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A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a
social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology The word "Social" derives fr ...
or
political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive process resulting in the selection ...

political
one. This may be to carry out, resist or undo a
social change Social change involves alteration of the social order The term social order can be used in two senses: In the first sense, it refers to a particular system of social structures and institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntingt ...
. It is a type of
group action In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). ...
and may involve
individuals An individual is that which exists as a distinct wikt:entity , entity. Individuality (or self-hood) is the state or quality of being an individual; particularly (in the case of humans) of being a person unique from other people and possessing one ...
,
organizations An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has ...
or both. Definitions of the term are slightly varied. Social movements have been described as "organizational structures and strategies that may empower oppressed populations to mount effective challenges and resist the more powerful and advantaged elites". They represent a method of social change from the bottom within
nations A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Level of analysis" is distinct from the term " unit of observation ...

nations
.
Political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of ...
and
sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the scie ...
have developed a variety of theories and empirical research on social movements. For example, some research in political science highlights the relation between popular movements and the formation of new
political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific political ideology ...
as well as discussing the function of social movements in relation to
agenda setting Agenda-setting describes the "ability (of the news media) to influence the importance placed on the topics of the Political agenda, public agenda". Agenda-setting is the manipulation of Public opinion, public awareness and concern of salient issues ...
and influence on politics. Sociologists distinguish between several types of social movement examining things such as scope, type of change, method of work, range, and time frame. Some scholars have argued that modern Western social movements became possible through education (the wider dissemination of
literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In recent centuries, the definition has expan ...

literature
) and increased mobility of labor due to the
industrialization Factories, refineries, mines, and agribusiness are all elements of industrialisation Industrialisation ( alternatively spelled industrialization) is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian societ ...
and
urbanization Urbanization (or urbanisation) refers to the population shift from rural File:Rural landscape in Finland.jpg, A rural landscape in Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000. In general, a rural area or a countryside is a geographi ...
of 19th-century societies.Weinberg, 2013 It is sometimes argued that the freedom of expression, education and relative economic independence prevalent in the modern
Western culture Western culture, also known as Western civilization, Occidental culture, or Western society, is the heritage Heritage may refer to: History and society * In history History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired b ...
are responsible for the unprecedented number and scope of various contemporary social movements. Many of the social movements of the last hundred years grew up, like the
Mau Mau The Mau Mau Uprising (1952–1960), also known as the Mau Mau Rebellion, the Kenya Emergency, and the Mau Mau Revolt, was a war in the British Kenya Colony The Colony and Protectorate of Kenya, commonly known as British Kenya, was part of ...
in Kenya, to oppose Western colonialism. Social movements have been and continue to be closely connected with
democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the a ...

democratic
political system In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such ...
s. Occasionally, social movements have been involved in
democratizing Democratization, or democratisation, is the transition to a more democratic political regime, including substantive political changes moving in a democratic direction. It may be the transition from an authoritarianism, authoritarian regime to a ful ...
nations, but more often they have flourished after democratization. Over the past 200 years, they have become part of a popular and global expression of
dissent Sticker art arguing that dissent is necessary for democracy.">democracy.html" ;"title="Sticker art arguing that dissent is necessary for democracy">Sticker art arguing that dissent is necessary for democracy. Dissent is an opinion, philosophy or ...

dissent
.Tilly, 2004 Modern movements often use technology and the internet to mobilize people globally. Adapting to communication trends is a common theme among successful movements. Research is beginning to explore how advocacy organizations linked to social movements in the U.S. and Canada use
social media Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation Creation may refer to: Religion * Creation ''ex nihilo'', the concept that matter was created by God out of nothing * Creation myth A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) ...

social media
to facilitate civic engagement and collective action.


Definitions

Mario Diani argues that nearly all definitions share three criteria: "a network of informal interactions between a plurality of individuals, groups and/or organizations, engaged in a political or cultural conflict, on the basis of a shared collective identity" Sociologist
Charles Tilly Charles Tilly (May 27, 1929 – April 29, 2008) was an American sociology, sociologist, political science, political scientist, and historian who wrote on the relationship between politics and society. He was a professor of history, sociology, and ...
defines social movements as a series of contentious performances, displays and campaigns by which ordinary people make collective claims on others. For Tilly, social movements are a major vehicle for ordinary people's participation in public politics.Tilly, 2004, p.3 He argues that there are three major elements to a social movement: # Campaigns: a sustained, organized public effort making collective claims of target authorities; # Repertoire ( repertoire of contention): employment of combinations from among the following forms of
political action Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resource A resource is a source or supply from which a ben ...
: creation of special-purpose associations and coalitions, public meetings, solemn processions, vigils, rallies, demonstrations, petition drives, statements to and in public media, and pamphleteering; and # WUNC displays: participants' concerted public representation of worthiness, unity, numbers, and commitments on the part of themselves and/or their constituencies. Sidney Tarrow defines a social movement as "collective challenges o elites, authorities, other groups or cultural codesby people with common purposes and solidarity in sustained interactions with elites, opponents and authorities." He specifically distinguishes social movements from political parties and
advocacy group Advocacy groups, also known as special interest groups, use various forms of advocacy Advocacy is an activity Activity may refer to: * Action (philosophy), in general * Human activity: human behavior, in sociology behavior may refer to al ...
s. The sociologists John McCarthy and Mayer Zald define as a social movement as "a set of opinions and beliefs in a population which represents preferences for changing some elements of the social structure and/or reward distribution of a society." According to Paul van Seeters and Paul James, defining a social movement entails a few minimal conditions of 'coming together':


History


Beginning

The early growth of social movements was connected to broad economic and political changes in England in the mid-18th century, including
political representation Political representation is the activity of making citizens Citizenship is the Status (law), status of a person recognized under the law of a country (and/or local jurisdiction) of belonging to thereof. In international law it is membership to ...
,
market capitalization Market capitalization, commonly called market cap, is the market value of a publicly traded company A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company A public limited compan ...
, and
proletarianization In Marxism Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that uses a Economic materialism, materialist interpretation of historical development, better known as historical materialism, to understand Social class, class relations and social conf ...
. The first mass social movement catalyzed around the controversial political figure
John Wilkes John Wilkes (17 October 1725 – 26 December 1797) was a British radical Radical may refer to: Arts and entertainment Music *Radical (mixtape), ''Radical'' (mixtape), by Odd Future, 2010 *Radical (Smack album), ''Radical'' (Smack album), 1 ...
. As editor of the paper ''
The North Briton ''The North Briton'' was a radical Radical may refer to: Arts and entertainment Music *Radical (mixtape), ''Radical'' (mixtape), by Odd Future, 2010 *Radical (Smack album), ''Radical'' (Smack album), 1988 *"Radicals", a song by Tyler, The Crea ...
'', Wilkes vigorously attacked the new administration of
Lord Bute John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, (; 25 May 1713 – 10 March 1792), styled as Lord Bute between 1713 and 1723, was a British nobility, British nobleman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister of Kingdom of Great Britain ...

