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Welfare (or commonly, social welfare) is a type of government support intended to ensure that members of a society can meet
basic human needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs is an idea in psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconscious mind, unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought. It i ...

basic human needs
such as food and shelter. Social security may either be synonymous with welfare, or refer specifically to
social insurance Social insurance is a concept where the government intervenes in the insurance market to ensure that a group of individuals are insured or protected against the risk of any emergencies that lead to financial problems. This is done through a proc ...
programs which provide support only to those who have previously contributed (e.g. most pension systems), as opposed to ''social assistance'' programs which provide support on the basis of need alone (e.g. most disability benefits). The
International Labour Organization The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations am ...
defines social security as covering support for those in old age, support for the maintenance of children,
medical treatment Major trauma is any that has the potential to cause prolonged or . There are many causes of major trauma, and , including , s, , and s. Depending on the severity of injury, quickness of management, and transportation to an appropriate medical ...
,
parental A parent is a caregiver of the offspring In biology, offspring are the young born of living organism, organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms. Collective offspring may be known as a ...
and
sick leave Sick leave (or paid sick days or sick pay) is paid time off Paid time off, planned time off, or personal time off (PTO) is a policy in some employee handbooks that provides a bank of hours in which the employer pools sick days, vacation days, and ...
,
unemployment Unemployment, according to the (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), is people above a specified age (usually 15) not being in paid or but currently available for work during the . Unemployment is measured by the unemplo ...
and
disability benefits Disability benefits are funds provided from public or private sources to a person who is Illness, ill or who has a disability. United Kingdom In the United Kingdom disability benefits are covered by Department for Work and Pensions. There are num ...
, and support for sufferers of
occupational injury An occupational injury is bodily damage resulting from working. The most common organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on ma ...
. More broadly, welfare may also encompass efforts to provide a basic level of
well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudential value'' or ''quality of life'', refers to what is intrinsically valuable relative ''to'' someone. So the well-being of a person is what is ultimately good ''for'' this person, what is in the s ...
through free or
subsidized A subsidy or government incentive is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy. Although commonly extended from the government, the term ...

subsidized
''social services'' such as
healthcare Healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health Health, according to the World Health Organization, is "a state of complete physical, Mental health, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity".World ...
,
education Education is the process of facilitating , or the acquisition of , s, , morals, s, s, and personal development. Educational methods include , , , and directed . Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators; however, lea ...
,
vocational training OAC Vocational Educiation, 1922 (5857905487) Vocational education is education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal dev ...
and
public housing , Hong Kong. The Kin Ming Estate comprises ten housing blocks, providing housing for approximately 22,000 people. Nearly half of Hong Kong's 7.8 million population lives in public housing.
.''The New Fontana Dictionary of Modern Thought'' Third Edition (1999), Allan Bullock and Stephen Trombley Eds., p. 919. In a
welfare state The welfare state is a form of government in which the state (or a well-established network of social institutions) protects and promotes the economic and social well-being of its citizens, based upon the principles of equal opportunity Equal o ...
, the State assumes responsibility for the health, education, and welfare of society, providing a range of social services such as those described. The first codified universal government welfare was instituted in the 7th century (634 CE) in the time of the
Rashidun caliph , image = تخطيط كلمة الخلفاء الراشدون.png , caption = Calligraphic Calligraphy (from Greek language, Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a Visual arts, visual art related to writing. It is the design and executi ...
Umar ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb ( ar, عمر بن الخطاب; 3 November 644), also spelled Omar, was the second Rashidun caliph , image = تخطيط كلمة الخلفاء الراشدون.png , caption = Calligraphic Calligra ...

Umar
. The first welfare state was
Imperial Germany The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle Herbert Tuttle (1846–1894) was an American historian. Biography Herbert Tuttle was born in Bennington, Vermont Bennington is a New England town, town ...
(1871–1918), where the Bismarck government introduced social security in 1889. In the early 20th century, the United Kingdom introduced social security around 1913, and adopted the welfare state with the
National Insurance Act 1946 The National Insurance Act 1946 (c 67) was a British Act of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation, are texts of law passed by the Legislature, legislative body of a jurisdiction (often a parliament or council) ...
, during the
Attlee government Clement Attlee Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 18838 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955. He was Deputy Prime Minister during the ...

Attlee government
(1945–51). In the countries of western Europe, Scandinavia, and
Australasia Australasia is a region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. ...

Australasia
, social welfare is mainly provided by the government out of the national
tax revenue Tax revenue is the income Income is the consumption and saving opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, which is generally expressed in monetary terms.Smith's financial dictionary. Smith, Howard Irving. 1908. Income is define ...
s, and to a lesser extent by
non-government organizations upright=1.3, alt=A roomful of people, Europe-Georgia Institute head George Melashvili addresses the audience at the launch of the "Europe in a suitcase" project by two NGOs (the EGI and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation), which aims to increase ...

non-government organizations
(NGOs), and
charities A charitable organization or charity is an organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being (e.g. educational, religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, b ...
(social and religious). A
right to social securityThe right to social security is recognized as a human right and establishes the right to social security assistance for those unable to work due to sickness, disability, maternity, employment injury, unemployment or old age. Social security system ...
and an adequate standard of living is asserted in Articles 22 and 25 of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of the six p ...
.


