and apostolic religion" as the religion of the state. (French): Art. 9., Principaute De Monaco: Ministère d'Etat (archived fro
the original
on 2011-09-27).
* : It is an
elective Elective may refer to: *Choice, the mental process of judging the merits of multiple options and selecting one of them *Course (education)#Elective and required courses, Elective course in education **Elective (medical), a period of study forming p ...
,
theocratic Theocracy is a form of government in which one or more deities A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the . This term is attributed to , such as s, s, , and ...

theocratic
(or
sacerdotal Sacerdotalism, as discussed here, is the belief in some Christian churches that priests are meant to be mediators between God and humankind. The understanding of this mediation has undergone development over time and especially with the advent of mo ...
),
absolute monarchy Absolute monarchy (or absolutism as doctrine) is a form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme autocracy, autocratic authority, principally not being restricted by written laws, legislature, or customs. These are often hereditary monar ...
ruled by the
Pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

Pope
, who is also the
Vicar of Christ Vicar of Christ (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...
. The highest state functionaries are all
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic
clergy of various national origins. It is the sovereign territory of the
Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian ...
( la, Sancta Sedes) and the location of the Pope's official residence, referred to as the
Apostolic Palace The Apostolic Palace ( la, Palatium Apostolicum; it, Palazzo Apostolico) is the official residence An official residence is the House, residence of nation's head of state, head of government, governor, Clergy, religious leader, leaders of in ...

Apostolic Palace
. Jurisdictions that give various degrees of recognition in their constitutions to Roman Catholicism without establishing it as the State religion: * . * : Article 2 of the
Constitution of Argentina The Constitution of the Argentine Nation ( es, Constitución de la Nación Argentina) is the basic governing document of Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located most ...
explicitly states that the government supports the Roman Catholic Apostolic Faith, but the constitution does not establish a state religion. Before its 1994 amendment, the Constitution stated that the President of the Republic must be a Roman Catholic. * : While the Constitution of East Timor enshrines the principles of
freedom of religion Freedom of religion or religious liberty is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in ...
and
separation of church and state The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religi ...
in Section 45 Comma 1, it also acknowledges "the participation of the Catholic Church in the process of national liberation" in its preamble (although this has no legal value). * : Although Article 3 of the
Constitution of El Salvador The current constitution of El Salvador was enacted in 1983 and amended in 2003. The 1983 constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, orga ...
states that "no restrictions shall be established that are based on differences of nationality, race, sex or religion", Article 26 states that the state recognizes the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
and gives it legal preference. * : The
Constitution of Guatemala The Constitution of Guatemala is the supreme law of the Republic of Guatemala. It sets the bases for the organization of Guatemalan government and it outlines the three main branches of Guatemalan government: executive branch, legislative branch, ...
recognises the juridical personality of the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
. Other churches, cults, entities, and associations of religious character will obtain the recognition of their juridical personality in accordance with the rules of their institution. * : The
Constitution of Italy The Constitution of the Italian Republic ( it, Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana) was enacted by the Constituent Assembly A constituent assembly (also known as a constitutional convention, constitutional congress, or constitutional assem ...
does not establish a state religion, but recognizes the state and the Catholic Church as "independent and sovereign, each within its own sphere". The Constitution additionally reserves to the Catholic faith singular position in regard to the organization of worship, as opposed to all other confessions. * : The
Constitution of Panama Panama Panama ( , ; es, link=no, Panamá ), officially the Republic of Panama ( es, República de Panamá), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of ...
recognizes Catholicism as "the religion of the majority" of citizens but does not designate it as the official state religion. * : The
Constitution of Paraguay The Republic of Paraguay is governed under the constitution of 1992, which is the country's sixth since independence from Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_co ...
recognizes the Catholic Church's role in the nation's
historical History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study and the documentation of the past. Events before the History of writing#Inventions of writing, invention of writing systems a ...
and
cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling diff ...
formation. * : The Constitution of Peru recognizes the Catholic Church as an important element in the History of Peru, historical, Culture of Peru, cultural, and moral formation of Peru and lends it its cooperation. * . * : The Constitution of Spain of 1978 abolished
Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...

Catholicism
as the official state religion, while recognizing the role it plays in Spanish society.