Lord Bute
and the peace terms that the new government accepted at the 1763 Treaty of Paris at the end of the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain and Kingdom of France, France. In Europe, the conflict ar ...
. Charged with
seditious libel Sedition is overt conduct, such as speech Speech is human vocal communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin ...
, Wilkes was arrested after the issue of a
general warrant A writ of assistance is a written order (a writ) issued by a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry o ...
, a move that Wilkes denounced as unlawful - the
Lord Chief Justice The Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales is the Head of the Judiciary of England and Wales There are various levels of judiciary in England and Wales — different types of courts have different styles of judges. They also form a stric ...
eventually ruled in Wilkes favour. As a result of this, Wilkes became a figurehead to the growing movement for popular sovereignty among the middle classes - people began chanting "Wilkes and Liberty" in the streets. After a later period of exile brought about by further charges of libel and
obscenity An obscenity is any utterance or act that strongly offends the prevalent morality Morality (from ) is the differentiation of intention Intentions are mental states in which the agent commits themselves to a course of action. Having the pl ...
, Wilkes stood for the Parliamentary seat at
Middlesex Middlesex (; abbreviation: Middx) is a Historic counties of England, historic county in South East England, southeast England. Its area is almost entirely within the wider urbanised area of London and mostly within the Ceremonial counties of En ...
, where most of his support was located. When Wilkes was imprisoned in the
King's Bench Prison The King's Bench Prison was a prison in Southwark Southwark ( ) is a district of Central London situated on the south bank of the River Thames, forming the north-western part of the wider modern London Borough of Southwark. The district, w ...
on 10 May 1768, a mass movement of support emerged, with large demonstrations in the streets under the slogan "No liberty, no King." Stripped of the right to sit in Parliament, Wilkes became an
Alderman An alderman is a member of a municipal A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level su ...
of
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
in 1769, and an activist group called the ''Society for the Supporters of the Bill of Rights'' began aggressively promoting his policies. This was the first ever sustained social movement: it involved public meetings, demonstrations, the distribution of pamphlets on an unprecedented scale and the mass petition march. However, the movement was careful not to cross the line into open rebellion; - it tried to rectify the faults in governance through appeals to existing legal precedents and was conceived of as an extra-Parliamentary form of agitation to arrive at a consensual and constitutional arrangement. The force and influence of this social movement on the streets of London compelled the authorities to concede to the movement's demands. Wilkes was returned to Parliament,
general warrant A writ of assistance is a written order (a writ) issued by a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry o ...
s were declared as unconstitutional and press freedom was extended to the coverage of
Parliamentary debate Parliamentary debate (also referred to as "parliamentary") is an academic debate Debate is a process that involves formal discussion on a particular topic. In a debate, opposing arguments are put forward to argue for opposing viewpoints. Debate ...
s. A much larger movement of
anti-Catholic Anti-Catholicism is hostility towards Catholics or opposition to the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian chu ...
protest was triggered by the
Papists Act 1778 The Papists Act of 1778 is an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (18 George III c. 60) and was the first Act for Roman Catholic relief. Later in 1778 it was also enacted by the Parliament of Ireland The Parliament of Ireland ( ga, Pa ...
, which eliminated a number of the penalties and disabilities endured by Roman Catholics in England, and formed around
Lord George Gordon . Lord George Gordon (26 December 1751 – 1 November 1793) was a Kingdom of Great Britain, British politician best known for lending his name to the Gordon Riots The Gordon Riots of 1780 were several days of rioting in London motivated by ant ...
, who became the President of the Protestant Association in 1779. The Association had the support of leading Calvinist religious figures, including
Rowland Hill Sir Rowland Hill, KCB, FRS (3 December 1795 – 27 August 1879) was an English teacher, inventor and social reformer. He campaigned for a comprehensive reform of the postal system, based on the concept of Uniform Penny Post and his solut ...
,
Erasmus Middleton Erasmus Middleton (1739–1805) was an English clergyman, author and editor. Early life He was the son of Erasmus Middleton of Horncastle, Lincolnshire. At age 22 he underwent a religion conversion among Wesleyan Methodist Church (Great Britain), ...
, and
John Rippon John Rippon (29 April 1751 – 17 December 1836) was an English Baptist Baptists form a major branch of Protestantism, Protestant Christianity distinguished by baptizing professing Christianity, Christian believers only (believer's baptism, ...

John Rippon
. Gordon was an articulate propagandist and he inflamed the mob with fears of Papism and a return to absolute monarchical rule. The situation deteriorated rapidly, and in 1780, after a meeting of the Protestant Association, its members subsequently marched on the
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorpor ...
to deliver a petition demanding the repeal of the Act, which the government refused to do. Soon, large riots broke out across London and embassies and Catholic owned businesses were attacked by angry mobs. Other
political movement A political movement is a collective attempt by a group of people to change government policy Public policy is a course of action created and/or enacted, typically by a government A government is the system or group of people governin ...
s that emerged in the late 18th century included the British
abolitionist Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end slavery. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that sought to end the Atlantic slave trade and liberate the enslaved people. The British ...
movement against
slavery Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property Property is a system of rights that give ...
(becoming one between the sugar boycott of 1791 and the second great petition drive of 1806), and possibly the upheaval surrounding the and
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
s. In the opinion of Eugene Black (1963), "...association made possible the extension of the politically effective public. Modern extra parliamentary political organization is a product of the late eighteenth century the history of the age of reform cannot be written without it.


Growth and spread

From 1815,
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...