History

In the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post- period of . As a it included large territorial holdings around the in , , and ruled by . From the t ...

Roman Empire
, the first emperor
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles througho ...

Augustus
provided the ''
Cura Annonae Cura Annonae ("care of Annona") was the term used in ancient Rome, in honour of their goddess annona (goddess), Annona, to describe the import and distribution of grain to the residents of the city of Rome. After the re-foundation of Byzantium by ...
'' or grain dole for citizens who could not afford to buy food every month. Social welfare was enlarged by the Emperor
Trajan Trajan ( ; la, Caesar Nerva Trajanus; 18 September 539/11 August 117) was from 98 to 117. Officially declared by the ''optimus princeps'' ("best ruler"), Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over the second-g ...

Trajan
. Trajan's program brought acclaim from many, including
Pliny the Younger Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo (61 – c. 113), better known as Pliny the Younger (), was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Rom ...

Pliny the Younger
. The
Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kuan ...
government (960 CE) supported multiple programs which could be classified as social welfare, including the establishment of retirement homes, public clinics, and paupers' graveyards. According to economist Robert Henry Nelson, "The
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...

medieval
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history ...

Roman Catholic Church
operated a far-reaching and comprehensive welfare system for the poor..." From the 14th century onward the governments of the
Italian city-states The Italian city-states were numerous political and independent territorial entities that existed in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of ...
began to partner with the church to provide welfare and education to the lower classes. In later Protestant European nations such as the
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was ...
welfare was managed by local
guild A guild is an association of artisan Wood carver in Bali An artisan (from french: artisan, it, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates material objects partly or entirely by hand. These objects may be functional ...
s until the abolition of the guild system in the early 19th century. In the free imperial cities of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Age ...
the city governments in cities like
Nuremberg Nuremberg ( ; german: link=no, Nürnberg ; in the local dialect: ''Nämberch'' ) is the second-largest city of the of after its capital , and its 518,370 (2019) inhabitants make it the in Germany. On the (from its with the in onwards: ...

Nuremberg
could take control of the collection and distribution of public welfare. The emergence of ''
Zakat Zakat ( ar, زكاة; , "that which purifies", also Zakat al-mal , "zakat on wealth", or Zakah) is a form of almsgiving Alms (, ) or almsgiving involves giving to others as an act of virtue, either materially or in the sense of providing cap ...

Zakat
'' (charity), one of the
Five Pillars of Islam 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era * 5 BC, the fifth year before the AD era Literature * 5 (visual novel), ''5'' (visual novel), a 2008 visual novel by Ram * 5 (comics ...

Five Pillars of Islam
as alms collected by the government, was the world's first instance of a codified universal social security tax, in the time of the
Rashidun caliph , image = تخطيط كلمة الخلفاء الراشدون.png , caption = Calligraphic Calligraphy (from Greek language, Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a Visual arts, visual art related to writing. It is the design and executi ...
Umar ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb ( ar, عمر بن الخطاب; 3 November 644), also spelled Omar, was the second Rashidun caliph , image = تخطيط كلمة الخلفاء الراشدون.png , caption = Calligraphic Calligra ...

Umar
in the 7th century (634 CE), and used to provide income for the needy, including the
poor Poverty is the state of not having enough material possessions or income Income is the consumption and saving opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, which is generally expressed in monetary terms.Smith's financial dictio ...

poor
,
elderly An elderly woman at a Ringing Cedars' settlement in Russia.">Russia.html" ;"title="Ringing Cedars' settlement in Russia">Ringing Cedars' settlement in Russia. Old age refers to ages nearing or surpassing the life expectancy of human beings, a ...
,
orphan An orphan (from the el, ορφανός, orphanós) is a child whose parents have died, are unknown, or have permanently abandoned them. In common usage, only a child who has lost both parents due to death is called an orphan. When referring ...

orphan
s,
widow A widow is a woman whose spouse A religious marriage. A spouse is a significant other in a marriage in Stockholm Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a culturally recognised union between people, called spouses, that est ...
s, and the disabled. According to the Islamic jurist
Al-Ghazali Al-Ghazali (, ; full name or , ; Latinized Algazelus or Algazel; – 19 December 1111) was a Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the ...

Al-Ghazali
(Algazel, 1058–111), the government was also expected to store up food supplies in every region in case a
disaster A disaster is a serious problem occurring over a short or long period of time that causes widespread human, material, economic or environmental loss which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. ...

disaster
or
famine A famine is a widespread scarcity of food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual con ...

famine
occurred.) (See
Bayt al-mal ''Bayt al-mal'' () is an Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, ...
for further information.) Likewise, in Jewish tradition, charity (represented by
tzedakah ''Tzedakah'' or ''Ṣedaqah'' ( he, צדקה ) is a Hebrew word meaning "righteousness", but commonly used to signify '. This concept of "charity" differs from the modern Western understanding of "charity." The latter is typically understood as ...
) is a matter of religious obligation rather than benevolence. Contemporary charity is regarded as a continuation of the
Biblical The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek ...