Eastern Orthodoxy

* : The Church of Greece is recognized by the Greek Constitution as the prevailing religion in Greece
The Constitution of Greece: Section II Relations of Church and State: Article 3
Hellenic Resources network
and is the only country in the world where Eastern Orthodoxy is clearly recognized as a state religion. However, this provision does not give exclusivity of worship to the Church of Greece, while all other religions are recognized as equal and may be practised freely.
The Constitution of Greece: Part Two Individual and Social Rights: Article 13
The jurisdictions below give various degrees of recognition in their constitutions to Eastern Orthodoxy, but without establishing it as the state religion: * : In the Bulgarian Constitution, the Bulgarian Orthodox Church is recognized as "the traditional religion" of the Bulgarian people, but the state itself remains secular. * : The Constitution of Cyprus states: "The Autocephalous Greek Orthodoxy, Greek-Orthodox Church of Cyprus shall continue to have the exclusive right of regulating and administering its own internal affairs and property in accordance with the Holy Canons and its Charter in force for the time being and the Greek Communal Chamber shall not act inconsistently with such right." * : Both the Finnish Orthodox Church and the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland are "national churches".Finland – Constitution
Section 76 The Church Act, http://servat.unibe.ch/icl/fi00000_.html.
* : The Georgian Orthodox Church has a constitutional agreement with the state, the constitution recognising "the special role of the Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church of Georgia in the history of Georgia and its independence from the state". (See also Concordat of 2002)


Protestantism

The following states recognize some form of Protestantism as their state or official religion:


=Anglicanism

= The Anglican
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
is the established church in England as well as all three of the Crown dependencies: * : The
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
is the established church in England, but not in the United Kingdom as a whole. It is the only established Anglican church worldwide. The Anglican Church in Wales, the Scottish Episcopal Church and the
Church of Ireland The Church of Ireland ( ga, Eaglais na hÉireann, ; sco, label=Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ul ...
are not established churches and they are independent of the Church of England. The British monarchy, British monarch is the titular Supreme Governor of the Church of England. The 26 most senior bishops in the Church of England are Lords Spiritual and have seats in the House of Lords of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. * : The
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
is the established church in the Bailiwick of Guernsey, and the leader of the Church of England in the territory is the Dean of Guernsey. * : The
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
is the established church on the Isle of Man. The Bishop of Sodor and Man is an ex officio member of the Legislative Council of the Isle of Man, Legislative Council of the upper house of the Tynwald. * : The
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
is the established church in Bailiwick of Jersey, Jersey, and the leader of the church on the island is the Dean of Jersey, a non-voting member of the States of Jersey.


=Calvinism

= * : The
Church of Scotland The Church of Scotland (CoS; sco, The Scots Kirk; gd, Eaglais na h-Alba), also known by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis ...

Church of Scotland
is the national church of Scotland, but not the United Kingdom as a whole. Whilst it is the national church, it 'is not State controlled' and the monarch is not the 'supreme governor' as in the Church of England. * : The Church of Tuvalu is the state religion, although in practice this merely entitles it to "the privilege of performing special services on major national events". The Constitution of Tuvalu guarantees freedom of religion, including the freedom to practice, the freedom to change religion, the right not to receive religious instruction at school or to attend religious ceremonies at school, and the right not to "take an oath or make an affirmation that is contrary to his religion or belief".


=Lutheranism

= Jurisdictions where a Lutheranism, Lutheran church has been fully or partially established as a state recognized religion include the Nordic countries. * : Section 4 of the Constitution of Denmark confirms the Church of Denmark as the established church.Denmark – Constitution
Section 4 State Church
International Constitutional Law
** : The Church of the Faroe Islands is the state church of the Faroe Islands, an autonomous administrative division within the The unity of the Realm, Danish Realm. ** : The Church of Denmark is the state church of Greenland, an autonomous administrative division within the Danish Realm. * : The Constitution of Iceland confirms the Church of Iceland as the state church of Iceland.Constitution of the Republic of Iceland
Article 62
Government of Iceland
*: The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland has a special relationship with the Finnish state, its internal structure being described in a special law, the Church Act. The Church Act can be amended only by a decision of the synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church and subsequent ratification by the Parliament of Finland. The Church Act is protected by the Constitution of Finland and the state cannot change the Church Act without changing the constitution. The church has the power to tax its members. The state collects these taxes for the church, for a fee. On the other hand, the church is required to give a burial place for everyone in its graveyards. The President of Finland also decides the themes for intercession days. The church does not consider itself a state church, as the Finnish state does not have the power to influence its internal workings or its theology, although it has a veto in those changes of the internal structure which require changing the Church Act. Neither does the Finnish state accord any precedence to Lutherans or the Lutheran faith in its own acts. *: The Church of Norway is described in the English version of the Norwegian Constitution as the "Established Church" in Article 16. The Norwegian translation uses the term folkekirke or "people's church" which is the same term used for the Church of Denmark in the Danish Constitution. Since 2017, the Church of Norway has been fully independent of any state control. Lutheranism is not deemed the 'state religion'. However, article 16 of the Constitution requires that the state support the Church of Norway and Article 4 requires that the Norwegian monarch be a member of it. *: The Church of Sweden was the state church of Sweden between 1527 when king Gustav Vasa broke all ties with Rome and 2000 when the state officially became secular. Much like in Finland, it does have a special relation to the Swedish state unlike any other religious organizations. For example, there is a special law that regulates certain aspects of the church and the members of the royal family are required to belong to it in order to have a claim to the line of succession. A majority of the population still belongs to the church of Sweden.


