HOME
TheInfoList



A special municipality is an
administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for geographical areas into which a particular, ...
unit in the Republic of China (Taiwan). Under the administrative structure of the ROC, it is the highest rank of division and is equivalent to a province. Since the streamlining of provinces in 1998, the special municipalities along with provincial cities and counties have all been directly under the
central government A central government is the government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists o ...
. Currently there are six special municipalities under ROC's control:
Kaohsiung Kaohsiung City (; Mandarin Chinese: ; Wade–Giles: ''Kao¹-hsiung²'') is a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality in southern Taiwan. It ranges from the coastal urban centre to the rural Yushan Range with an area of . Kaoh ...
, New Taipei, Taichung,
Tainan Tainan, officially Tainan City, is a special municipality in southern Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the n ...
,
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially the Republic of China, ROC). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei City t ...
and Taoyuan.Atayal residents worried over Taoyuan's upgrade
/ref>


History

The first municipalities of China were established in 1927 soon after they were designated as "cities" during the 1920s. Nominally, Dairen was a municipality as well, although it was under Japanese control. It consisted of the original 11 cities of Nanking,
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four Direct-administered municipalities of China, direct-administered municipalities of the China, People's Republic of China, governed by the State Council o ...
, Peking (Peiping), Tientsin, Tsingtao,
Chungking Chongqing ( Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese, in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a Mandarin Chinese#Subgrouping, dialect of Mandarin that em ...
, Sian, Guangzhou, Canton, Hankou District, Hankow (now part of Wuhan), Shenyang, and Harbin. These cities were first called ''special municipalities/cities'' (), but were later renamed ''Executive Yuan, Yuan-controlled municipalities'' (). When the Geography of Taiwan, island of Taiwan (Formosa) was under Taiwan under Japanese rule, Japanese rule, it consisted of 11 cities. Following the end of World War II, the Republic of China (ROC) reclaimed Taiwan and no special municipalities were established although they became provincial cities, but Yilan City, Yilan and Hualien City, Hualien became the first two County-administered city, county-administered cities. After the fall of the mainland to the Communist Party of China in 1949, the Kuomintang-led government of the Republic of China lost the Chinese Civil War and was relocated to
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially the Republic of China, ROC). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei City t ...
, Taiwan Province, Taiwan. At this time all the special municipalities established in mainland China were lost. There were no special municipalities under the government's effective jurisdiction, in which the new authorities in the mainland replaced the Yuan-controlled municipalities with ''direct-controlled municipalities'' by the State Council of the People's Republic of China, PRC Central Government. In 1967,
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially the Republic of China, ROC). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei City t ...
City, the first special municipality in Taiwan was created. Taipei served as the capital of the country starting in 1949 and was also the most populous city. Territory of the
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially the Republic of China, ROC). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei City t ...
special municipality includes the original provincial Taipei City and 4 of its neighboring townships in Taipei County, including Neihu District, Neihu, Nangang District, Taipei, Nangang, Muzha District, Muzha and Jingmei District, Jingmei. In the next year, Shilin District, Shilin and Beitou District, Beitou of Yangmingshan Administrative Bureau (a County (Taiwan), county-equivalent administrative division) were also merged into
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially the Republic of China, ROC). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei City t ...
. In 1979, the major international port and industrial city in the southwest of the country —
Kaohsiung Kaohsiung City (; Mandarin Chinese: ; Wade–Giles: ''Kao¹-hsiung²'') is a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality in southern Taiwan. It ranges from the coastal urban centre to the rural Yushan Range with an area of . Kaoh ...
— were also upgraded to a special municipality. Territory of the
Kaohsiung Kaohsiung City (; Mandarin Chinese: ; Wade–Giles: ''Kao¹-hsiung²'') is a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality in southern Taiwan. It ranges from the coastal urban centre to the rural Yushan Range with an area of . Kaoh ...
special municipality includes the original provincial Kaohsiung City and Siaogang District, Siaogang Township in Kaohsiung County. At this time, Taiwan was under Martial law in Taiwan, martial law. All national and municipal level Elections in Taiwan, elections were suspended. The mayors of
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially the Republic of China, ROC). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of New Taipei City t ...
and
Kaohsiung Kaohsiung City (; Mandarin Chinese: ; Wade–Giles: ''Kao¹-hsiung²'') is a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality in southern Taiwan. It ranges from the coastal urban centre to the rural Yushan Range with an area of . Kaoh ...
were assigned by the Executive Yuan (central government), not by elections until 1994. For this reason the special municipalities were also called Yuan-controlled municipalities () at this period. Following the History of Taiwan#Democratic reforms, democratic reforms in the early 1990s, more thoughts of administrative division reform and reorganization were widely discussed. The ''Local Government Act'' () was passed by the Legislative Yuan (the Parliament) in 1999. This ''Act'' regulates the local self-governance bodies and came with some articles to deal with the possible changes of administrative divisions. In the ''Act'' also states that cities with population of over 1,250,000 and with significance on political, economic and cultural development may form a special municipality. The 2007 amendment of ''Local Government Act'' states that a County (Taiwan), county or Provincial city (Taiwan), city with population over two million may grant some extra privileges in local autonomy that was designed for special municipalities. This type of counties are often called quasi-municipalities (). Taipei County was the first division within this case. In 2009, another amendment of ''Local Government Act'' gave councils of counties and Provincial city (Taiwan), cities the right to file petitions to reform themselves into special municipalities. Four proposals were approved by the Executive Yuan in 2009 *
Kaohsiung Kaohsiung City (; Mandarin Chinese: ; Wade–Giles: ''Kao¹-hsiung²'') is a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality in southern Taiwan. It ranges from the coastal urban centre to the rural Yushan Range with an area of . Kaoh ...
: merged from Kaohsiung Special Municipality and Kaohsiung County * New Taipei City, New Taipei: reformed from New Taipei City, Taipei County * Taichung: merged from Taichung Provincial City and Taichung County *
Tainan Tainan, officially Tainan City, is a special municipality in southern Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the n ...
: merged from Tainan Provincial City and Tainan County The four newly created special municipalities were formally established on December 25, 2010 with the inauguration of the new mayors. In June 2010, the population of Taoyuan County, Taiwan, Taoyuan County also grew over 2 million and were qualified for being a quasi-municipality since 2011. The county government also sent a proposal to become a special municipality in 2012. Executive Yuan approved the proposal and the special municipality of Taoyuan were formally established on December 25, 2014. Currently, there are in total six special municipalities under the Government of the Republic of China, central government. The special municipalities cover the top five most populous List of metropolitan areas in Taiwan, metropolitan areas in Taiwan and over two thirds (2/3) of the national population.


Current Special Municipalities

There are currently six special municipalities: Their self-governed bodies (executive and legislature) regulated by the ''Local Government Act'' are: In Taiwanese municipalities, the mayor is the highest-ranking official in charge. The mayor is directly elected by the people registered in the municipality for a duration of four years.


See also

* Political divisions of Taiwan (1895–1945) * Cities designated by government ordinance of Japan * Direct-administered municipalities of China * Arrondissement, an equivalent type of urban district in some (mainly List of territorial entities where French is an official language, French-speaking) countries and territories


Notes


Words in native languages


References

{{Reflist Municipalities of Taiwan, Subdivisions of Taiwan Administrative divisions in Asia