Britain
after victory in the
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
entered a period of social upheaval characterised by the growing maturity of the use of social movements and special-interest associations.
Chartism Chartism was a movement for political reform in Britain that existed from 1838 to 1857. It took its name from the People's Charter of 1838 and was a national protest movement, with particular strongholds of support in Northern England North ...
was the first mass movement of the growing working-class in the world. It campaigned for political reform between 1838 and 1848 with the
People's Charter of 1838 Chartism was a movement for political reform in Britain that existed from 1838 to 1857. It took its name from the People's Charter of 1838 and was a national protest movement, with particular strongholds of support in Northern England, the East ...
as its manifesto – this called for
universal suffrage Universal suffrage (also called universal franchise, general suffrage, and common suffrage of the common man) gives the right to vote Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise, is the right to vote in public, political elections (a ...
and the implementation of the
secret ballot The secret ballot, also known as the Australian ballot, is a voting method in which a voter Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an Constituency, electorate, in order to make a collective decision making, decision or expres ...
, amongst other things. The term "social movements" was introduced in 1848 by the German Sociologist
Lorenz von Stein Lorenz von Stein (18 November 1815 – 23 September 1890) was a German economist, sociologist, and public administration scholar from Eckernförde. As an advisor to Meiji period The is an era of Japanese history which extended from October ...

Lorenz von Stein
in his book ''Socialist and Communist Movements since the Third French Revolution (1848)'' in which he introduced the term "social movement" into scholarly discussions - actually depicting in this way
political movement A political movement is a collective attempt by a group of people to change government policy Public policy is a course of action created and/or enacted, typically by a government A government is the system or group of people governin ...
s fighting for the social rights understood as
welfare rights Welfare rights means the rights of people to be aware of and receive their maximum entitlement to state welfare benefits, and to be treated reasonably well by the welfare system. It has been established in the United Kingdom The United Kingd ...
. The
labor movement The labour movement or labor movement consists of two main wings: the trade union movement (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a l ...
and
socialist movement The history of socialism has its origins in the 1789 French Revolution and the changes which it brought, although it has precedents in earlier movements and ideas. ''The Communist Manifesto'' was written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1847-4 ...
of the late 19th century are seen as the prototypical social movements, leading to the formation of
communist Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

communist
and
social democratic Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individu ...
parties and organisations. These tendencies were seen in poorer countries as pressure for reform continued, for example in Russia with the
Russian Revolution of 1905 The Russian Revolution of 1905,. also known as the First Russian Revolution,. was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government. It included worker st ...
and of 1917, resulting in the collapse of the Czarist regime around the end of the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...

First World War
. In 1945, Britain after victory in the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
entered a period of radical reform and change. In the post-war period,
Feminism Feminism is a range of social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting popu ...

Feminism
,
gay rights movement Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) movements are social movements that advocate for LGBT people in society. Social movements may focus on LGBT rights, equal rights, such as the ongoing movement for same-sex marriage, or they may focu ...
,
peace movement A peace movement is a social movement which seeks to achieve ideals, such as the ending of a particular war (or wars) or minimizing inter-human violence in a particular place or situation. They are often linked to the goal of achieving world peac ...
,
Civil Rights Movement The 1954–1968 civil rights movement in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North ...
,
anti-nuclear movement The anti-nuclear movement is a social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interactin ...
and
environmental movement The environmental movement (sometimes referred to as the ecology movement), also including conservation Conservation is the preservation or efficient use of resources, or the conservation of various quantities under physical laws. Conservatio ...
emerged, often dubbed the
New Social MovementsThe term new social movements (NSMs) is a theory of social movements that attempts to explain the plethora of new movements that have come up in various western societies roughly since the mid-1960s (i.e. in a post-industrial economy) which are cl ...
They led, among other things, to the formation of
green parties A Green party is a formally organized political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about poli ...
and organisations influenced by the
new left The New Left was a broad political movement mainly in the 1960s and 1970s consisting of activists in the Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various s, s and , depending on the context, most often consisti ...
. Some find in the end of the 1990s the emergence of a new global social movement, the
anti-globalization movement The anti-globalization movement, or counter-globalization movement, is a social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a or one. This may be to carry out, r ...
. Some social movement scholars posit that with the rapid pace of globalization, the potential for the emergence of new ''type'' of social movement is latent—they make the analogy to national movements of the past to describe what has been termed a
global citizens movementThe term global citizens movement refers to a constellation of organized and overlapping citizens groups seeking to foster global solidarity in policy and consciousness. The term is often used synonymously with the anti-globalization movement The ...
.


Key processes

Several key processes lie behind the history of social movements.
Urbanization Urbanization (or urbanisation) refers to the population shift from rural File:Rural landscape in Finland.jpg, A rural landscape in Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000. In general, a rural area or a countryside is a geographi ...
led to larger settlements, where people of similar goals could find each other, gather and organize. This facilitated
social interaction In social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botan ...
between scores of people, and it was in urban areas that those early social movements first appeared. Similarly, the process of industrialization which gathered large masses of workers in the same region explains why many of those early social movements addressed matters such as economic wellbeing, important to the worker class. Many other social movements were created at
universities A university () is an of (or ) and which awards s in several . Universities typically offer both and programs in different schools or faculties of learning. The word ''university'' is derived from the ''universitas magistrorum et scholari ...

universities
, where the process of
mass education Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of all people and is imposed by the government. This education may take place at a registered school or Homeschooling, at other places. Compulsory school attendance or compulso ...
brought many people together. With the development of
communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power o ...

communication
technologies, creation and activities of social movements became easier – from printed pamphlets circulating in the 18th century
coffeehouse A coffeehouse, coffee shop, or café is an establishment that primarily serves coffee of various types, e.g. espresso, latte, and cappuccino. Some coffeehouses may serve cold drinks, such as iced coffee, iced tea, and other non-caffeinated be ...

coffeehouse
s to
newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media The presentation of works in sequential segments ...

newspaper
s and
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
, all those tools became important factors in the growth of the social movements. Finally, the spread of
democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation ("direct democracy"), or to cho ...

democracy
and
political rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' political freedom, freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals. They ensure one's entitlement to participate in the civil and p ...
like the
freedom of speech Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change without constraint. Something is "free" if it can change easily and is not constrained in its present state. In philoso ...

freedom of speech
made the creation and functioning of social movements much easier.


