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Skiing is the use of
ski A ski is a narrow strip of semi-rigid material worn underfoot to glide over snow. Substantially longer than wide and characteristically employed in pairs, skis are attached to ski boot Ski boots are used in to provide a way to attach the ski ...

ski
s to glide on
snow Snow comprises individual ice Ice is water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the mai ...

snow
. Variations of purpose include basic transport, a recreational activity, or a competitive
winter sport#REDIRECT Winter sports#REDIRECT Winter sports Winter sports or winter activities are competitive sports or non-competitive recreational activities which are played on snow or ice. Most are variations of skiing, ice skating and sledding. Traditio ...
. Many types of competitive skiing events are recognized by the
International Olympic Committee The International Olympic Committee (IOC; french: Comité international olympique, ''CIO'') is a non-governmental sports organisation based in Lausanne , neighboring_municipalities= Bottens, Bretigny-sur-Morrens, Chavannes-près-Renens, ...
(IOC), and the
International Ski Federation The ''Fédération internationale de ski'' (FIS; en, International Ski Federation) is the highest international governing body for skiing Skiing is a means of transport using skis to glide on snow. Variations of purpose include basic transp ...
(FIS).


History

Skiing has a history of almost five millennia. Although modern skiing has evolved from beginnings in
Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a in , with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In English usage, ''Scandinavia'' can refer to , , and , sometimes more narrowly to the , or more broadly to include , th ...

Scandinavia
, it may have been practiced more than 100 centuries ago in what is now
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
, according to an interpretation of ancient paintings. However, this continues to be debated. The word "ski" is one of a handful of words that Norway has exported to the international community. It comes from the
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic languages, North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and t ...
word "skíð" which means "split piece of wood or firewood". Asymmetrical skis were used in northern Finland and Sweden until at least the late 19th century. On one foot, the skier wore a long straight non-arching ski for sliding, and a shorter ski was worn on the other foot for kicking. The underside of the short ski was either plain or covered with animal skin to aid this use, while the long ski supporting the weight of the skier was treated with animal fat in a similar manner to modern
ski wax Ski wax is a material applied to the bottom of snow runners, including s, s, and s, to improve their performance under varying conditions. The two main types of wax used on skis are glide waxes and grip waxes. They address —to be minimized with ...
ing. Early skiers used one long pole or spear. The first depiction of a skier with two
ski pole Ski poles, also referred to as poles (in North America), sticks (UK), or stocks (Australia), are used by skiing, skiers for balance and propulsion. Modern ski poles are most commonly made from Aluminium, aluminum and Carbon fibers, carbon fiber, th ...

ski pole
s dates to 1741. Troops on continental Europe were equipped with skis by 1747. Skiing was primarily used for transport until the mid-19th century, but since then has also become a recreation and sport.Saur, Lasse (1999): ''Norske ski - til glede og besvær.'' Research report, Høgskolen i Finnmark. Military ski races were held in Norway during the 18th century, and
ski warfare (1903). Image:Skielober 1811.jpg, A Norwegian soldier on skis 1801. Ski warfare is the use of skiing, ski-equipped troops in war. History Early Ski warfare is first recorded by the Denmark, Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus in the 13th cen ...
was studied in the late 18th century. As equipment evolved and
ski lift A ski lift is a mechanism for transporting skiers Skiing is a means of transport using skis to glide on snow Snow comprises individual ice crystals that grow while suspended in the atmosphere—usually within clouds—and then fall, ...

ski lift
s were developed during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, two main genres of skiing emerged— Alpine (downhill) skiing and
Nordic skiing Nordic skiing encompasses the various types of skiing Skiing is the use of ski A ski is a narrow strip of semi-rigid material worn underfoot to glide over snow. Substantially longer than wide and characteristically employed in pairs, skis ...
. The main difference between the two is the type of
ski binding ski boot, binding, and ski crampon A ski binding is a device that connects a ski boot to the ski. Generally, it holds the boot firmly to allow the skier to maneuver the ski. However, if certain force limits are exceeded, it releases the boot to ...
(the way in which the
ski boot Ski boots are used in to provide a way to attach the skier to s using s. The ski/boot/binding combination is used to effectively transmit control inputs from the skier's legs to the snow. History Ski boots were winter boots, held to the ski wi ...

ski boot
s are attached to the skis).