Other/Mixed

* : The
Armenian Apostolic Church , native_name_lang = hy , icon = Armenian Apostolic Church logo.png , icon_width = 100px , icon_alt = , image = Էջմիածնի_Մայր_Տաճար.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , al ...
has a constitutional agreement with the Armenia, State: "The Republic of Armenia shall recognise the exclusive mission of the Armenian Apostolic Holy Church, as a national church, in the spiritual life of the Armenian people, in the development of their national culture and preservation of their national identity." * : The constitution of the Dominican Republic specifies that there is no state church and provides for freedom of religion and belief. A concordat with the
Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian ...
designates Catholicism as the official religion and extends special privileges to the Catholic Church not granted to other religious groups. These include the legal recognition of church law, use of public funds to underwrite some church expenses, and complete exoneration from customs duties. * : The local law in Alsace-Moselle accords official status to four religions in this specific region of France: Judaism, Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism and Calvinism. The law is a remnant of the Napoleonic Concordat of 1801, which was abrogated in the rest of France by the 1905 French law on the separation of Church and State, law of 1905 on the
separation of church and state The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religi ...
. However, at the time, Alsace-Moselle had been Alsace-Lorraine, annexed by Germany. The Concordat, therefore, remained in force in these areas, and it was not abrogated when France regained control of the region in 1918. Therefore, the separation of church and state, part of the French concept of Laïcité, does not apply in this region. * : While Catholicism has not been the state religion since 1987, a 19th-century concordat with the
Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian ...
continues to confer preferential treatment to the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
, in the form of stipends for clergy and financial support to churches and religious schools. The Catholic Church also retains the right to appoint certain amounts of clergy in Haiti without the government's consent.
International Religious Freedom Report 2017 Haiti
', US State Department, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.
* : The preamble to the Constitution of Hungary, Hungarian Constitution of 2011 describes Hungary as "part of Christian Europe" and acknowledges "the role of Christianity in preserving nationhood", while Article VII provides that "the State shall cooperate with the Churches for community goals." However, the constitution also guarantees freedom of religion and separation of church and state. * : Although Church and State are formally separate, the Catholic Church in Portugal still receives certain privileges. * : In June 2017, Parliament voted to amend the wording of Article1 of the constitution, thereby making Christianity the state religion. Part 1, Section (1)(3) reads "Samoa is a Christian nation founded on God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit." The status of the religion had previously only been mentioned in the preamble, which Prime Minister Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi considered legally inadequate. * : The preamble to the Constitution of Zambia, Zambian Constitution of 1991 declares Zambia to be "a Christian nation", while also guaranteeing freedom of religion.


Hinduism

* Hinduism in Nepal, Nepal: The constitution of Nepal affords some special rights to Hindu practice. In the Constitution of Nepal, constitution, the republic of Nepal is officially defined as a secular nation but secularism is defined as "protection of age old religion and culture" which in Nepali language, Nepali translates to Sanātana Dharma or Hinduism. Further pro-Hindu laws exist such as beef#Legal prohibition, national ban on cow slaughter and Freedom of religion in Nepal, laws prohibiting proselytization.