Mass mobilization

Nascent social movements often fail to achieve their objectives because they fail to mobilize sufficient numbers of people. Srdja Popovic, author of Blueprint for Revolution, and spokesperson for
OTPOR! Otpor ( sr-Cyrl, Отпор!, en, Resistance!, stylized as Otpor!) was a political organization in Republic of Serbia (1990–2006), Serbia (then part of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, FR Yugoslavia) from 1998 until 2004. In its initial period ...
, says that movements succeed when they address issues that people actually care about. "It's unrealistic to expect people to care about more than what they already care about, and any attempt to make them do so is bound to fail." Activists too often make the mistake of trying to convince people to address their issues. A mobilization strategy aimed at large-scale change often begins with action a small issue that concerns many people. For instance,
Mahatma Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (; ; 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian lawyer, anti-colonial nationalist Quote: "... marks Gandhi as a hybrid cosmopolitan figure who transformed ... anti-colonial nationalist politics in the ...

Mahatma Gandhi
's successful overthrow of British rule in India began as a small protest focused on the British tax on salt. Popovic also argues that a social movement has little chance of growing if it relies on boring speeches and the usual placard waving marches. He argues for creating movements that people actually want to join. OTPOR! succeeded because it was fun, funny, and invented graphic ways of ridiculing dictator
Slobodan Milosevic Slobodan ( sr-Cyrl, Слободан) is a Serbo-Croatian Serbo-Croatian () – also called Serbo-Croat (), Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), and Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS) – is a South Slavic lang ...
. It turned fatalism and passivity into action by making it easy, even cool, to become a revolutionary; branding itself within hip slogans, rock music and street theatre.
Tina Rosenberg Tina Rosenberg (born April 14, 1960) is an United States, American journalism, journalist and the author of three books. For one of them, ''The Haunted Land: Facing Europe's Ghosts After Communism'' (1995), she won the Pulitzer Prize for General ...
, in Join the Club, How Peer Pressure can Transform the World, shows how movements grow when there is a core of enthusiastic players who encourage others to join them.


Types of social movement

Sociologists distinguish between several types of social movement: * Scope: **
reform movement A reform movement is a type of social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting pop ...
- movements advocating changing some
norms Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic disciplines * Norm (geology), an estimate of the idealised mineral content of a rock * Norm (philosophy), a standard in normative ethics that is prescriptive rather than a descriptive or explanato ...
or
law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its bounda ...
s. Examples of such a movement would include a
trade union A trade union (or a labor union in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native ...
with a goal of increasing
workers rights Labor rights or workers' rights are both legal rights and human rights Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, 13 December 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of ...
, a
green movement Green Movement may refer to: * Green politics, a political ideology ** Green Movement in Bulgaria ** Green Movement in India ** Ukrainian Green movement ** Green Movement of Sri Lanka ** The Green Party (Israel) The Green Party ( he, המפל ...
advocating a set of
ecological Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Ecology considers organisms In biology ...
laws, or a movement supporting introduction of a
capital punishment Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ' ...

capital punishment
or the right to
abortion Abortion is the ending of a pregnancy Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring In biology, offspring are the young born of living organism, organisms, produced either by a single organism ...

abortion
. Some reform movements may aim for a change in custom and moral norms, such as condemnation of
pornography Pornography (often shortened to porn) is the portrayal of Human sexual activity, sexual subject matter for the exclusive purpose of sexual arousal.
or proliferation of some
religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...

religion
. ** radical movement - movements dedicated to changing
value system In ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong action (philosophy), behavior".''Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy'"Ethics"/ref> The field o ...
s in a fundamental way. Examples would include the
Civil Rights Movement The 1954–1968 civil rights movement in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North ...
which demanded full
civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights Rights are legal Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity'', ...
and equality under the law to all Americans, regardless of
race Race, RACE or "The Race" may refer to: * Race (biology), an informal taxonomic classification within a species, generally within a sub-species * Race (human categorization), classification of humans into groups based on physical traits, and/or s ...
; the
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Pol ...

Polish
Solidarity Solidarity is an awareness of shared interests, objectives, standards, and sympathies creating a psychological sense of unity of groups or classes, which rejects the class conflict Class conflict, also referred to as class struggle and clas ...
(''Solidarność'') movement which demanded the transformation of a
Stalinist Stalinism is the means of governing and policies which were implemented in the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. ...
political and
economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environm ...
into a
democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation ("direct democracy"), or to cho ...

democracy
; or the
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
n shack dwellers' movement
Abahlali baseMjondolo Abahlali baseMjondolo (AbM, , in English: "the people of the shacks") is a shack A shack (or, less often, shanty) is a type of small, often primitive shelter or dwelling. Like huts, shacks are constructed by hand using available materials; h ...
which demands the full inclusion of shack dwellers into the life of cities. * Type of change: ** innovation movement - movements which want to introduce or change particular norms, values, etc. The singularitarianism movement advocating deliberate action to effect and ensure the safety of the
technological singularity The technological singularity—or simply the singularity—is a hypothetical A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation An explanation is a set of statements usually constructed to describe a set of facts which clarifie ...
is an example of an innovation movement. ** conservative movement - movements which want to preserve existing norms, values, etc. For example, the anti-technology 19th century
Luddite The Luddites were a secret oath-based organisation of English textile workers in the 19th century, a radical faction which destroyed textile machinery as a form of protest. The group are believed to have taken their name from Ned Ludd, a wea ...

Luddite
s movement or the modern movement opposing the spread of the
genetically modified food Genetically modified foods (GM foods), also known as genetically engineered foods (GE foods), or bioengineered foods are foods produced from organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organi ...
could be seen as conservative movements in that they aimed to fight specific technological changes. * Targets: ** group-focus movements - focused on affecting groups or society in general, for example, advocating the change of the political system. Some of these groups transform into or join a
political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific political ideology ...
, but many remain outside the reformist party political system. ** individual-focused movements - focused on affecting individuals. Most
religious movementVarious sociological classifications of religious movements have been proposed by scholars. In the sociology of religion, the most widely used classification is the church-sect wikt:typology, typology. The typology states that churches, ecclesia, de ...
s would fall under this category. * Methods of work: ** peaceful movements - various movements which use
nonviolent Nonviolence is the personal practice of not causing harm to one's self and others under every condition. It may come from the belief that hurting people, animals and/or the environment is unnecessary to achieve an outcome and it may refer to a ge ...
means of protest as part of a campaign of
nonviolent resistance Nonviolent resistance (NVR), or nonviolent action, is the practice of achieving goal A goal is an idea In common usage and in philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those abo ...
, also often called
civil resistance Civil resistance is political action that relies on the use of nonviolent resistance by civil groups to challenge a particular power, force, policy or regime. Civil resistance operates through appeals to the adversary, pressure and coercion: it can ...
. The American Civil Rights Movement, Polish Solidarity movement or the
nonviolent Nonviolence is the personal practice of not causing harm to one's self and others under every condition. It may come from the belief that hurting people, animals and/or the environment is unnecessary to achieve an outcome and it may refer to a ge ...
,
civil disobedience Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizen Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the co ...
-orientated wing of the
Indian independence movement The Indian independence movement was a series of historic events with the ultimate aim of ending British rule in India The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', ...
would fall into this category. ** violent movements - various movements which resort to violence; they are usually armed and in extreme cases can take a form of a
paramilitary A paramilitary organization is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military A military, also known collectively as armed f ...
or
terrorist Terrorism, in its broadest sense, is the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. The term is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the ...