Biblical
Maaser Ani The poor tithe, or poor man's tithe (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelit ...
, or poor-
tithe A tithe (; from : ''teogoþa'' "tenth") is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory to government. Today, tithes are normally voluntary and paid in or s, whereas historically tithes were ...
, as well as Biblical practices, such as permitting the poor to glean the corners of a field and harvest during the
Shmita The sabbath year (shmita; he, שמיטה, literally "release"), also called the sabbatical year or ''shǝvi'it'' (, literally "seventh"), or "Sabbath of The Land", is the seventh year of the seven-year agricultural cycle mandated by the Torah ...
(Sabbatical year). There is relatively little
statistic A statistic (singular) or sample statistic is any quantity computed from values in a sample which is considered for a statistical purpose. Statistical purposes include estimating a population Population typically refers the number of people ...

statistic
al data on
transfer paymentIn macroeconomics Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix ''makro-'' meaning "large" + ''economics'') is a branch of economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (eco ...
s before the
High Middle Ages The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical c ...
. In the
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...

medieval
period and until the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
, the function of welfare payments in
Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of with both and , and is bordered by the to the ...

Europe
was achieved through private giving or
charity Charity may refer to: Giving * Charitable organization or charity, a non-profit organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being * Charity (practice), the practice of being benevolent, giving and sharing * Charity (virtu ...
, through numerous confraternities and activities of different
religious order A religious order is a lineage of communities and organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion, usually characterized by the principles of its founder's religious practice. ...
s. Early welfare programs in Europe included the
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
Poor Law of 1601 The Poor Relief Act 1601 (43 Eliz 1 c 2) was an List of Acts of the Parliament of England, 1485–1601, Act of the Parliament of England. The Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601, popularly known as the Elizabethan Poor Law, "43rd Elizabeth" or the ...
, which gave
parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christianity, Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a priest#Christianity, priest, often termed a parish priest, ...
es the responsibility for providing welfare payments to the poor. This system was substantially modified by the 19th-century
Poor Law Amendment Act The Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 (PLAA) known widely as the New Poor Law, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom, supreme Legislature, ...
, which introduced the system of
workhouse In Britain, a workhouse () was a total institution where those unable to support themselves financially were offered accommodation and employment. (In Scotland, they were usually known as poorhouses.) The earliest known use of the term ''workho ...

workhouse
s. It was predominantly in the late 19th and early 20th centuries that an organized system of state welfare provision was introduced in many countries.
Otto von Bismarck Otto, Prince of Bismarck, Count of Bismarck-Schönhausen, Duke of Lauenburg (german: Otto Fürst von Bismarck, Graf von Bismarck-Schönhausen, Herzog zu Lauenburg ; 1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), born Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck, was a c ...

Otto von Bismarck
,
Chancellor Chancellor ( la, links=no, cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the ''cancellarii Cancelli are lattice-work, placed before a window, a door-way, the tribunal o ...
of Germany, introduced one of the first welfare systems for the
working class The working class (or labouring class) comprises those engaged in manual-labour occupations or industrial work, who are remunerated via waged or salaried contracts. Working-class occupations (see also "Designation of workers by collar colorCo ...
es. In
Great Britain Great Britain is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), ...

Great Britain
the
Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a Liberal Party Arts, entertainment and media *''El Liberal'', a Spanish newspaper published betw ...
government of
Henry Campbell-Bannerman Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (7 September 183622 April 1908) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1905 to 1908 and Liberal Party (UK)#Liberal leaders 1859–1988, Leader of the Liberal Party (UK), Liberal Party from 1899 to 1908. He al ...
and
David Lloyd George David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman and Liberal Party The Liberal Party is any of many political parties A political party is an organization that coordinat ...

David Lloyd George
introduced the
National Insurance National Insurance (NI) is a fundamental component of the welfare state in the United Kingdom Welfare is a type of government support intended to ensure that members of a society can meet basic human needs such as food and shelter. Social s ...
system in 1911, a system later expanded by
Clement Attlee Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 18838 October 1967) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head o ...

Clement Attlee
. Modern welfare states include Germany, France, the Netherlands, as well as the
Nordic countries The Nordic countries (also known as the Nordics or ''Norden''; lit. 'the North') are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impac ...

Nordic countries
, such as Iceland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland which employ a system known as the
Nordic model#REDIRECT Nordic model The Nordic model comprises the economic An economy (from Greek language, Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the Production (economics), production, Distribution (economics), d ...
. Esping-Andersen classified the most developed welfare state systems into three categories; Social Democratic, Conservative, and Liberal. A report published by the ILO in 2014 estimated that only 27% of the world's population has access to comprehensive social security. The
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject to international law. Its o ...
's 2019
World Development Report{{Use dmy dates, date=April 2020 The World Development Report (WDR) is an annual report published since 1978 by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) or World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institutio ...
argues that the traditional payroll-based model of many kinds of social insurance are "increasingly challenged by working arrangements outside standard employment contracts".World Bank World Development Report 2019: The Changing Nature of Work. Chapter 6
/ref>


Forms

Welfare can take a variety of forms, such as monetary payments,
subsidies A subsidy or government incentive is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy. Although commonly extended from the government, the term ...
and
voucher A voucher is a bond of the redeemable transaction type which is worth a certain monetary value and which may be spent only for specific reasons or on specific goods. Examples include housing Housing, or more generally living spaces, refers to ...

voucher
s, or housing assistance. Welfare systems differ from country to country, but welfare is commonly provided to individuals who are
unemployed Unemployment, according to the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), is people above a specified age (usually 15) not being in paid employment or self-employment but currently available for work during the reference peri ...
, those with
illness A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting ...
or
disability A disability is any condition that makes it more difficult for a person to do certain activities or effectively interact with the world around them (socially or materially). These conditions, or impairments, may be Cognitive disability, cogn ...