Islam

Many List of Muslim-majority countries, Muslim-majority countries have constitutionally established Islam, or a specific form of it, as a state religion. Proselytism (converting people to another religion) is often illegal in such states. * Islam in Afghanistan, Afghanistan: Article 2 of the Constitution of Afghanistan, constitution of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan: "The sacred religion of Islam is the religion of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan." Officially, Afghanistan has continuously been an Islamic state under various constitutions since at least 1987. * Islam in Algeria, Algeria: Article 2 of the Algerian Constitution of 2016: "Islam shall be the religion of the State." * Islam in Bahrain, Bahrain: Article 2 of the Constitution of Bahrain: "The religion of the State is Islam." * Islam in Bangladesh, Bangladesh: In the Constitution of Bangladesh, Islam is referred to twice in the introduction and Part I of the constitution. The document begins with the Islamic phrase بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم which in English is translated as “In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful” and article (2A) declares that :"Islam is the state religion of the republic". Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina has stated that Bangladesh will be governed in line with the spirit of the Constitution of Medina. However, Secularism is one of the four fundamental principles according to the original 1972 Constitution of Bangladesh and in 2010, Bangladesh Supreme Court have restored it, but it has also uphold Islam as the state religion of republic, leading to a huge controversy regarding the country's foundation as because Bangladesh was founded on the basis of Bengali nationalism. The United Nations categorizes Bangladesh as a moderate democratic "Muslim country". * Islam in Brunei, Brunei: Article 3 of the Constitution of Brunei: "The official religion of Brunei Darussalam shall be the Islamic Religion..." * Islam in Comoros, Comoros: Preamble to the 2001 Constitution of the Comoros: "...to draw from Islam, the religion of the state..." * Islam in Djibouti, Djibouti: Article 1 of the Constitution of Djibouti: "Islam is the Religion of the State." * Islam in Egypt, Egypt: Article 2 of the Egyptian Constitution of 2014: "Islam is the religion of the State". * Islam in Iran, Iran: Article 12 of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Constitution of Iran: "The official religion of Iran is Islam and the Twelver Ja'fari jurisprudence, Ja'farî school [in usul al-Dîn and fiqh], and this principle will remain eternally immutable." Islam has been Iran's state religion since 1501 dating back to the Safavid dynasty and has continued ever since, excluding the period of breaks in the Pahlavi dynasty. * Islam in Iraq, Iraq: Article 2 of the Constitution of Iraq: "Islam is the official religion of the State and is a foundation source of legislation..." * Islam in Jordan, Jordan: Article 2 of the Constitution of Jordan: "Islam is the religion of the State and Arabic is its official language." * Islam in Kuwait, Kuwait: Article 2 of the Constitution of Kuwait: "The religion of the State is Islam and Islamic Law shall be a main source of legislation." * Islam in Libya, Libya: Article 1 of the Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration: "Islam is the Religion of the State and the principal source of legislation is Islamic Jurisprudence (Shari'a)." * Islam in Malaysia, Malaysia: Article 11 of the Constitution of Malaysia: "Islam is the religion of the Federation; but other religions may be practised in peace and harmony in any part of the Federation." * Islam in the Maldives, Maldives: Article 10 of the Constitution of the Maldives, Maldives's Constitution of 2008: "The religion of the State of the Maldives is Islam. Islam shall be the one of the bases of all the laws of the Maldives." * Islam in Mauritania, Mauritania: Article 5 of the Constitution of Mauritania: "Islam is the religion of the people and of the State." * Islam in Morocco, Morocco: Article 3 of the Constitution of Morocco: "Islam is the religion of the State, which guarantees to all the free exercise of beliefs [cultes]." * Islam in Oman, Oman: Article 2 of the Constitution of Oman: "The religion of the State is Islam and Islamic Sharia is the basis for legislation." * Islam in Pakistan, Pakistan: Article 2 of the Constitution of Pakistan: "Islam shall be the State religion of Pakistan." * Islam in Palestine, Palestine: Article 4 of the Palestine Basic Law, Basic Law of the State of Palestine: "Islam is the official religion in Palestine. Respect and sanctity of all other heavenly religions shall be maintained."Mideastweb website
* Islam in Qatar, Qatar: Article 1 of the Constitution of Qatar: "Qatar is an independent sovereign Arab State. Its religion is Islam and Shari'a law shall be a main source of its legislations." * Islam in Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabia: Article 1 of the Basic Law of Saudi Arabia: "The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a sovereign Arab Islamic State. Its religion is Islam." * : Article 2 of Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic declares that Islam is the state religion and law origin. * Islam in Somalia, Somalia: Article 2 of the Constitution of Somalia, Provisional Constitution of the Federal Republic of Somalia: "Islam is the religion of the State." * Islam in Tunisia, Tunisia: Article 1 and 6 of the Tunisian Constitution of 2014: "Tunisia is a free, independent, sovereign state; its religion is Islam (...) The state is the guardian of religion. It guarantees freedom of conscience and belief, the free exercise of religious practices and the neutrality of mosques and places of worship from all partisan instrumentalisation." * Islam in the United Arab Emirates, United Arab Emirates: Article 7 of the Constitution of the United Arab Emirates: "Islam shall be the official religion of the Union." * Islam in Yemen, Yemen: Article 2 of the Constitution of Yemen: "Islam is the religion of the state, and Arabic is its official language." In some countries, Islam is not recognized as a state religion, but holds special status: * Islam in Tajikistan, Tajikistan: Although there is a separation of religion from politics, certain aspects of law also privilege Islam. One such law declares "Islam to be a traditional religion of Tajikistan, with more rights and privileges given to Islamic organizations than to religious groups of non-Muslim origin". * Islam in Turkey, Turkey: The Republic of Turkey is officially a Secularism in Turkey, secular country. The first signs of secularism date back to the reforms in the 1700s' Ottoman Empire. Although the current governing party has a close affinity with Sunni Islam, the latest Constitution of Turkey, Constitution of 1982 neither recognizes an official religion nor promotes any. The Directorate of Religious Affairs, an official state institution established by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in 1924, expresses opinions on religious matters and is responsible for all administration of the Sunni Islam, Sunni institutions. * Islam in Turkmenistan, Turkmenistan: The Constitution claims to uphold a secular system in which religious and state institutions are separate. However, in Turkmenistan, the state actively privileges a form of traditional Islam. The culture, including Islam, is a key facet, contributes to the Turkmen national identity. The state encourages the conceptualization of “Turkmen Islam”. * Islam in Uzbekistan, Uzbekistan: Since independence, Islam has taken on an altogether new role in the nation-building process in Uzbekistan. The government affords Islam in special status and declared it as a national heritage and a moral guideline.