terrorist
organization. Examples: the Rote Armee Fraktion,
Al-Qaida Al-Qaeda (; ar, القاعدة ', , translation: "The Base", "The Foundation", alternatively spelled al-Qaida and al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national terrorist organization founded in 1988. by Osama bin Laden, Abdullah ...
. * Old and new: ** old movements - movements for change have existed for many centuries. Most of the oldest recognized movements, dating to late 18th and 19th centuries, fought for specific social groups, such as the working class, peasants, whites, aristocrats, Protestants, men. They were usually centered around some
materialistic Materialism or materialist may refer to: * Materialism Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volum ...
goals like improving the
standard of living Standard of living is the level of income, comforts and services available, generally applied to a society or location, rather than to an individual. Standard of living is relevant because it is considered to contribute to an individual's qualit ...
or, for example, the political autonomy of the working class. ** new movements - movements which became dominant from the second half of the 20th century. Notable examples include the
American civil rights movement#REDIRECT Civil rights movement#REDIRECT Civil rights movement {{Rcat shell, {{R from other capitalisation {{R from related ...
{{Rcat shell, {{R from other capitalisation {{R from related ...
,
second-wave feminism Second-wave feminism was a period of Feminism, feminist activity that began in the early 1960s and lasted roughly two decades. It took place throughout the Western world, and aimed to increase equality for women by building on previous feminist ...
,
gay rights movement Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) movements are social movements that advocate for LGBT people in society. Social movements may focus on LGBT rights, equal rights, such as the ongoing movement for same-sex marriage, or they may focu ...
, environmentalism and conservation efforts, opposition to mass surveillance, etc. They are usually centered around issues that go beyond but are not separate from class. * Range: ** global movements - social movements with global ( transnational) objectives and goals. Movements such as the
first First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill ...
(where Marx and Bakunin met),
second The second (symbol: s, also abbreviated: sec) is the base unit of time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, th ...
,
third Third or 3rd may refer to: Numbers *3rd, the ordinal form of the cardinal number 3 *fraction (mathematics), , a fraction that is one of three equal parts *Second#Sexagesimal divisions of calendar time and day, ¹⁄₆₀ of a ''second'', or ¹⁄ ...
and
fourth international The Fourth International (FI) is a revolutionary socialist international organization ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of international relations, international affairs. ...
s, the
World Social Forum The World Social Forum (WSF, pt, Fórum Social Mundial ) is an annual meeting of civil society organizations, first held in Brazil, which offers a self-conscious effort to develop an alternative future through the championing of counter-hegemoni ...
, the
Peoples' Global Action Peoples' Global Action (PGA) was the name of a worldwide co-ordination of radical social movements, grassroots campaigns and direct actions in resistance to capitalism Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the mea ...
and the
anarchist movement The history of anarchism is as ambiguous as anarchism Anarchism is a political philosophy Political philosophy is the philosophical study of government, addressing questions about the nature, scope, and legitimacy of public agents an ...

anarchist movement
seek to change society at a global level. ** local movements - most of the social movements have a local scope. They are focused on local or regional objectives, such as protecting a specific natural area, lobbying for the lowering of tolls in a certain motorway, or preserving a building about to be demolished for gentrification and turning it into a social center.


Identification of supporters

A difficulty for scholarship of movements is that for most, neither insiders to a movement nor outsiders apply consistent labels or even descriptive phrases. Unless there is a single leader who does, or a formal system of membership agreements, activists will typically use diverse labels and descriptive phrases that require scholars to discern when they are referring to the same or similar ideas, declare similar goals, adopt similar programs of action, and use similar methods. There can be great differences in the way that is done, to recognize who is and who is not a member or an allied group: * Insiders: Often exaggerate the level of support by considering people supporters whose level of activity or support is weak, but also reject those that outsiders might consider supporters because they discredit the cause, or are even seen as adversaries * Outsiders: Those not supporters who may tend to either underestimate or overestimate the level or support or activity of elements of a movement, by including or excluding those that insiders would exclude or include. It is often outsiders rather than insiders that apply the identifying labels for a movement, which the insiders then may or may not adopt and use to self-identify. For example, the label for the
levellers The Levellers were a political movement A political movement is a collective attempt by a group of people to change government policy or social values. Political movements are usually in opposition to an element of the status quo  and are ...
political movement A political movement is a collective attempt by a group of people to change government policy Public policy is a course of action created and/or enacted, typically by a government A government is the system or group of people governin ...
in 17th-century England was applied to them by their antagonists, as a
term of disparagement Term may refer to: *Terminology Terminology is a general word for the group of specialized words or meanings relating to a particular field, and also the study of such terms and their use. This is also known as terminology science. Terms are word ...
. Yet admirers of the movement and its aims later came to use the term, and it is the term by which they are known to history. Caution must always be exercised in any discussion of amorphous phenomena such as movements to distinguish between the views of insiders and outsiders, supporters and antagonists, each of whom may have their own purposes and agendas in
characterization Characterization or characterisation is the representation of persons (or other beings or creatures) in narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfiction Nonfiction (also spelle ...
or mischaracterization of it.