disability
, the
elderly An elderly woman at a Ringing Cedars' settlement in Russia.">Russia.html" ;"title="Ringing Cedars' settlement in Russia">Ringing Cedars' settlement in Russia. Old age refers to ages nearing or surpassing the life expectancy of human beings, a ...
, those with dependent children, and
veteran A veteran () is a person who has significant experience (and is usually adept and esteemed) and expertise in a particular job, occupation or Craft, field. A military veteran is a person who is no longer serving in a military. A military veter ...
s. Programs may have a variety of conditions for a person to receive welfare: *
Social insurance Social insurance is a concept where the government intervenes in the insurance market to ensure that a group of individuals are insured or protected against the risk of any emergencies that lead to financial problems. This is done through a proc ...
, state-sponsored programs based partly on individual contributions towards benefits such as healthcare, unemployment payments, and old-age pensions. *
Means-tested A means test is a determination of whether an individual or family is eligible for government assistance or welfare Welfare (or commonly, social welfare) is a type of government support intended to ensure that members of a society can meet ...
benefits, financial assistance provided for those who are unable to cover basic needs, such as food, clothing and housing, due to
poverty Poverty is the state of having little material possessions or income In microeconomics, income is the Consumption (economics), consumption and saving opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, which is generally expresse ...

poverty
or lack of income because of unemployment, sickness, disability, or caring for children. While assistance is often in the form of financial payments, those eligible for social welfare can usually access health and educational services free of charge. The amount of support is enough to cover basic needs and eligibility is often subject to a comprehensive and complex assessment of an applicant's social and financial situation. See also
Income Support Income Support is an income-related benefit in the United Kingdom for some people who are on a low income, but have a reason for not actively seeking work. Claimants of Income Support may be entitled to certain other benefits, for example, Housing ...
. * Non-contributory benefits. Several countries have special schemes, administered with no requirement for contributions and no means test, for people in certain categories of need: for example, veterans of armed forces, people with disabilities and very old people. * Discretionary benefits. Some schemes are based on the decision of an official, such as a social worker. * Universal or categorical benefits, also known as demogrants. These are non-contributory benefits given for whole sections of the population without a means test, such as
family allowanceChild benefit or children's allowance is a social security payment which is distributed to the parents or guardians of child Biologically, a child (plural children) is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread ...
s or the public pension in New Zealand (known as New Zealand Superannuation). See also the Alaska Permanent Fund Dividend.


Social protection

In developing countries, formal social security arrangements are often absent for the vast majority of the working population, in part due to reliance on the
informal economy An informal economy (informal sector or grey economy) is the part of any economy An economy (; ) is an area of the Production (economics), production, Distribution (economics), distribution and trade, as well as Consumption (economics), con ...
. Additionally, the state's capacity to reach people may be limited because of its limited infrastructure and resources. In this context, ''social protection'' is often referred to instead of social security, encompassing a broader set of means, such as labour market intervention and local community-based programs, to alleviate poverty and provide security against things like unemployment.


By country


Australia

Prior to 1900 in Australia, charitable assistance from benevolent societies, sometimes with financial contributions from the authorities, was the primary means of relief for people not able to support themselves. The 1890s economic depression and the rise of the trade unions and the during this period led to a movement for welfare reform. In 1900, the states of New South Wales and Victoria enacted legislation introducing non-contributory pensions for those aged 65 and over. Queensland legislated a similar system in 1907 before the Australian labor Commonwealth government led by
Andrew Fisher Andrew Fisher (29 August 186222 October 1928) was an Australian politician who served three separate terms as Prime Minister of Australia – from 1908 to 1909, from 1910 to 1913, and from 1914 to 1915. He was the leader of the Australian Labo ...

Andrew Fisher
introduced a national aged pension under the Invalid and Old-Aged Pensions Act 1908. A national invalid disability pension was started in 1910, and a national maternity allowance was introduced in 1912. During the Second World War, Australia under a labor government created a
welfare state The welfare state is a form of government in which the state (or a well-established network of social institutions) protects and promotes the economic and social well-being of its citizens, based upon the principles of equal opportunity Equal o ...
by enacting national schemes for: child endowment in 1941 (superseding the 1927 New South Wales scheme); a widows’ pension in 1942 (superseding the New South Wales 1926 scheme); a wife's allowance in 1943; additional allowances for the children of pensioners in 1943; and unemployment, sickness, and special benefits in 1945 (superseding the Queensland 1923 scheme).


Canada

Canada has a
welfare state The welfare state is a form of government in which the state (or a well-established network of social institutions) protects and promotes the economic and social well-being of its citizens, based upon the principles of equal opportunity Equal o ...
in the European tradition; however, it is not referred to as "welfare", but rather as "social programs". In Canada, "welfare" usually refers specifically to direct payments to poor individuals (as in the American usage) and not to healthcare and education spending (as in the European usage). The Canadian
social safety net The social safety net (SSN) consists of non-contributory assistance existing to improve lives of vulnerable families and individuals experiencing poverty and destitution. Examples of SSNs are previously-contributory social pensions, in-kind and fo ...
covers a broad spectrum of programs, and because Canada is a
federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, ...
, many are run by the
provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
. Canada has a wide range of government transfer payments to individuals, which totaled $145billion in 2006. Only social programs that direct funds to individuals are included in that cost; programs such as medicare and
public education State schools ( British English) or public schools ( North American English) are generally primary or secondary educational institution, schools that educate all children without charge. They are funded in whole or in part by taxation. State fu ...
are additional costs. Generally speaking, before the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
, most social services were provided by religious charities and other private groups. Changing government policy between the 1930s and 1960s saw the emergence of a welfare state, similar to many
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical r ...

