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A reform movement is a type of
social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social wh ...
that aims to bring a
social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology The word "Social" derives fr ...
or also a
political system In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such ...
closer to the community's ideal. A
reform Reform ( lat, reformo) means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc. The use of the word in this way emerges in the late 18th century and is believed to originate from Christopher Wyvill's Association movement ...

reform
movement is distinguished from more
radical Radical may refer to: Arts and entertainment Music *Radical (mixtape), ''Radical'' (mixtape), by Odd Future, 2010 *Radical (Smack album), ''Radical'' (Smack album), 1988 *"Radicals", a song by Tyler, The Creator from the 2011 album ''Goblin (album ...
social movements such as
revolutionary movement A revolutionary movement (or revolutionary social movement) is a specific type of social movement dedicated to carrying out a revolution. Charles Tilly defines it as "a social movement advancing exclusive competing claims to control of the State (p ...
s which reject those old ideals, in that the ideas are often grounded in
liberalism Liberalism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals ...

liberalism
, although they may be rooted in
socialist Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, s ...

socialist
(specifically,
social democratic Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individu ...
) or
religious Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion. Different religions may or may not contain v ...
concepts. Some rely on personal transformation; others rely on small collectives, such as
Mahatma Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (; ; 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian lawyer, anti-colonial nationalist Quote: "... marks Gandhi as a hybrid cosmopolitan figure who transformed ... anti-colonial nationalist politics in the ...

Mahatma Gandhi
's
spinning wheel A spinning wheel is a device for spinning Spin or spinning may refer to: Businesses * SPIN (cable system) SPIN (or South Pacific Island Network) was a submarine communications cable, submarine communications cable system that would connec ...
and the self-sustaining village economy, as a mode of
social change Social change involves alteration of the social order The term social order can be used in two senses: In the first sense, it refers to a particular system of social structures and institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntingt ...
. Reactionary movements, which can arise against any of these, attempt to put things back the way they were before any successes the new reform movement(s) enjoyed, or to prevent any such successes.


Great Britain

After two decades of intensely conservative rule, the logjam broke in the late 1820s with the repeal of obsolete restrictions on Nonconformists, followed by the dramatic removal of severe limitations on Catholics in Britain. The
Radical movement The Radical Movement (french: Mouvement radical, MR), whose complete name is Radical, Social and Liberal Movement (french: link=no, Mouvement radical, social et libéral) is a Social liberalism, social-liberal list of political parties in France, p ...

Radical movement
campaigned for
electoral reform Electoral reform is change in electoral systems to improve how public desires are expressed in election results. That can include reforms of: *Voting system An electoral system or voting system is a set of rules that determine how elections and ...
, against
child labour Child labour refers to the exploitation of children through any form of work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially and morally harmful. Such ex ...

child labour
, for a reform of the Poor Laws,
free trade Free trade is a trade policy A commercial policy (also referred to as a trade policy or international trade policy) is a government's policy governing international trade International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and service ...
,
educational reform Education reform is the name given to the goal of changing public education State schools ( British English) or public schools ( North American English) are generally primary or secondary educational institution, schools that educate all child ...
,
prison reform Prison reform is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, improve the effectiveness of a penal system, or implement alternatives to incarceration. It also focuses on ensuring the reinstatement of those whose lives are impacted by crimes. ...
, and
public sanitation
public sanitation
. Originally this movement sought to replace the exclusive
political power In social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly used to refe ...
of the
aristocracy Aristocracy ( grc-gre, ἀριστοκρατία , from 'excellent', and , 'rule') is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Ar ...
with a more
democratic system Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polit ...
empowering
urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as city, cities, towns, conurbat ...
s and the middle and
working class The working class (or labouring class) comprises those engaged in manual-labour occupations or industrial work, who are remunerated via waged or salaried contracts. Working-class occupations (see also "Designation of workers by collar colorCo ...
es. The energy of reform emerged from the religious fervour of the evangelical element in the established Church of England, and Evangelical workers in the Nonconformist churches, especially the Methodists. Reformers also used the scientific methodology of
Jeremy Bentham Jeremy Bentham (; 15 February 1748 Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates">O.S._4_February_1747.html" ;"title="Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates.html" ;"title="nowiki/>Old Style and New Style dates">O.S. 4 February 1747">Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates.htm ...