Dynamics of social movements

Social movements have a life cycle: they are created, they grow, they achieve successes or failures and eventually, they dissolve and cease to exist. They are more likely to evolve in the time and place which is friendly to the social movements: hence their evident symbiosis with the 19th century proliferation of ideas like individual rights, freedom of speech and civil disobedience. Social movements occur in liberal and authoritarian societies but in different forms. These new movements are activated by a wish for change in social customs, ethics and values which oppress certain communities. The birth of a social movement needs what sociologist
Neil Smelser Neil Joseph Smelser (1930–2017) was an American sociologist who served as professor Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an Academy, academic rank at university, universities and other post-secondary education and research institut ...
calls an ''initiating event'': a particular, individual event that will begin a
chain reaction A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place. In a chain reaction, positive feedback Positive feedback (exacerbating feedback, self-reinforcing feedback) is a pro ...
of events in the given society leading to the creation of a social movement. The root of this event must be the result of some common discontent among a community. Hence, making ''emergence'' the first step to a social movement. This discontent will act as the chain that links common people together, as they share the same experiences and feelings of oppression. "Within this stage, social movements are very preliminary and there is little to no organization. Instead this stage can be thought of as widespread discontent (Macionis, 2001; Hopper, 1950)." Emergence is prior to any sort of organized resistance to the condition of society. Jonathan Christiansen's essay on the four stages of social movement dissects further into the historical sociology of how each stage affects the whole movement. The Civil Rights Movement's early stages are an example of the public display of protest that is utilized to push a movement into the next stages. "It was not until after the Brown v. the Board of Education Supreme court decision (1954), which outlawed segregation in Public schools, and following the arrest of Rosa Parks in Montgomery, Alabama for refusing to comply with segregation laws on city buses by giving up her bus seat to a white man, that the American Civil Rights Movement would proceed to the next stage – coalescence." The impact of a black woman,
Rosa Parks Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an American activist in the civil rights movement best known for her pivotal role in the Montgomery bus boycott. The United States Congress has called her "the first ...

Rosa Parks
, riding in the whites-only section of the bus (although she was not acting alone or spontaneously—typically activist leaders lay the groundwork behind the scenes of interventions designed to spark a movement). This leads into coalesce because now the common dilemma and source of oppression is being pinned down, allowing for organizations and appearance to the public eye to be established. The Polish Solidarity movement, which eventually toppled the communist regimes of Eastern Europe, developed after trade union activist
Anna Walentynowicz Anna Walentynowicz (; 15 August 1929 – 10 April 2010) was a Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a count ...

Anna Walentynowicz
was fired from work. The South African shack dwellers' movement
Abahlali baseMjondolo Abahlali baseMjondolo (AbM, , in English: "the people of the shacks") is a shack A shack (or, less often, shanty) is a type of small, often primitive shelter or dwelling. Like huts, shacks are constructed by hand using available materials; h ...
grew out of a road blockade in response to the sudden selling off of a small piece of land promised for housing to a developer. Such an event is also described as a ''volcanic model'' – a social movement is often created after a large number of people realize that there are others sharing the same value and desire for a particular social change. This third stage, bureaucratization, is when movements must become more organized, centered around a more systematic model. The set up and system for going about the construct must be more formal, with people taking on specific roles and responsibilities. "In this phase their political power is greater than in the previous stages in that they may have more regular access to political elites." In this stage, one organization may take over another one in order to obtain a greater status and formal alliance. This 'taking over' may be a positive or negative move for organizations. Ella Baker, an activist who played a role in the NAACP, had proposed to the students of the student movement to start their own organization. This becomes known as the SNCC, the student nonviolent coordinating committee (1960s). The students could have join forces with the SCLC, an already existing organization, but that would have been a poor bureaucratizing decision, as they would succumb to old ideologies. New and progressive ideas that challenge prior authority are crucial to social change. The declining of a social movement does not necessarily mean failure. There are multiple routes in which a movement may take before proceeding into decline. Success of a movement would result in permanent changes within the society and/or government that would result in a loss of need for protest. Failure is often the result of the incapability to keep a common focus, and work towards the goal in mind. "Failure of social movements due to organizational or strategic failings is common for many organizations." Such a route would result in the gradual breaking up of an organization, and out of the stages of movement. Co-optation results when people or groups are integrated and shift away from the social movement's initial concerns and values. Repression is another example, when the movement is slowly wiped away from the public platform through means of an outside force, usually being the government. The last route into declining is going mainstream, which is generally perceived as an overall success. This is when goals of the movement are taken into society as a part of daily life, making it a 'social norm.' For example, birth control is still a greatly debated topic on a government level, but it has been accepted into social life as a common thing that exists. It is important to recognize that though movements may disintegrate and cease to be active, the impact that they have in the social realm is success in its own way. It sparks the notion in new generations that the possibility to organize and make change is there.


Social movement theories

Sociologists have developed several
theories A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with such processes as observational study or researc ...
related to social movements endall, 2005 Some of the better-known approaches are outlined below. Chronologically they include: * marxist theory (1880s) * collective behavior/collective action theories (1950s) * relative deprivation theory (1960s) * value-added theory (1960s) * resource mobilization (1970s) * political process theory (1980s) * Framing (social sciences), framing theory (1980s) (closely related to social constructionist theory) * new social movement theory (1980s)


Deprivation theory

relative deprivation theory, Deprivation theory argues that social movements have their foundations among people who feel deprived of some good(s) or resource(s). According to this approach, individuals who are lacking some good, service, or comfort are more likely to organize a social movement to improve (or defend) their conditions. There are two significant problems with this theory. First, since most people feel deprived at one level or another almost all the time, the theory has a hard time explaining why the groups that form social movements do when other people are also deprived. Second, the reasoning behind this theory is circular – often the only evidence for deprivation is the social movement. If deprivation is claimed to be the cause but the only evidence for such is the movement, the reasoning is circular.


Mass society theory

Mass society theory argues that social movements are made up of individuals in large societies who feel insignificant or socially detached. Social movements, according to this theory, provide a sense of empowerment and belonging that the movement members would otherwise not have. Very little support has been found for this theory. Aho (1990), in his study of Idaho Christian Patriotism, did not find that members of that movement were more likely to have been socially detached. In fact, the key to joining the movement was having a friend or associate who was a member of the movement.


Structural strain theory

Social Strain Theory, is the "proposal that pressure derived from social factors, such as lack of income or lack of quality education, drives individuals to commit crime." # structural conduciveness - people come to believe their society has problems # structural strain - people experience deprivation # growth and spread of a solution - a solution to the problems people are experiencing is proposed and spreads # precipitating factors - discontent usually requires a catalyst (often a specific event) to turn it into a social movement # lack of social control - the entity that is to be changed must be at least somewhat open to the change; if the social movement is quickly and powerfully repressed, it may never materialize # mobilization - this is the actual organizing and active component of the movement; people do what needs to be done This theory is also subject to circular reasoning as it incorporates, at least in part, deprivation theory and relies upon it, and social/structural strain for the underlying motivation of social movement activism. However, social movement activism is, like in the case of deprivation theory, often the only indication that there was strain or deprivation.