Status of religion in Israel

* is defined in several of its laws as a "Jewish and democratic state" (''medina yehudit ve-demokratit''). However, the term "Jewish" is a Polysemy, polyseme that can describe the Jewish people Who is a Jew?, as either an ethnic or a religious group. The debate about the meaning of the term "Jewish" and its legal and social applications is one of the most profound issues with which Israeli society deals. The problem of the status of religion in Israel, even though it is relevant to all religions, usually refers to the status of Judaism in Israeli society. Thus, even though from a constitutional point of view Judaism is not the state religion in Israel, its status nevertheless determines relations between religion and state and the extent to which religion influences the political centre. The State of Israel supports religious institutions, particularly Orthodox Judaism, Orthodox Jewish ones, and recognizes the "religious communities" as carried over from those recognized under the British Mandate—in turn derived from the pre-1917 Ottoman system of ''Millet (Ottoman Empire), millets''. These are Jewish and Christian (Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox, Latin Catholic, Gregorian-Armenian, Armenian Catholic Church, Armenian-Catholic, Syriac Catholic Church, Syriac Catholic, Chaldean Catholic Church, Chaldean, Melkite Greek Catholic Church, Melkite Catholic, Maronites, Maronite Catholic, and Syriac Orthodox Church, Syriac Orthodox). The fact that the Muslim population was not defined as a religious community does not affect the rights of the Muslim community to practice their faith. At the end of the period covered by the 2009 U.S. International Religious Freedom Report, several of these denominations were pending official government recognition; however, the Government has allowed adherents of not officially recognized groups the freedom to practice. In 1961, legislation gave Muslim Shari'a courts exclusive jurisdiction in matters of personal status. Three additional religious communities have subsequently been recognized by Israeli law: the Druze (prior under Islamic jurisdiction), the Evangelical Episcopal Church, and followers of the Baháʼí Faith. These groups have their own religious courts as official state courts for personal status matters (see Millet (Ottoman Empire), millet system). The structure and goals of the Chief Rabbinate of Israel are governed by Israeli law, but the law does not say explicitly that it is a state Rabbinate. However, outspoken Israeli secularists such as Shulamit Aloni and Uri Avnery have long maintained that it is that in practice. Non-recognition of other streams of Judaism such as Reform Judaism and Conservative Judaism is the cause of some controversy; rabbis belonging to these currents are not recognized as such by state institutions and marriages performed by them are not recognized as valid. As pointed out by Avnery and Aloni, the essential problem is that Israel carries on the top-down Ottoman ''millet'' system, under which the government reserves the complete discretion of recognizing some religious groups and not recognizing others. marriage in Israel provides no provision for civil marriage, marriage between people of different religions, marriages by people who do not belong to one of nine recognised religious communities, or same-sex marriages, although there is recognition of marriages performed abroad.


Political religions

In some countries, there is a List of political ideologies, political ideology sponsored by the government that may be called political religion. * has promulgated ''Juche'' as a political alternative to traditional religion. The doctrine advocates a strong nationalist propaganda basis and it is fundamentally opposed to Christianity and Buddhism, the two largest religions on the Korean peninsula. ''Juche'' theoreticians have, however, incorporated religious ideas into the state ideology. According to government figures, ''Juche'' is the largest political religion in North Korea. The public practice of all other religions is overseen and subject to heavy surveillance by the state.