Jeremy Bentham
and the utilitarians to design specific reforms, and especially to provide for government inspection to guarantee their successful operation. The greatest success of the Reformers was the
Reform Act 1832 The Representation of the People Act 1832 (also known as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act) was an Act of Parliament, Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom (indexed as 2 & 3 Will. IV c. 45) that introduced major chang ...
. It gave the rising urban middle classes more political power, while sharply reducing the power of the low-population districts controlled by rich families. Despite determined resistance from the
House of Lords The House of Lords, formally The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, is the of the . Membership is by , or . Like the , it meets in the . ar ...

House of Lords
to the Bill, this Act gave more parliamentary power to the liberals, while reducing the political force of the working class, leaving them detached from the main body of middle class support on which they had relied. Having achieved the Reform Act of 1832, the Radical alliance was broken until the Liberal-Labour alliance of the Edwardian period.


Chartist movement

The
Chartist movement Chartism was a working-class male suffrage movement for political reform in Britain that existed from 1838 to 1857. It took its name from the People's Charter of 1838 and was a national protest movement, with particular strongholds of support ...
in nineteenth-century Britain sought
universal suffrage Universal suffrage (also called universal franchise, general suffrage, and common suffrage of the common man) gives the right to vote Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise, is the right to vote in public, political elections (a ...
. A historian of the Chartist movement observed that "The Chartist movement was essentially an economic movement with a purely political programme." A period of bad trade and high
food prices Food prices refer to the average price level for food across countries, regions and on a global scale. Food prices have an impact on producers and consumers of food. Price levels depend on the Food industry, food production process, including f ...
set in, and the drastic restrictions on
Poor Law In English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World langu ...
relief were a source of acute distress. The
London Working Men's Association Image:LWMA Reform Demonstration.jpg, Programme issued by the London Working Men's Association for a Reform Demonstration in 1866. The London Working Men's Association was an organisation established in London in 1836.Francis Place Francis Place (3 November 1771 in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at ...

Francis Place
, found itself in the midst of a great unrest. In the northern textile districts the Chartists, led by
Feargus O'Connor Feargus Edward O'Connor (18 July 1796 – 30 August 1855) was an Irish Chartism, Chartist leader and advocate of the Land Plan, which sought to provide smallholdings for the labouring classes. A highly charismatic figure, O'Connor was admired f ...
, a follower of
Daniel O'Connell Daniel O'Connell ( ga, Dónall Ó Conaill; 6 August 1775 – 15 May 1847), hailed in his time as The Liberator, was the acknowledged political leader of Ireland's Roman Catholic majority in the first half of the 19th century. His mobilisa ...

Daniel O'Connell
, denounced the inadequate Poor Laws. This was basically a hunger revolt, springing from unemployment and despair. In Birmingham, the older
Birmingham Political Union The Birmingham Political Union (General Political Union) was a grass roots pressure group in Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the lar ...
sprang to life under the leadership of Thomas Attwood. The Chartist movement demanded basic economic reforms, higher wages and better conditions of work, and a repeal of the obnoxious Poor Law Act. The idea of universal male suffrage, an initial goal of the Chartist movement, was to include all males as voters regardless of their social standing. This later evolved into a campaign for universal suffrage. This movement sought to redraw the parliamentary districts within Great Britain and create a salary system for elected officials so workers could afford to represent their constituents without a burden on their families.


Women's rights movement

Many consider
Mary Wollstonecraft Mary Wollstonecraft (, ; 27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights. Until the late 20th century, Wollstonecraft's life, which encompassed several unconventional personal rela ...