Western Europe
an countries. Most programs from that era are still in use, although many were scaled back during the 1990s as government priorities shifted towards reducing
debt Debt is an obligation that requires one party, the debtor A debtor or debitor is a legal entity (legal person) that owes a debt Debt is an obligation that requires one party, the debtor, to pay money or other agreed-upon value to ...

debt
and
deficits A government budget is a financial statement presenting the government's proposed government revenues, revenues and government expenditures, spending for a financial year. The government budget balance, also alternatively referred to as general g ...
.


Denmark

Danish welfare is handled by the state through a series of policies (and the like) that seeks to provide welfare services to citizens, hence the term welfare state. This refers not only to social benefits, but also tax-funded education, public child care, medical care, etc. A number of these services are not provided by the state directly, but administered by
municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
, regions or private providers through outsourcing. This sometimes gives a source of tension between the state and
municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
, as there is not always consistency between the promises of welfare provided by the state (i.e. parliament) and local perception of what it would cost to fulfill these promises.


Finland


India

The Central Government of India's social programmes and welfare expenditures are a substantial portion of the official budget, and state and local governments play roles in developing and implementing social security policies. Additional welfare measure systems are also uniquely operated by various state governments. The government uses the unique identity number (Aadhar) that every Indian possesses to distribute welfare measures in India. As of 2020, the government's expenditure on social programme and welfare (direct cash transfers, financial inclusion, benefits, health and other insurances, subsidies, free school meals, rural employment guarantee), was approximately fourteen
lakh crore A crore (; abbreviated cr), karor or koti denotes 10,000,000 (number), ten million (10,000,000 or 107 in scientific notation) and is equal to 100 lakh in the Indian numbering system. It is written as 1,00,00,000 with the local 2,2,3 style of ...

lakh crore
rupees ($192billion), which was 7.3% of gross domestic product (GDP).


France

Solidarity Solidarity is an awareness of shared interests, objectives, standards, and sympathies creating a psychological sense of unity of groups or classes, which rejects the class conflict Class conflict, also referred to as class struggle and class ...

Solidarity
is a strong value of the French Social Protection system. The first article of the French Code of Social Security describes the principle of solidarity. Solidarity is commonly comprehended in relations of similar work, shared responsibility and common risks. Existing solidarities in France caused the expansion of health and social security.


Germany

The welfare state has a long tradition in Germany dating back to the
industrial revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
. Due to the pressure of the workers' movement in the late 19th century,
Reichskanzler The chancellor of Germany, officially the Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (german: Bundeskanzler(:wikt:-in#German, in) der Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is the head of the federal government of Germany, government of Germany ...
Otto von Bismarck Otto, Prince of Bismarck, Count of Bismarck-Schönhausen, Duke of Lauenburg (german: Otto Fürst von Bismarck, Graf von Bismarck-Schönhausen, Herzog zu Lauenburg ; 1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), born Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck, was a c ...

Otto von Bismarck
introduced the first rudimentary state social insurance scheme. Under
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Nazi Germany, Germany from 1933 to 1945. Adolf Hitler's rise to power, He rose to power as the leader of the Nazi Party, becoming Cha ...

Adolf Hitler
, the
National Socialist ProgramThe National Socialist Program, also known as the 25-point Program or the 25-point Plan (), was the party program of the Nazi Party, National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP, and referred to in English as the Nazi Party). Adolf Hitler announce ...
stated "We demand an expansion on a large scale of old age welfare." Today, the social protection of all its citizens is considered a central pillar of German national policy. 27.6 percent of Germany's
GDP Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner">174x174px Money is any ...
is channeled into an all-embracing system of health,
pension A pension (, from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be ...

pension
,
accident An accident is an unplanned event that sometimes has inconvenient or undesirable consequences, other times being inconsequential. The occurrence of such an event may or may not have unrecognized or unaddressed risks contributing to its cause. Mo ...
, longterm care and
unemployment insurance Unemployment benefits, also called unemployment insurance, unemployment payment, unemployment compensation, or simply unemployment, are payments made by authorized bodies to unemployed Unemployment, according to the OECD (Organisation for Ec ...
, compared to 16.2 percent in the US. In addition, there are tax-financed services such as child benefits (''Kindergeld'', beginning at
The euro sign () is the currency sign A currency symbol or currency sign is a graphic symbol used as a shorthand for a currency's name, especially in reference to amounts of money. Usage When writing currency amounts, the location of the sym ...
192 per month for the first and second child, €198 for the third and €223 for each child thereafter, until they attain 25 years or receive their first professional qualification), and basic provisions for those unable to work or anyone with an income below the poverty line. Since 2005, reception of full unemployment pay (60–67% of the previous net salary) has been restricted to 12 months in general and 18 months for those over 55. This is now followed by (usually much lower) ''Arbeitslosengeld II (ALG II)'' or ''Sozialhilfe'', which is independent of previous employment (Hartz concept#Hartz IV, Hartz IV concept). , under ALG II, single adults receive up to €432 per month plus the cost of 'adequate' housing. ALG II can also be paid partially to employed persons to supplement a low work income.