Additional notes

* : The government of China officially espouses
state atheism State atheism is the incorporation of positive atheism or non-theism Nontheism or non-theism is a range of both religious and nonreligious attitudes characterized by the absence of espoused belief in a God God, in monotheistic thought, ...
, and officially recognizes only five religions: Chinese Buddhism, Buddhism, Taoism in China, Taoism, Islam in China, Islam, Catholic Church in China, Catholicism, and Protestantism in China, Protestantism. Despite limitations on certain forms of religious expression and assembly, religion is not banned, and religious freedom is nominally protected under the Chinese constitution. Among the general Chinese population, there are a wide variety of religious practices. The Chinese government's attitude to religion is one of skepticism and non-promotion. * is officially a republic with a compromise made between the ideas of a secular state and an Islamic state, and does not declare or designate a state religion. Officially, Government of Indonesia, the government only recognizes six religions: Islam in Indonesia, Islam, Protestantism in Indonesia, Protestantism, Catholic Church in Indonesia, Catholicism, Buddhism in Indonesia, Buddhism, Hinduism in Indonesia, Hinduism and Confucianism in Indonesia, Confucianism. Pancasila (politics), Pancasila comes from the Jakarta Charter whose first article was changed to "Divinity, with the obligation to carry out Islamic law for its adherents" which was changed to "the One Divinity", to respect other religions, The Constitution of Indonesia guarantees freedom of religion and the practice of other religions and beliefs, including the Animism, animistic indigenous ones, is not prohibited by any laws. Indonesians who are practicing traditional polytheistic and animists as well as Sikhism, Sikhs and Jainism, Jains are often counted as "Hindu" for governmental purposes. Atheism in Indonesia, Atheism, although not prosecuted, is discouraged by the state ideology of ''Pancasila (politics), Pancasila''. In addition, the province of Aceh receives a special status and a higher degree of autonomy, in which it may enact laws (''Qanun (law), qanuns'') based on the Sharia and enforce it, especially to its Muslim residents. * : There are 18 officially recognized religious groups in Lebanon, each with its own family law legislation and set of religious courts. Under the terms of an agreement known as the National Pact between the various political and religious leaders of Lebanon, the List of Presidents of Lebanon, president of the country must be a Maronite Christianity in Lebanon, Maronite, the Prime Minister of Lebanon, Prime Minister must be a Lebanese Sunni Muslims, Sunni, and the List of Speakers of the Parliament of Lebanon, Speaker of Parliament must be a Lebanese Shia Muslims, Shia. * is a secular state, but the Grand Duchy recognises and supports several denominations, including the Catholic Church in Luxembourg, Catholic Church, Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Romanian Orthodox, Serbian Orthodox, Anglican and some Protestantism in Luxembourg, Protestantism denominations as well as to Judaism, Jewish congregations. * : Though a secular state under the constitution, Russia is often said to have Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodoxy as the ''de facto'' national religion, despite other minorities: "The Russian Orthodox Church is de facto privileged religion of the state, claiming the right to decide which other religions or denominations are to be granted the right of registration". * is officially a secular country and does not have a state religion, and has been named in one study as the "most religiously diverse nation in the world", with no religious group forming a majority. However, the government gives official recognition to ten different religions, namely Buddhism in Singapore, Buddhism, Christianity in Singapore, Christianity, Islam in Singapore, Islam, Hinduism in Singapore, Hinduism, Taoism in Singapore, Taoism, Sikhism in Singapore, Sikhism, History of the Jews in Singapore, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Jainism in Singapore, Jainism, and the Baháʼí Faith, and Singapore's penal code explicitly prohibits "wounding religious feelings". The Jehovah's Witnesses and Unification Church are also banned in Singapore, as the government deems them to be a threat to national security. * is officially secular at the federal level but 24 of the 26 cantons support both the Swiss Reformed Church and the Roman Catholic Church in various ways. * is officially atheist (although sometimes also referred as atheist-Buddhist), but recognizes only 38 religious organizations and one ''dharma'' practice.


Former state religions


Pre-modern era


Egypt and Sumer

The concept of state religions was known as long ago as the empires of Egypt and Sumer, when every city state or people had its own god or gods. Many of the early Sumerian rulers were priests of their patron city god. Some of the earliest semi-mythological kings may have passed into the pantheon, like Dumuzid the Shepherd, Dumuzid, and some later kings came to be viewed as divine soon after their reigns, like Sargon the Great of Akkadian Empire, Akkad. One of the first rulers to be proclaimed a god during his actual reign was Gudea of Lagash, followed by some later kings of Ur, such as Shulgi. Often, the state religion was integral to the power base of the reigning government, such as in Egypt, where Pharaohs were often thought of as embodiments of the god Horus.


Sassanid Empire

Zoroastrianism was the state religion of the Sassanid dynasty which lasted until 651, when Persia was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate. However, it persisted as the state religion of the independent state of Hyrcania until the 15th century. The small kingdom of Adiabene in northern Mesopotamia converted to Judaism around 34 CE.


Greek city-states

Many of the Greek city-states also had a favored national god or goddess associated with that city. This would not be its only god or goddess, but the one that received special honors. In ancient Greece, the cities of *Athens had Athena, *Sparta had Ares, *Delphi had Apollo and Artemis, *Olympia, Greece, Olympia had Zeus, *Corinth had Poseidon, *Thebes, Greece, Thebes had Demeter, *Troy had Aphrodite and Apollo.