Mary Wollstonecraft
's '' Vindication of the Rights of Woman'' (1792) to be the source of the reformers' long-running campaign for feminist inclusion and the origin of the
Women's Suffrage Women's suffrage is the right of women to vote in elections. Beginning in the mid-19th century, aside from the work being done by women for broad-based economic and political equality and for social reforms, women sought to change voting law ...
movement. Harriet Taylor was a significant influence on
John Stuart Mill John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 7 May 1873), also cited as J. S. Mill, was an English philosopher, Political economy, political economist, Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Member of Parliament (MP) and civil servant. One of the most i ...
's work and ideas, reinforcing Mill's advocacy of
women's rights Women's rights are the and s claimed for and s worldwide. They formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the 19th century and the s during the 20th and 21st centuries. In some countries, these rights are institutionalized or supp ...
. Her essay, "Enfranchisement of Women," appeared in the ''Westminster Review'' in 1851 in response to a speech by
Lucy Stone Lucy Stone (August 13, 1818 – October 18, 1893) was a prominent U.S. orator, Abolitionism in the United States, abolitionist, and suffragist, and a vocal advocate and organizer promoting women's rights movement, rights for women. In 1847, St ...

Lucy Stone
given at the first
National Women's Rights Convention The National Women's Rights Convention was an annual series of meetings that increased the visibility of the early women's rights movement in the United States. First held in 1850 in Worcester, Massachusetts, the National Women's Rights Convention ...
in Worcester, Massachusetts in 1850, and it was reprinted in the United States. Mill cites Taylor's influence in his final revision of ''On Liberty,'' (1859) which was published shortly after her death, and she appears to be obliquely referenced in Mill's ''The Subjection of Women.'' A militant campaign to include women in the electorate originated in Victorian times.
Emmeline Pankhurst Emmeline Pankhurst (née Goulden; 15 July 1858 – 14 June 1928) was an English political activist. She is best remembered for organizing the UK suffragette A suffragette was a member of an activist women's organisation in the early 20th ce ...
's husband, Richard Pankhurst, was a supporter of the women's suffrage movement and had been the author of the Married Women's Property Acts of 1870 and 1882. In 1889, Pankhurst founded the unsuccessful
Women's Franchise LeagueThe Women's Franchise League was a British organisation created by the suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst together with her husband Richard and others in 1889, fourteen years before the creation of the Women's Social and Political Union in 1903. The ...
, and in October 1903 she founded the better-known
Women's Social and Political Union The Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) was a women-only political movement and leading militant organisation campaigning for women's suffrage in the United Kingdom Women's suffrage in the United Kingdom was a movement to fight for w ...
(later dubbed 'suffragettes' by the ''Daily Mail''), an organization famous for its militancy. Led by Pankhurst and her daughters, Christabel and Sylvia, the campaign culminated in 1918, when the British Parliament the
Representation of the People Act 1918 The Representation of the People Act 1918 was an Act of Parliament passed to reform the elections in the United Kingdom, electoral system in Great Britain and Ireland. It is sometimes known as the Fourth Reform Act. The Act extended the Suffrage, ...

Representation of the People Act 1918
granting the vote to women over the age of 30 who were householders, the wives of householders, occupiers of the property with an annual rent of £5, and graduates of British universities. There was also Warner's suffrage movement.


Reform in Parliament

Earl Grey Earl Grey is a title in the peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1806 for General Charles Grey, 1st Earl Grey, Charles Grey, 1st Baron Grey. In 1801, he was given the title Baron Grey of Howick in the County of Northumberland, and in ...
,
Lord Melbourne William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, (15 March 177924 November 1848), in some sources called Henry William Lamb, was a British Whig The Whigs were a political faction Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated ...

Lord Melbourne
and
Robert Peel Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, (5 February 1788 – 2 July 1850) was a British Conservative Party (UK), Conservative statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1834–1835 and 1841–1846) simultaneously serving as Cha ...

Robert Peel
were leaders of Parliament during the earlier years of the British reform movement. Grey and Melbourne were of the
Whig Whig or Whigs may refer to: Parties and factions In the British Isles * A pejorative nickname for the Kirk Party The Kirk Party were a radical Presbyterian faction of the Scotland, Scottish Covenanters during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ...
party, and their governments saw parliamentary reform, the
abolition of slavery Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for another person (a slaver), w ...
throughout the British Empire, and Poor Law reform. Peel was a
Conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of aest ...

Conservative
, whose Ministry took an important step in the direction of
tariff reform Protectionism is the economic policy The economic policy of governments covers the systems for setting levels of taxation, government budgets, the money supply and interest rates as well as the labour market, nationalization, national o ...
with the abolition of the
Corn Laws The Corn Laws were tariff A tariff is a tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law, a legal person is any person A person (plural people or per ...
.
William Ewart Gladstone William Ewart Gladstone (; 29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman and Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an ...