Italy

The Italian welfare state's foundations were laid along the lines of the corporatist-conservative model, or of its Mediterranean variant. Later, in the 1960s and 1970s, increases in public spending and a major focus on universality brought it on the same path as social-democratic systems. In 1978, a universalistic welfare model was introduced in Italy, offering a number of universal and free services such as a National Health Fund.


Japan

Social welfare, assistance for the ill or otherwise disabled and for the old, has long been provided in Japan by both the government and private companies. Beginning in the 1920s, the government enacted a series of welfare programs, based mainly on European models, to provide medical care and financial support. During the postwar period, a comprehensive system of social security was gradually established.


Latin America


History

The 1980s, marked a change in the structure of Latin American social protection programs. Social protection embraces three major areas: social insurance, financed by workers and employers; social assistance to the population's poorest, financed by the state; and labor market regulations to protect worker rights.Barrientos, A. and Claudio Santibanez. (2009).
New Forms of Social, Assistance and the Evolution of Social Protection in Latin America
. Journal of Latin American Studies. Cambridge University Press 41, 1–26
Although diverse, recent Latin American social policy has tended to concentrate on social assistance. The 1980s, had a significant effect on social protection policies. Prior to the 1980s, most Latin American countries focused on social insurance policies involving formal sector workers, assuming that the informal sector would disappear with economic development. The economic crisis of the 1980s and the liberalization of the labor market led to a growing informal sector and a rapid increase in poverty and inequality. Latin American countries did not have the institutions and funds to properly handle such a crisis, both due to the structure of the social security system, and to the previously implemented structural adjustment policies (SAPs) that had decreased the size of the state. New Welfare programs have integrated the multidimensional, social risk management, and capabilities approaches into poverty alleviation. They focus on income transfers and service provisions while aiming to alleviate both long- and short-term poverty through, among other things, education, health, security, and housing. Unlike previous programs that targeted the working class, new programs have successfully focused on locating and targeting the very poorest. The impacts of social assistance programs vary between countries, and many programs have yet to be fully evaluated. According to Barrientos and Santibanez, the programs have been more successful in increasing investment in human capital than in bringing households above the poverty line. Challenges still exist, including the extreme inequality levels and the mass scale of poverty; locating a financial basis for programs; and deciding on exit strategy, exit strategies or on the long-term establishment of programs.


1980s impacts

The economic crisis of the 1980s led to a shift in social policies, as understandings of poverty and social programs evolved (24). New, mostly short-term programs emerged. These include: * Argentina: ''Jefes y Jefas de Hogar'', Asignación Universal por Hijo * Bolivia: ''Bonosol'' * Brazil: ''Bolsa Escola and Bolsa Familia'' * Chile: ''Chile Solidario'' * Colombia: ''Solidaridad por Colombia'' * Ecuador: ''Bono de Desarrollo Humano'' * Honduras: ''Red Solidaria'' * Mexico: ''Prospera'' (earlier known as ''Oportunidades'') * Panama: ''Red de Oportunidades'' * Peru: ''Juntos''


Major aspects of current social assistance programs

* Conditional cash transfer (CCT) combined with service provisions. Transfer cash directly to households, most often through the women of the household, if certain conditions are met (e.g. children's school attendance or doctor visits) (10). Providing free education, free schooling or healthcare is often not sufficient, because there is an opportunity cost for the parents in, for example, sending children to school (lost labor power), or in paying for the transportation costs of getting to a health clinic. * Household. The household has been the focal point of social assistance programs. * Target the poorest. Recent programs have been more successful than past ones in targeting the poorest. Previous programs often targeted the working class. * Multidimensional. Programs have attempted to address many dimensions of poverty at once. Chile Solidario is the best example.


New Zealand

New Zealand is often regarded as having one of the first comprehensive welfare systems in the world. During the 1890s a Liberal government adopted many social programmes to help the poor who had suffered from a long economic depression in the 1880s. One of the most far reaching was the passing of tax legislation that made it difficult for wealthy sheep farmers to hold onto their large land holdings. This and the invention of refrigeration led to a farming revolution where many sheep farms were broken up and sold to become smaller dairy farms. This enabled thousands of new farmers to buy land and develop a new and vigorous industry that has become the backbone of New Zealand's economy to this day. This liberal tradition flourished with increased enfranchisement for indigenous Māori people, Maori in the 1880s and women. Pensions for the elderly, the poor and war casualties followed, with State-run schools, hospitals and subsidized medical and dental care. By 1960, New Zealand was able to afford one of the best-developed and most comprehensive welfare systems in the world, supported by a well-developed and stable economy.