Roman religion and Christianity

In Rome, the office of ''Pontifex Maximus'' came to be reserved for the Emperor, who was occasionally Apotheosis, declared a god posthumously, or sometimes during his reign. Failure to worship the Emperor as a god was at times punishable by death, as the Roman government sought to link emperor worship with loyalty to the Empire. Many Christians and Jews were subject to persecution, torture and death in the Roman Empire because it was against their beliefs to worship the Emperor. In 311, Emperor Galerius, on his deathbed, declared a religious indulgence to Christians throughout the Roman Empire, focusing on the ending of anti-Christian persecution. Constantine I and Licinius, the two ''Augustus (title), Augusti'', by the Edict of Milan of 313, enacted a law allowing religious freedom to everyone within the Roman Empire. Furthermore, the Edict of Milan cited that Christians may openly practice their religion unmolested and unrestricted, and provided that properties taken from Christians be returned to them unconditionally. Although the Edict of Milan allowed religious freedom throughout the Empire, it did not abolish nor disestablish the Roman state cult (Roman polytheistic paganism). The Edict of Milan was written in such a way as to implore the blessings of the deity. Constantine called up the First Council of Nicaea in 325, although he was not a baptised Christian until years later. Despite enjoying considerable popular support, Christianity was still not the official state religion in Rome, although it was in some neighbouring states such as Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity), Armenia, Kingdom of Iberia (antiquity), Iberia, and Kingdom of Aksum, Aksum. Religion in ancient Rome, Roman Religion (Neoplatonic Religion in ancient Greece, Hellenism) was restored for a time by the Emperor Julian (emperor), Julian from 361 to 363. Julian does not appear to have reinstated the persecutions of the earlier Roman emperors. Catholic Christianity, as opposed to Arianism and other ideologies deemed heresy, heretical, was declared to be the State church of the Roman Empire, state religion of the Roman Empire on 27 February 380 by the decree ''Edict of Thessalonica, De fide catolica'' of Emperor Theodosius I.


Han dynasty Confucianism

In China, the Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) advocated Confucianism as the ''de facto'' state religion, establishing tests based on Confucian texts as an entrance requirement into government service—although, in fact, the "Confucianism" advocated by the Han emperors may be more properly termed a sort of Confucian Legalism (Chinese philosophy), Legalism or "State Confucianism". This sort of Confucianism continued to be regarded by the emperors, with a few notable exceptions, as a form of state religion from this time until the 1911 Revolution, collapse of the Monarchy of China, Chinese monarchy in 1912. Note, however, there is a debate over whether Confucianism (including Neo-Confucianism) is a religion or purely a philosophical system.


Yuan dynasty Buddhism

During the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty of China (1271–1368 CE), Tibetan Buddhism was established as the ''de facto'' state religion by the Kublai Khan, the founder of the Yuan dynasty. The top-level department and government agency known as the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs (Xuanzheng Yuan) was set up in Khanbaliq (modern Beijing) to supervise Buddhist monks throughout the empire. Since Kublai Khan only esteemed the Sakya sect of Tibetan Buddhism, other religions became less important. Before the end of the Yuan dynasty, 14 leaders of the Sakya sect had held the post of Imperial Preceptor (Dishi), thereby enjoying special power.


Golden Horde and Ilkhanate

Shamanism and
Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and ...

Buddhism
were once the dominant religions among the ruling class of the Mongol khanates of Golden Horde and Ilkhanate, the two western khanates of the Mongol Empire. In the early days, the rulers of both khanates increasingly adopted Tibetan Buddhism, similar to the Yuan dynasty at that time. However, the Mongol rulers Ghazan of Ilkhanate and Öz Beg Khan, Uzbeg of Golden Horde converted to
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
in 1295 CE because of the Muslim Mongol emir Nawrūz (Mongol emir), Nawruz and in 1313 CE because of Sufi Bukharan sayyid and sheikh Ibn Abdul Hamid respectively. Their official favoring of Islam as the state religion coincided with a marked attempt to bring the regime closer to the non-Mongol majority of the regions they ruled. In Ilkhanate, Christians, Christian and Jewish subjects lost their equal status with Muslims and again had to pay the poll tax; Buddhists had the starker choice of conversion or expulsion. In Golden Horde, Buddhism and Shamanism among the Mongols were proscribed, and by 1315, Uzbeg had successfully Islamicized the Horde, killing Jochid princes and Buddhist lamas who opposed his religious policy and succession of the throne.


Modern era

* : From 1862 to 1893 the Church of Hawaii, an Anglican body, was the official state and national church of the Kingdom of Hawaii. * : Article 133 of the 1814 Constitution of the Netherlands, Constitution stipulated the King of the Netherlands, Sovereign Prince should be a member of the Dutch Reformed Church, Reformed Church; this provision was dropped in the 1815 Constitution. The 1815 Constitution also provided for a state salary and pension for the priesthood of established religions at the time (Protestantism, Catholicism and Judaism). This settlement, nicknamed ''de zilveren koorde'' (the silver cord), was abolished in 1983. * was the world's only Hindu state until 2015, when the new constitution declared it a secular state. Proselytizing remains illegal. * : see details in the State Shintō article. * had Islam in Sudan, Islam as the official religion during the rule of Omar al-Bashir according to the Constitution of Sudan of 2005. It was declared a secular state in September 2020.