William Ewart Gladstone
was a reformer. Among the reforms he helped Parliament pass was a system of public education in the
Elementary Education Act 1870 The Elementary Education Act 1870, commonly known as Forster's Education Act, set the framework for schooling of all children between the ages of 5 and 12 in England and Wales. It established local education authorities with defined powers, authori ...
. In 1872, he saw the institution of a
secret ballot The secret ballot, also known as the Australian ballot, is a voting method in which a voter Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an Constituency, electorate, in order to make a collective decision making, decision or expres ...
to prevent voter coercion, trickery and bribery. By 1885, Gladstone had readjusted the parliamentary district lines by making each district equal in population, preventing one MP from having greater influence than another.


United States: 1840s–1930s

* Religion – the Evangelical
pietistic Pietism () is a movement within Lutheranism Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceive ...
Protestant churches were active in numerous reforms in the mid-19th century, including temperance and the abolition of slavery. See
Second Great Awakening The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Cath ...
* Art – The
Hudson River School The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement embodied by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by Romanticism. The paintings typically depict the Hudson River Valley and the surrounding area, ...
defined a distinctive American style of art, depicting romantic landscapes via the Transcendentalist perspective on nature. * Literature – founding of the Transcendentalist movement, which supported numerous reforms. * Utopian experiments: **
New Harmony, Indiana New Harmony is a historic town on the Wabash River in Harmony Township, Posey County, Indiana, Harmony Township, Posey County, Indiana, Posey County, Indiana. It lies north of Mount Vernon, Indiana, Mount Vernon, the county seat, and is part of th ...

New Harmony, Indiana
(founder:
Robert Owen Robert Owen (; 14 May 1771 – 17 November 1858) was a textile manufacturer, philanthropist and social reformer, and a founder of and the movement. He strove to improve factory working conditions, promoted experimental socialistic communitie ...
) – practiced economic communism, although it proved to be socially flawed and thus unable to sustain itself. **
Oneida Commune Oneida may refer to: Native American/First Nations * Oneida people, a Native American/First Nations people and one of the five founding nations of the Iroquois Confederacy * Oneida language * Oneida Indian Nation, based in New York * Oneida Nat ...
(founder:
John Noyes John Noyes (April 2, 1764October 26, 1841) was an American politician. He served as a member of the United States House of Representatives from Vermont. Biography Noyes was born in Atkinson, New Hampshire, Atkinson in the Province of New Hampshi ...

John Noyes
), practiced
eugenics Eugenics ( ; ) is a set of beliefs and practices that aim to improve the genetic quality of a human population Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species of primate, characterized by bipedality, bipedalism ...
,
complex marriage Group marriage or conjoint marriage is a marital arrangement where three or more adults enter into sexual, affective, romantic, or otherwise intimate short- or long-term partnerships, and share in any combination of finances, residences, care ...
, and
communal living An intentional community is a planned residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of group cohesiveness, social cohesion and teamwork. The members of an intentional community typically hold a common social, political, rel ...
. The commune was supported through the manufacture of silverware, and the corporation still exists today, producing spoons and forks for households of the world. The commune sold its assets when Noyes was jailed on numerous charges. **
Shakers The United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, more commonly known as the Shakers, are a millenarian Millenarianism (also millenarism), from Latin ''mīllēnārius'' "containing a thousand", is the belief by a religious ...

Shakers
– (founder: Mother Ann Lee) Stressed living and worship through dance, supported themselves through manufacture of
furniture Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools, and sofas), eating (table (furniture), tables), and sleeping (e.g., beds). Furniture is also used to hold objects at a con ...

furniture
. The furniture is still popular today. **
Brook Farm Brook Farm, also called the Brook Farm Institute of Agriculture and EducationFelton, 124 or the Brook Farm Association for Industry and Education,Rose, 140 was a utopia A utopia ( ) is an imagined community or society that possesses highly des ...
(founder: George Ripley), an agriculture-based commune that also ran schools. *
Educational reform Education reform is the name given to the goal of changing public education State schools ( British English) or public schools ( North American English) are generally primary or secondary educational institution, schools that educate all child ...
– (founder:
Horace Mann Horace Mann (May 4, 1796August 2, 1859) was an American educational reformer and Whig Whig or Whigs may refer to: Parties and factions In the British Isles * A pejorative nickname for the Kirk Party The Kirk Party were a radical Presby ...