Philippines

In Philippines, social welfare is divided into two. The first one is called Social Security System (SSS) and the other one is called Government Service Insurance System (GSIS). Social Security System or SSS is a social insurance program for workers in private sector. Individuals who are self-employed or not working can also apply to be protected under SSS programme. SSS provide benefits for unemployment, death, funeral, maternity leave, disabilities and many more. Members of SSS who experienced accident or death due to work activity, can also claim for double compensation under the Employees' Compensation (EC) programme. SSS also allows its members to apply for salary loans, based on their monthly salary and calamity loan, if their place is declared as "state of calamity" by the government. SSS also have two voluntary saving programs, PESO Fund and Flexi Fund to help prepare their members with a stable income for retirement. Government servants are protected under the Government Service Insurance System or GSIS. Just like SSS, GSIS also provide their members with retirement benefits, life insurance and employee compensation.


Poland


South Africa


Spain


Sub-Saharan Africa


Sweden

Social welfare in Sweden is made up of several organizations and systems dealing with welfare. It is mostly funded by taxes, and executed by the public sector on all levels of government as well as private organizations. It can be separated into three parts falling under three different ministries; social welfare, falling under the responsibility of Ministry of Health and Social Affairs (Sweden), Ministry of Health and Social Affairs; education, under the responsibility of the Ministry of Education and Research (Sweden), Ministry of Education and Research and labor market, under the responsibility of Ministry of Employment (Sweden), Ministry of Employment. Government pension payments are financed through an 18.5% pension tax on all taxed incomes in the country, which comes partly from a tax category called a public pension fee (7% on gross income), and 30% of a tax category called employer fees on salaries (which is 33% on a netted income). Since January 2001, the 18.5% is divided in two parts: 16% goes to current payments, and 2.5% goes into individual retirement accounts, which were introduced in 2001. Money saved and invested in government funds, and individual retirement account, IRAs for future pension costs, are roughly five times annual government pension expenses (725/150). Viewing Swedish welfare more broadly, it emerges as highly-rated in many standard international comparisons of welfare or well-being (e.g. World Economic Forum 2020). However, some Nordic-based welfare and gender researchers have argued that such assessments, based on conventional welfare/well-being criteria, may to some extent over-privilege Sweden (and other Nordic countries) in terms of, for instance, gender and racial equality. For example, they suggest that if one takes a broader perspective on well-being incorporating issues associated with bodily integrity or bodily citizenship (Pringle 2011), then some major forms of men’s domination and/or white privilege can be seen to still stubbornly persist in the Nordic countries, e.g. business, violence to women, sexual violence to children, the military, academia and religion (Hearn and Pringle 2006; Hearn et al. 2018; Pringle 2016).


United Kingdom

;UK Government welfare expenditure 2011–12: * State pension (46.32%) * Housing Benefit (10.55%) * Disability Living Allowance (7.87%) * Pension Credit (5.06%) *
Income Support Income Support is an income-related benefit in the United Kingdom for some people who are on a low income, but have a reason for not actively seeking work. Claimants of Income Support may be entitled to certain other benefits, for example, Housing ...
(4.31%) * Housing Benefit, Rent rebates (3.43%) * Attendance Allowance (3.31%) * Jobseeker's Allowance (3.06%) * Incapacity Benefit (3.06%) * Council Tax Benefit (3%) * Other (10.03%) The United Kingdom has a long history of welfare, notably including the English Poor laws which date back to 1536. After various reforms to the program, which involved
workhouse In Britain, a workhouse () was a total institution where those unable to support themselves financially were offered accommodation and employment. (In Scotland, they were usually known as poorhouses.) The earliest known use of the term ''workho ...

workhouse
s, it was eventually abolished and replaced with a modern system by laws such as the National Assistance Act 1948. In more recent times, comparing the Cameron–Clegg coalition's United Kingdom government austerity programme, austerity measures with Her Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition (United Kingdom), the Opposition's, the ''Financial Times'' commentator Martin Wolf commented that the "big shift from Labour... is the cuts in welfare benefits." The government's austerity programme, which involves reduction in government policy, has been linked to a rise in food banks. A study published in the ''British Medical Journal'' in 2015 found that each one percentage point increase in the rate of Jobseeker's Allowance claimants sanctioned was associated with a 0.09 percentage point rise in food bank use. The austerity programme has faced opposition from disability rights groups for disproportionately affecting disabled people. The Under-occupancy penalty, "bedroom tax" is an austerity measure that has attracted particular criticism, with activists arguing that two-thirds of council houses affected by the policy are occupied with a person with a disability.