Former state churches in British North America


=Protestant colonies

= * The colonies of Plymouth Colony, Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay Colony, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut Colony, Connecticut, New Haven Colony, New Haven, and Province of New Hampshire, New Hampshire were founded by Puritan Calvinist Protestants, and had Congregational church, Congregational established churches. * The colonies of Province of New York, New York, Colony of Virginia, Virginia, Province of North Carolina, North Carolina, Province of South Carolina, South Carolina, and Province of Georgia, Georgia maintained the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
as the established church. * The Colony of Maryland was founded by a charter granted in 1632 to George Calvert, secretary of state to Charles I, and his son Cecil, both recent converts to Roman Catholicism. Under their leadership, many English Catholic gentry families settled in Maryland. However, the colonial government was officially neutral in religious affairs, granting toleration to all Christian groups and enjoining them to avoid actions which antagonized the others. On several occasions, low-church dissenters led insurrections which temporarily overthrew the Calvert rule. In 1689, when William and Mary Glorious Revolution, came to the English throne, they acceded to demands to revoke the original royal charter. In 1701, the Church of England was proclaimed, and in the course of the 18th century Maryland Catholics were first barred from public office, then disenfranchised, although not all of the laws passed against them (notably laws restricting property rights and imposing penalties for sending children to be educated in foreign Catholic institutions) were enforced, and some Catholics even continued to hold public office. * When Spanish Florida was ceded to Great Britain in 1763, the British divided Florida into two colonies, East and West Florida, which both continued a policy of toleration for the Catholic residents, but established the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
as the state church. * When New France was transferred to Great Britain in 1763, the Roman Catholic Church remained under toleration, but Huguenots were allowed entrance where they had formerly been banned from settlement by Parisian authorities.


=Colonies with no established church

= * The Province of Pennsylvania was founded by Religious Society of Friends, Quakers, but the colony never had an established church. * The Province of New Jersey, without official religion, had a significant Quaker lobby, but Calvinists of all types also had a presence. * Delaware Colony had no established church, but was contested between Catholics and Quakers. * The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, founded by religious dissenters forced to flee the Massachusetts Bay colony, is widely regarded as the first polity to grant religious freedom to all its citizens, although Catholics were barred intermittently. Baptists, Seekers/Quakers and Jews made this colony their home. The Rhode Island Royal Charter, King Charles Charter of 1663 guaranteed "full liberty in religious concernments".


=Tabular summary

=


Non-British colonies

These areas were disestablished and dissolved, yet their presences were tolerated by the English and later British colonial governments, as Foreign Protestants, whose communities were expected to observe their own ways without causing controversy or conflict for the prevalent colonists. After the Revolution, their ethno-religious backgrounds were chiefly sought as the most compatible non-British Isles immigrants. * New Netherland was founded by Dutch Reformed Calvinists. * New Sweden was founded by Church of Sweden Lutherans.


State of Deseret

The State of Deseret was a provisional U.S. state, state of the United States, proposed in 1849, by Mormon settlers in Salt Lake City. The provisional state existed for slightly over two years, but attempts to gain recognition by the United States government floundered for various reasons. The Utah Territory which was then founded was under Mormon control, and repeated attempts to gain statehood met resistance, in part due to concerns that the principle of separation of church and state conflicted with the practice of members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints placing their highest value on "following counsel" in virtually all matters relating to their church-centered lives. The state of Utah was eventually admitted to the union on 4January 1896, after the various issues had been resolved.Struggle For Statehood
Edward Leo Lyman, ''Utah History Encyclopedia''


Established churches and former state churches


Former religious states


Buddhism


Hinduism


Confucianism


Islam


Shinto


State atheism


See also

* Blasphemy law * Ceremonial deism * Church tax * Civil religion * Confessional state * Divine rule * Elite religion * Institutional theory * Major religious groups * Nonsectarian * Religious education * Religious toleration * Secular religion * Secularism * Secularity * Secularization * Separation of church and state * Sociology of religion * State atheism * Status of religious freedom by country * Secular State


Notes


References


Further reading

* Rowlands, John Henry Lewis (1989). ''Church, State, and Society, 1827–1845: the Attitudes of John Keble, Richard Hurrell Froude, and John Henry Newman''. Worthing, Eng.: P. Smith [of] Churchman Publishing; Folkestone, Eng.: distr.... by Bailey Book Distribution.


External links

* {{Authority control Religion and politics Separation of church and state Religious discrimination Religious policy