Horace Mann
); goals were a more relevant curriculum and more accessible education.
Noah Webster Noah Webster Jr. (October 16, 1758 – May 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer Lexicography is divided into two separate but equally important groups: * Practical lexicography is the art or craft A craft or trade is a pastime or ...

Noah Webster
's dictionary standardized English spelling and language; William McGuffey's hugely successful children's books taught reading in incremental stages. * Moral reform – Female movement that began in the 1830s to end prostitution and the sexual double standard. Groups, such as the
New York Female Moral Reform SocietyThe New York Female Moral Reform Society (NYFMRS) was established in 1834 under the leadership of Lydia A. Finney, wife of revivalist Charles Grandison Finney Charles Grandison Finney (August 29, 1792 – August 16, 1875) was an American Presbyt ...
, were organized by women in the Northeast. These moral reform societies published magazines and journals to spread their message. By 1841 there were about 50,000 women in 616 local moral reform societies in the North. *
Women's rights Women's rights are the and s claimed for and s worldwide. They formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the 19th century and the s during the 20th and 21st centuries. In some countries, these rights are institutionalized or supp ...
movement – Founded by
Lucretia Mott Lucretia Mott (''née'' Coffin; January 3, 1793 – November 11, 1880) was an Quakers in North America, American Quaker, Abolitionism in the United States, abolitionist, women's rights activist, and social reformer. She had formed the idea of re ...

Lucretia Mott
and
Elizabeth Cady Stanton Elizabeth Cady Stanton (November 12, 1815 – October 26, 1902) was an American writer and activist who was a leader of the women's rights movement in the U.S. during the mid- to late-1800s. She was the main force behind the 1848 Seneca Falls C ...

Elizabeth Cady Stanton
who organized the
Seneca Falls Convention The Seneca Falls Convention was the first women's rights convention. It advertised itself as "a convention to discuss the social, civil, and religious condition and rights of woman".Wellman, 2004, p. 189 Held in the Wesleyan Methodist Church ( ...
in 1848 and published a
Declaration of Sentiments The Declaration of Sentiments, also known as the Declaration of Rights and Sentiments, is a document signed in 1848 by 68 women and 32 men—100 out of some 300 attendees at the first women's rights Women's rights are the rights Rights are ...
calling for the social and legal equality of women. Carried forward by
Lucy Stone Lucy Stone (August 13, 1818 – October 18, 1893) was a prominent U.S. orator, Abolitionism in the United States, abolitionist, and suffragist, and a vocal advocate and organizer promoting women's rights movement, rights for women. In 1847, St ...

Lucy Stone
who began speaking out for women's rights in 1847, and organized a series of national conventions.
Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony
joined the cause in 1851 and worked ceaselessly for
women's suffrage Women's suffrage is the right of women to vote in elections. Beginning in the mid-19th century, aside from the work being done by women for broad-based economic and political equality and for social reforms, women sought to change voting law ...
. * American labor movement – The campaign against excessive hours of work (and for the
eight-hour day The eight-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement, also known as the short-time movement, was a social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social So ...
) was a central issue for the labor movement during the 19th century. The
Knights of Labor Knights of Labor (K of L), officially Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor, was an American labor federation active in the late 19th century, especially the 1880s. It operated in the United States as well in Canada, and had chapters also i ...
, organized among the
skilled trades A tradesman or tradesperson is a skilled worker that specializes in a particular Trade (occupation), trade (occupation or field of work). Tradesmen usually have work experience, on-the-job training, and often formal vocational education in contr ...
in 1869 and led by Uriah Stephens, Terence Powderly and Mary Harris Jones, Mother Jones, was succeeded by the American Federation of Labor, the Congress of Industrial Organizations (combined now as the AFL–CIO), and the Industrial Workers of the World. * Child labor, Child labor reform – Lewis Hine used his camera as a tool for social reform. His photographs were instrumental in changing child labor laws in the United States. * Abolitionism in the United States, Abolition movement – The addition of Mexico's former territories in 1848 at the conclusion of the Mexican–American War reopened the possibility of the expansion of race-based chattel slavery; the adaptation of the slave system to industrial-style cotton production resulted in increasing dehumanization of black workers and a backlash against slavery in the northern states; key figures included William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass. * Know-Nothing movement, also Anti-Catholicism, anti-Catholic, Anti-Masonry, anti-Masonic, and Nativism (politics), nativist (1845–1856) * Prohibition in the United States, Prohibition or Temperance movement – Characterized by Frances Willard (suffragist), Frances Willard's Woman's Christian Temperance Union, which stressed education (formed 1881, declined in 1940s) and Carrie Nation's Anti-Saloon League (established nationally by Howard Hyde Russell), which promoted a confrontational approach towards bars and saloons. Other significant organizations include the Prohibition Party and Lincoln-Lee Legion.