Types


Alpine

Also called "downhill skiing", Alpine skiing typically takes place on a
piste A ''piste'' () is a marked ski run or path down a mountain for snow skiing, snowboarding, or other mountain sports. This European term is French language, French
piste
at a
ski resort A ski resort is a resort developed for skiing, snowboarding, and other winter sports. In Europe, most ski resorts are towns or villages in or adjacent to a ski area – a mountainous area with pistes (ski trails) and a ski lift system. In North A ...

ski resort
. It is characterized by fixed-heel bindings that attach at both the toe and the heel of the skier's boot.
Ski lift A ski lift is a mechanism for transporting skiers Skiing is a means of transport using skis to glide on snow Snow comprises individual ice crystals that grow while suspended in the atmosphere—usually within clouds—and then fall, ...

Ski lift
s, including
chairlifts An elevated passenger ropeway, or chairlift, is a type of aerial lift Aerial may refer to: Music * ''Aerial'' (album), by Kate Bush * ''Aerials'' (song), from the album ''Toxicity'' by System of a Down Bands * Aerial (Canadian band) * ...
, bring skiers up the slope.
Backcountry skiing Backcountry skiing ( US), also called off-piste (Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions a ...
can be accessed by
helicopter A helicopter is a type of in which and are supplied by horizontally spinning s. This allows the helicopter to , to , and to fly forward, backward and laterally. These attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas w ...
,
snowcat A snowcat (short for snow and caterpillar) is an enclosed-cab, truck-sized, fully tracked vehicle designed to move on snow. Major manufacturers are Pisten Bully (Germany), Prinoth (Italy) and Tucker Sno-Cat, Tucker (United States). Snow groom ...

snowcat
,
hiking Hiking is a long, vigorous walk Walking (also known as ambulation) is one of the main gaits of terrestrial locomotion among legged animals. Walking is typically slower than running and other gaits. Walking is defined by an 'inverted pendul ...

hiking
and
snowmobile A snowmobile, also known as a Ski-Doo, snowmachine, sled, motor sled, motor sledge, skimobile, or snow scooter, is a motorized vehicle designed for winter travel and recreation on snow Snow comprises individual ice crystals that grow whi ...

snowmobile
. Facilities at resorts can include
night skiing Night (also described as night time, night-time, or nighttime, unconventionally spelled as ''nite'') is the period of ambient Ambient or Ambiance or Ambience may refer to: Music and sound * Ambience (sound recording), also known as atmosphere ...

night skiing
,
après-ski A ski resort is a resort A resort ( North American English) is a self-contained commercial establishment that tries to provide most of a vacationer's wants, such as food, drink, lodging, sport Sport pertains to any form of Competiti ...
, and
glade skiingGlade skiing (also known as glading) is alpine skiing through trees off-trail or on a defined woods trail. Glades are variously sought for their solitude, beauty, or caches of ungroomed powder snow, powder. Woods also tend to hold better snow longer ...
under the supervision of the
ski patrol Ski patrols are organizations that provide , rescue, and hazard prevention services to the injured in ski area boundaries, or sometimes beyond into settings. Many have technical-medical certifications, such as (OEC) provided by the (USA), that ...

ski patrol
and the
ski school A ski school is an establishment that teaches skiing, typically in a ski resort. The modern version of the ski school was invented by the Austrian ski pioneer Hannes Schneider in the early 1920s when he formalized instruction methods and establish ...
. Alpine skiing branched off from the older Nordic type of skiing around the 1920s when the advent of
ski lift A ski lift is a mechanism for transporting skiers Skiing is a means of transport using skis to glide on snow Snow comprises individual ice crystals that grow while suspended in the atmosphere—usually within clouds—and then fall, ...

ski lift
s meant that it was no longer necessary to climb back uphill. Alpine equipment has specialized to the point where it can now only be used with the help of lifts. Alpine Touring setups use specialized bindings which are switchable between locked and free-heel modes. Climbing skins are temporarily attached to the bottom of alpine skis to give them traction on snow. This permits Nordic style uphill and back-country travel on alpine skis. For downhill travel the heels are locked and the skins are removed.