Resource mobilization theory

Resource mobilization theory emphasizes the importance of resources in social movement development and success. Resources are understood here to include: knowledge, money, media, labor, solidarity, legitimacy, and internal and external support from power elite. The theory argues that social movements develop when individuals with grievances are able to mobilize sufficient resources to take action.The emphasis on resources offers an explanation why some discontented/deprived individuals are able to organize while others are not. In contrast to earlier collective behavior perspectives on social movements—which emphasized the role of exceptional levels of deprivation, grievance, or social strain in motivating mass protest—Resource Mobilization perspectives hold "that there is always enough discontent in any society to supply the grass-roots support for a movement if the movement is effectively organized and has at its disposal the power and resources of some established elite group" Movement emergence is contingent upon the aggregation of resources by social movement entrepreneurs and movement organizations, who use these resources to turn collective dissent in to political pressure. Members are recruited through networks; commitment is maintained by building a collective identity, and through interpersonal relationships. Resource Mobilization Theory views social movement activity as "politics by other means": a rational and strategic effort by ordinary people to change society or politics. The form of the resources shapes the activities of the movement (e.g., access to a TV station will result in the extensive use TV media). Movements develop in contingent ''opportunity structures'' that influence their efforts to mobilize; and each movement's response to the opportunity structures depends on the movement's organization and resources Critics of this theory argue that there is too much of an emphasis on resources, especially financial resources. Some movements are effective without an influx of money and are more dependent upon the movement members for time and labor (e.g., the civil rights movement in the U.S.).


Political process theory

Political process theory is similar to resource mobilization in many regards, but tends to emphasize a different component of social structure that is important for social movement development: political opportunities. Political process theory argues that there are three vital components for movement formation: insurgent consciousness, organizational strength, and political opportunities. Insurgent consciousness refers back to the ideas of deprivation and grievances. The idea is that certain members of society feel like they are being mistreated or that somehow the system is unjust. The insurgent consciousness is the collective sense of injustice that movement members (or potential movement members) feel and serves as the motivation for movement organization. Organizational strength falls inline with resource-mobilization theory, arguing that in order for a social movement to organize it must have strong leadership and sufficient resources. Political opportunity refers to the receptivity or vulnerability of the existing political system to challenge. This vulnerability can be the result of any of the following (or a combination thereof): * growth of political pluralism * decline in effectiveness of repression * elite disunity; the leading factions are internally fragmented * a broadening of access to institutional participation in political processes * support of organized opposition by elites One of the advantages of the political process theory is that it addresses the issue of timing or emergence of social movements. Some groups may have the insurgent consciousness and resources to mobilize, but because political opportunities are closed, they will not have any success. The theory, then, argues that all three of these components are important. Critics of the political process theory and resource-mobilization theory point out that neither theory discusses movement culture to any great degree. This has presented culture theorists an opportunity to expound on the importance of culture. One advance on the political process theory is the ''political mediation model,'' which outlines the way in which the political context facing movement actors intersects with the strategic choices that movements make. An additional strength of this model is that it can look at the outcomes of social movements not only in terms of success or failure but also in terms of consequences (whether intentional or unintentional, positive or negative) and in terms of collective benefits.


Framing perspective

Reflecting the cultural turn in the social sciences and humanities more broadly, recent strains of social movement theory and research add to the largely structural concerns seen in the resource mobilization and political process theories by emphasizing the cultural and psychological aspects of social movement processes, such as collectively shared interpretations and beliefs, ideologies, values and other meanings about the world. In doing so, this general cultural approach also attempts to address the Free rider problem, free-rider problem. One particularly successful take on some such cultural dimensions is manifested in the Framing (social sciences), framing perspective on social movements. While both resource mobilization theory and political process theory include, or at least accept, the idea that certain shared understandings of, for example, perceived unjust societal conditions must exist for mobilization to occur at all, this is not explicitly problematized within those approaches. The framing perspective has brought such shared understandings to the forefront of the attempt to understand movement creation and existence by, e.g., arguing that, in order for social movements to successfully mobilize individuals, they must develop an ''injustice frame''. An injustice frame is a collection of ideas and symbols that illustrate both how significant the problem is as well as what the movement can do to alleviate it, :"Like a picture frame, an issue frame marks off some part of the world. Like a building frame, it holds things together. It provides coherence to an array of symbols, images, and arguments, linking them through an underlying organizing idea that suggests what is essential - what consequences and values are at stake. We do not see the frame directly, but infer its presence by its characteristic expressions and language. Each frame gives the advantage to certain ways of talking and thinking, while it places others out of the picture." Important characteristics of the injustice frames include: * Facts take on their meaning by being embedded in frames, which render them relevant and significant or irrelevant and trivial. * People carry around multiple frames in their heads. * Successful reframing involves the ability to enter into the worldview of our adversaries. * All frames contain implicit or explicit appeals to moral principles. In emphasizing the injustice frame, culture theory also addresses the free-rider problem. The free-rider problem refers to the idea that people will not be motivated to participate in a social movement that will use up their personal resources (e.g., time, money, etc.) if they can still receive the benefits without participating. In other words, if person X knows that movement Y is working to improve environmental conditions in his neighborhood, he is presented with a choice: join or not join the movement. If he believes the movement will succeed without him, he can avoid participation in the movement, save his resources, and still reap the benefits - this is ''free-riding''. A significant problem for social movement theory has been to explain why people join movements if they believe the movement can/will succeed without their contribution. Culture theory argues that, in conjunction with social networks being an important contact tool, the injustice frame will provide the motivation for people to contribute to the movement. Framing processes includes three separate components: * Diagnostic frame: the movement organization frames what is the problem or what they are critiquing * Prognostic frame: the movement organization frames what is the desirable solution to the problem * Motivational frame: the movement organization frames a "call to arms" by suggesting and encouraging that people take action to solve the problem