Mexico: La Reforma, 1850s

The Mexican Liberal Party, led by Benito Juárez and Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada, guided the emergence of Mexico, as a nation state, from colonialism. It envisioned a modern civil society and Capitalism, capitalist economy. All citizens were Equality before the law, equal before the law, and Mexico's 1829 Abolitionism, abolition of slavery was reaffirmed. The Liberal program, documented in the 1857 Constitution of Mexico, was based on: * Abolition of the ''fueros'' which had granted civil immunity to members of the church and military * Liquidation of traditional ''ejido'' communal land holdings and distribution of freehold titles to the peasantry (the Ley Lerdo) * Expropriation and sale of concentrated church property holdings (beyond the clergy's religious needs) * Curtailment of exorbitant fees by the church for administering the sacraments * Abolition of separate military and religious courts (the Ley Juárez) * Freedom of religion and guarantees of many Civil liberties, civil and political liberties * Secular education, Secular public education * Civil registry for births, marriages and deaths * Elimination of all forms of cruel and unusual punishment, including the Capital punishment, death penalty * Elimination of debtor's prisons and all forms of personal servitude


Ottoman Empire: 1840s–1870s

The Tanzimat, meaning ''reorganization'' of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era (Ottoman Empire), First Constitutional Era in 1876. The Tanzimat reform era was characterized by various attempts to modernize the Ottoman Empire, to secure its territorial integrity against nationalist movements and aggressive powers. The reforms encouraged Ottomanism among the diverse ethnic groups of the Empire, attempting to stem the tide of Rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire, nationalist movements within the Ottoman Empire. The reforms attempted to integrate non-Muslims and non-Turks more thoroughly into Ottoman society by enhancing their civil liberties and granting them equality throughout the Empire. Peasants often opposed the reforms because they upset traditional relationships.


Russia 1860s

The Russian Empire in the 19th century was characterized by very conservative and reactionary policies issued by the autocratic tsars. The great exception came during the reign of Alexander II of Russia, Alexander II (1855–1881), especially the 1860s. By far the greatest and most unexpected was the abolition of serfdom, which affected 23 million of the Empire's population of 74 million. They belonged to the state, to monasteries and to 104,000 rich gentry landowners. `


Emancipation of the serfs 1861

The emancipation reform of 1861 that freed the 23 million serfs was the single most important event in 19th-century Russian history, and the beginning of the end for the landed aristocracy's monopoly of power. Emancipation brought a supply of free labour to the cities, stimulating industry, and allowed the middle class to grow in number and influence. The freed peasants did not receive any free land. They had to pay a special tax for what amounted to their lifetime to the government, which in turn paid the landlords a generous price for the land that they had lost. All the property turned over to the peasants was owned collectively by the ''mir'', the village community, which divided the land among the peasants and supervised the various holdings. Although serfdom was abolished, since its abolition was achieved on terms unfavourable to the peasants, revolutionary tensions were not abated, despite Alexander II's intentions. Revolutionaries believed that the newly freed serfs were merely being sold into wage slavery in the onset of the industrial revolution, and that the bourgeoisie had effectively replaced landowners.