United States

In the United States, depending on the context, the term "welfare" can be used to refer to Means test, means-tested cash benefits, especially the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program and its successor, the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Block Grant, or it can be used to refer to all means-tested programs that help individuals or families meet basic needs, including, for example, health care through Medicaid, Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, food and nutrition programs (SNAP). It can also include Social Insurance programs such as unemployment benefits, Unemployment Insurance, Social Security (United States), Social Security, and Medicare (United States), Medicare. AFDC (originally called Aid to Dependent Children) was created during the Great Depression to alleviate the burden of poverty for families with children and allow widowed mothers to maintain their households. The New Deal employment program such as the Works Progress Administration primarily served men. Prior to the New Deal, poverty reduction, anti-poverty programs were primarily operated by private charities or state or local governments; however, these programs were overwhelmed by the depth of need during the Depression. The United States has no national program of cash assistance for non-disabled poor individuals who are not raising children. Until early in the year of 1965, the news media was conveying only whites as living in poverty however that perception had changed to blacks. Some of the influences in this shift could have been the civil rights movement and urban riots from the mid 60s. Welfare had then shifted from being a White issue to a Black issue and during this time frame the war on poverty had already begun. Subsequently, news media portrayed stereotypes of Blacks as lazy, undeserving and welfare queens. These shifts in media don't necessarily establish the population living in poverty decreasing. In 1996, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act changed the structure of Welfare payments and added new criteria to states that received Welfare funding. After reforms, which President Clinton said would "end Welfare as we know it", amounts from the federal government were given out in a flat rate per state based on population. Each state must meet certain criteria to ensure recipients are being encouraged to work themselves out of Welfare. The new program is called Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF).Characteristics and Financial Circumstances of TANF RecipientsFiscal Year 2010
. United States Department of Health and Human Services.
It encourages states to require some sort of employment search in exchange for providing funds to individuals, and imposes a five-year lifetime limit on cash assistance. In FY 2010, 31.8% of TANF families were white, 31.9% were African-American, and 30.0% were Hispanic. According to the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau data released 13 September 2011, the nation's Poverty in the United States, poverty rate rose to 15.1% (46.2 million) in 2010, up from 14.3% (approximately 43.6 million) in 2009 and to its highest level since 1993. In 2008, 13.2% (39.8 million) Americans lived in relative poverty.Poverty rate hits 15-year high
. Reuters. 17 September 2010
In a 2011 op-ed in ''Forbes'', Peter Ferrara stated that, "The best estimate of the cost of the 185 federal means tested Welfare programs for 2010 for the federal government alone is nearly $700billion, up a third since 2008, according to the Heritage Foundation. Counting state spending, total Welfare spending for 2010 reached nearly $900billion, up nearly one-fourth since 2008 (24.3%)." California, with 12% of the U.S. population, has one-third of the nation's welfare recipients. In FY 2011, federal spending on means-tested welfare, plus state contributions to federal programs, reached $927billion per year. Roughly half went to families with children, most of which are headed by a single parent. The United States has also typically relied on charitable giving through non-profit agencies and fundraising instead of direct monetary assistance from the government itself. According to Giving USA, Americans gave $358.38billion to charity in 2014. This is rewarded by the United States government through tax incentives for individuals and companies that are not typically seen in other countries.


Effects

The welfare-to-work intervention programme is unlikely to have any impacts on the mental and physical health of lone parents and children. Even when the employment and income rates were higher in this group of people, the poverty rate was high which could lead to persistently high rates of depression whether they were in the programme or not. Income transfers can be either conditional cash transfer, conditional or unconditional cash transfer, unconditional. Conditionalities are sometimes criticized as being paternalism, paternalistic and unnecessary. A 2008 study by welfare economist and Brown University Professor Allan M. Feldman suggests that welfare can achieve both competitive equilibrium and Pareto efficiency in the market. Though, different points of Pareto efficiency are more fair to some than others. Some opponents of welfare argue that it affects work incentives.


Perception

According to a 2012 review study, whether a welfare program generates public support depends on: * whether the program is universal or targeted towards certain groups * the size of the social program benefits (larger benefits incentivize greater mobilization to defend a social program) * the visibility and traceability of the benefits (whether recipients know where the benefits come from) * the proximity and concentration of the beneficiaries (this affects the ease by which beneficiaries can organize to protect a social program) * the duration of the benefits (longer benefits incentivize greater mobilization to defend a social program) * the manner in which a program is administered (e.g. is the program inclusive, does it follow principles?)


See also

* Basic income * Contingencies fund * Economic, social and cultural rights * Yung-Ping Chen#Financing and benefit structure of Social Security, Financing and benefit structure * Human Poverty Index * Human security * List of countries by Social Progress Index * List of countries by social welfare spending * Poverty reduction * Social democracy * Social liberalism * Social policy * Social safety net * The Fourth Pillar, The Four Pillars * Welfare economics * Welfare reform * Welfare rights * Welfare trap * Workfare


Notes


References


Other sources

* * Sheldon Danziger, Robert Haveman, and Robert Plotnick (1981). "How Income Transfer Programs Affect Work, Savings, and the Income Distribution: A Critical Review", ''Journal of Economic Literature'' 19(3), pp.975–1028. * * Steven N. Durlauf et al., ed. (2008) ''The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics'', 2nd Edition: :"social insurance" by Stefania Albanesi
Abstract.
:"social insurance and public policy" by Jonathan Gruber (economist), Jonathan Gruber]
Abstract.
:"Welfare state" by Assar Lindbeck
Abstract.
* Nadasen, Premilla, Jennifer Mittelstadt, and Marisa Chappell, ''Welfare in the United States: A History with Documents, 1935–1996''. (New York: Routledge, 2009). 241 pp. * Samuel Lézé, "Welfare", in : Andrew Scull, J. (ed.), ''Cultural Sociology of Mental Illness'', Sage, 2014, pp.958–60 * Alfred de Grazia, with Ted Gurr: ''American Welfare'', New York University Press, New York (1962) *
Review by Barrett Lyons in ''Social Work'' Vol.7 Issue2, p.112
* Alfred de Grazia, ed. ''Grass roots private welfare: winning essays of the 1956 national competition of the Foundation for voluntary Welfare'', New York University Press, New York 1957.


External links


International Social Security Review

OECD Social Expenditure database (SOCX) Website
{{Authority control Welfare, Public economics Government aid programs Social security, Welfare economics Social systems