Social movement and social networking

For more than ten years, social movement groups have been using the Internet to accomplish organizational goals. It has been argued that the Internet helps to increase the speed, reach and effectiveness of social movement-related communication as well as mobilization efforts, and as a result, it has been suggested that the Internet has had a positive impact on the social movements in general. The systematic literature review of Buettner & Buettner analyzed the role of Twitter during a wide range of social movements (2007 WikiLeaks, 2009 April 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election protests, Moldova, 2009 2009 student protests in Austria, Austria student protest, 2009 Gaza–Israel conflict, Israel-Gaza, 2009 Iranian Green Movement, Iran green revolution, 2009 2010 G-20 Toronto summit protests, Toronto G20, 2010 Bolivarian Revolution, Venezuela, 2010 Stuttgart 21, Germany Stuttgart21, 2011 Egyptian Revolution of 2011, Egypt, 2011 2011 England riots, England, 2011 US Occupy movement, 2011 Anti-austerity movement in Spain, Spain Indignados, 2011 Anti-austerity movement in Greece, Greece Aganaktismenoi movements, 2011 2011 Rome demonstration, Italy, 2011 2011 Wisconsin protests, Wisconsin labor protests, 2012 Gaza–Israel conflict, Israel Hamas, 2013 2013 protests in Brazil, Brazil Vinegar, 2013 Gezi Park protests, Turkey). Many discussions have been generated recently on the topic of social networking and the effect it may play on the formation and mobilization of social movement.Clay Shirky, Shirky, Clay. ''Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations''. Penguin Press HC, The, 2008. Print. For example, the emergence of the Coffee Party first appeared on the social networking site, Facebook. The party has continued to gather membership and support through that site and file sharing sites, such as Flickr. The 2009–2010 Iranian election protests also demonstrated how social networking sites are making the mobilization of large numbers of people quicker and easier. Iranians were able to organize and speak out against the election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad by using sites such as Twitter and Facebook. This in turn prompted widespread government censorship of the web and social networking sites. The sociological study of social movements is quite new. The traditional view of movements often perceived them as chaotic and disorganized, treating activism as a threat to the social order. The activism experienced in the 1960s and 1970s shuffled in a new world opinion about the subject. Models were now introduced to understand the organizational and structural powers embedded in social movements.


See also

* List of social movements * Civil resistance * Counterculture of the 1960s * Countermovement * Moral shock * New social movements * Nonviolent resistance * Political movement * Reform movement * Revolutionary movement * Social defence * Social equality * Teaching for social justice * Union organizer * Online social movements


References


Further reading

* David F. Aberle. 1966. The Peyote Religion among the Navaho. Chicago: Aldine. * James Alfred Aho. 1990. Politics of Righteousness: Idaho Christian Patriotism. Washington: University of Washington Press. * Paul Almeida. 2019. Social Movements: The Structure of Collective Mobilization. Berkeley: University of California Press. * Herbert G. Blumer 1969. "Collective Behavior." In Alfred McClung Lee, ed., Principles of Sociology. Third Edition. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, pp. 65–121. * Mark Chaves. 1997. Ordaining Women: Culture and Conflict in Religious Organizations. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. * * Graeme Chesters and Ian Welsh. ''Complexity and Social Movements: Multitudes at the Edge of Chaos'' Routledge 2006. * Mario Diani and Doug McAdam, ''Social movements and networks'', Oxford University Press, 2003. * Susan Eckstei, ed. ''Power and Popular Protest: Latin American Social Movements'', Updated Edition, University of California Press 2001. * Anthony Giddens. 1985. The Nation-State and Violence. Cambridge, England: Polity Press. *Jeff Goodwin and James M. Jasper. 2009. ''The Social Movements Reader''. Malden, Massachusetts: Wiley-Blackwell. * Angelique Haugerud, ''No Billionaire Left Behind: Satirical Activism in America,'' Stanford University Press, 2013. * * James M. Jasper. 1997. ''The Art of Moral Protest: Culture, Biography, and Creativity in Social Movements''. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. * James M. Jasper. 2014. ''Protest: A Cultural Introduction to Social Movements''. Polity Press. * * Diana Kendall, ''Sociology In Our Times'', Thomson Wadsworth, 2005. * William Kornhauser. 1959. The Politics of Mass Society. New York: Free Press (publisher), Free Press. * Donna Maurer. 2002. Vegetarianism: Movement or Moment? Philadelphia: Temple University Press. * Armand L. Mauss. 1975. Social Problems of Social Movements. Philadelphia: Lippincott. * Denton E. Morrison. 1978. "Some Notes toward Theory on Relative Deprivation, Social Movements, and Social Change." In Louis E. Genevie, ed., Collective Behavior and Social Movements. Itasca, Ill.: Peacock. pp. 202–209. * * Immanuel Ness, ed. ''Encyclopedia of American Social Movements'', 2004. .
Jeff Pugh. 2008. "Vectors of Contestation: Social Movements and Party Systems in Ecuador and Colombia."
''Latin American Essays'' XXI: 46-65. * Adam Roberts (scholar), Adam Roberts and Timothy Garton Ash (eds.), ''Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present'', Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

* * Neil J. Smelser. 1962. Theory of Collective Behavior. New York: Free Press. * David A. Snow, David Snow, Sarah A. Soule and Hanspeter Kriesi, ed. Blackwell Companion to Social Movements, Blackwell, 2004. * Suzanne Staggenborg, ''Social Movements'', Oxford University Press, 2008. * Sidney Tarrow, ''Power in Movement: Collective Action, Social Movements and Politics'', Cambridge University Press, 1994. * * Charles Tilly, 1978. From Mobilization to Revolution. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1978. *
Charles Tilly Charles Tilly (May 27, 1929 – April 29, 2008) was an American sociology, sociologist, political science, political scientist, and historian who wrote on the relationship between politics and society. He was a professor of history, sociology, and ...
, ''Social Movements, 1768–2004'', Boulder, CO, Paradigm Publishers, 2004 262 pp.  (hardback) / (paperback) * Leonard Weinberg, 2013. Democracy and Terrorism. New York: Routledge, 2013. * Quintan Wiktorowicz, ''Islamic Activism: A Social Movement Theory Approach'', Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004. * Marco G. Giugni, ''How Social Movements Matter'', University of Minnesota Press, 1999, * Rod Bantjes, ''Social Movements in a Global Context'', CSPI, 2007, * Michael Barker, ''Conform or Reform? Social Movements and the Mass Media'', Fifth-Estate-Online - International Journal of Radical Mass Media Criticism. February 2007
Fifth-estate-online.co.uk
* Dennis Chong, "Collective Action and the Civil Rights Movement", University of Chicago Press, 1991,


External links

*
Mobilization
' - journal *
Interface: a Journal For and About Social Movements
' {{DEFAULTSORT:Social Movement Comparative politics Social movements, Social change