Judicial reforms

The judicial reforms were among the most successful and consistent of all his reforms. A completely new court system and order of legal proceedings were established. The main results were the introduction of a unified judicial system of the Russian Empire, judicial system instead of a cumbersome set of estates of the realm courts, and fundamental changes in criminal trials. The latter included the establishment of the principle of Equality before the law, equality of the parties involved, the introduction of public Hearing (law), hearings, the jury trial, and a professional advocate that had never existed in Russia. However, there were also problems, as certain obsolete institutions were not covered by the reform. Also, the reform was hindered by extrajudicial punishment, introduced on a widespread scale during the reigns of his successors – Alexander III of Russia, Alexander III and Nicholas II of Russia, Nicholas II. One of the most important results of the reform was wide introduction of jury trials. The jury trial included three professional judges and twelve jurors. A juror had to possess real estate of a certain value. Unlike in modern jury trials, jurors not only could decide whether the defendant was guilty or not guilty but also could decide that the defendant was guilty but not to be punished, as Alexander II believed that justice without morality is wrong. The sentence was rendered by professional judges.


Additional reforms

A host of new reforms followed in diverse areas. The tsar appointed Dmitry Milyutin to carry out significant reforms in the Russian armed forces. Further important changes were made concerning industry and commerce, and the new freedom thus afforded produced a large number of limited liability company, limited liability companies. Plans were formed for building a great network of railways, partly to develop the natural resources of the country, and partly to increase its power for defense and attack. Military reforms included universal conscription, introduced for all social classes on 1 January 1874. A new judicial administration (1864), based on the French model, introduced security of tenure. A new penal code and judicial reform of Alexander II, a greatly simplified system of civil and criminal procedure also came into operation. Reorganisation of the judiciary occurred to include trial in open court, with judges appointed for life, a jury system and the creation of justices of the peace to deal with minor offences at local level. Legal historian Sir Henry Maine credited Alexander II with the first great attempt since the time of Grotius to codify and humanise the usages of war. Alexander's bureaucracy instituted an elaborate scheme of local self-government (zemstvo) for the rural districts (1864) and the large towns (1870), with elective assemblies possessing a restricted right of taxation, and a new rural and municipal police under the direction of the MVD (Russia), Minister of the Interior. The Alaska colony was losing money, and would be impossible to defend and wartime against Britain, so in 1867 Russia Alaska Purchase, sold Alaska to the United States for $7.2 million (equivalent to roughly $200 million in current dollars). The Russian administrators, soldiers, settlers, and some of the priests returned home. Others stayed to minister to their native parishioners, who remain members of the Russian Orthodox Church into the 21st century.


Turkey: 1920s–1930s

Atatürk's Reforms were a series of significant political, legal, cultural, social and economic changes that were implemented under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in the 1920s and 1930s in the new Republic of Turkey In the years between 1919 and 1923 Mustafa Kemal was at the forefront of the Turkish War of Independence and involved with the eradication of the antiquated institutions of the Osmanic Empire and in laying the foundations of the new Turkish State. He approached the National Congresses of Erzurum and Sivas to organise and lift the morale of the people in its determined opposition to the Forces of the Entente who were occupying Anatolia. By the end of these conventions he had managed to convey the message that the idea and the ideals of outdated imperialism ought be dropped so that people within the national boundaries could make decisions in accordance with the principles and general guidelines of an effective national policy. After the occupation of Istanbul by the Forces of the Entente he laid the foundations for the new Turkish State when in 1920 he united the Great National Assembly in Ankara. With the government of the Great National Assembly, of which he was president, Mustafa Kemal fought the Forces of the Entente and the Sultan's army which had remained there in collaboration with the occupying forces. Finally, on 9 September 1922 he succeeded in driving the Allied Forces back to Izmir, along with the other forces which had managed to penetrate the heartland of Anatolia. By this action he saved the country from invasion by foreign forces.Ali Kazancigil and Ergun Özbudun, ''Ataturk: Founder of a Modern State'' (1982).


See also

* 1921 International Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Women and Children * Hindu reform movements * Lebensreform * Macquarie science reform movement * Reform Judaism * Revitalization movement, socio-cultural transformation movements * The Venus Project * Big tent * Structural fix


References


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Reform Movement Reform movements, History of social movements