Nordic

The Nordic disciplines include
cross-country skiing Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance. Cross-country skiing is widely practiced as a sport and recreati ...

cross-country skiing
and
ski jumping Ski jumping is a winter sport in which competitors aim to achieve the farthest jump after sliding down from a specially designed curved ramp on their skis. Along with jump length, competitor's aerial style and other factors also affect the final ...

ski jumping
, which both use bindings that attach at the toes of the skier's boots but not at the heels. Cross-country skiing may be practiced on groomed trails or in undeveloped
backcountry In the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, sta ...

backcountry
areas. Ski jumping is practiced in certain areas that are reserved exclusively for ski jumping.


Telemark

Telemark skiing is a ski turning technique and FIS-sanctioned discipline, which is named after the Telemark region of Norway. It uses equipment similar to Nordic skiing, where the ski bindings are attached only at the toes of the ski boots, allowing the skier's heel to be raised throughout the turn. However, the skis themselves are often the same width as Alpine skis.


Competition

The following disciplines are sanctioned by the FIS. Many have their own world cups and are included in the
Winter Olympic Games The Winter Olympic Games (french: Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international multi-sport event A multi-sport event is an organized sporting Sporting may refer to: *Sport, recreational games and play *Sporting (neighborhood), in Al ...
. *
Cross-country Cross country or cross-country may refer to: Places * Cross Country, Baltimore, a neighborhood in northwest Baltimore, Maryland * Cross County Parkway The Cross County Parkway (CCP) is a parkway in lower Westchester County, New York, in the Uni ...
– Encompasses a variety of formats for
cross-country skiing Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance. Cross-country skiing is widely practiced as a sport and recreati ...

cross-country skiing
races over courses of varying lengths. Races occur on
homologated Homologation (Greek language, Greek ''homologeo'', ὁμολογέω, "to agree") is the granting of approval by an official authority. This may be a court of law, a government department, or an academic or professional body, any of which would n ...
, groomed courses designed to support classic (in-track) and free-style events, where skate skiing may be employed. The main competitions are the
FIS Cross-Country World Cup The FIS Cross-Country World Cup is an annual cross-country skiing Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistanc ...
and the
FIS Nordic World Ski Championships The FIS Nordic World Ski Championships is a biennial nordic skiing Nordic skiing encompasses the various types of skiing in which the toe of the ski boot is fixed to the Ski binding, binding in a manner that allows the heel to rise off the ski, un ...
(held only in odd-numbered years), and various cross-country skiing events have been incorporated into the Winter Olympics since its inception in
1924 Events January * January 10 – British submarine ''HMS L24, L-24'' sinks in the English Channel after a collision; 43 lives are lost. * January 12 – Gopinath Saha shoots Ernest Day, whom he has mistaken for Sir Charles Tegart, ...
. The discipline also incorporates: cross-country
ski marathon The sport of cross-country skiing encompasses a variety of formats for cross-country skiing races over courses of varying lengths according to rules sanctioned by the International Ski Federation and by various national organizations, such as t ...
events, sanctioned by the
Worldloppet Ski Federation The Worldloppet Ski Federation is a federation of long distance Cross-country skiing (sport), cross-country skiing events whose aim is to promote cross-country skiing through ski races. The federation was founded on 10 June 1978 in Uppsala, Sweden. ...
; cross-country
ski-orienteering Ski orienteering (SkiO) is a cross-country skiing endurance Winter sport, winter racing sport and one of the four orienteering disciplines Sport governing body, recognized by the International Orienteering Federation, IOF. A successful ski orienteer ...

ski-orienteering
events, sanctioned by the
International Orienteering Federation The International Orienteering Federation (IOF) is the international governing body of the sport of orienteering. The IOF head office is located in Karlstad Municipality, Karlstad, Sweden. The IOF governs four orienteering disciplines: foot orien ...
; and
biathlon The biathlon is a winter sport#REDIRECT Winter sports#REDIRECT Winter sports Winter sports or winter activities are competitive sports or non-competitive recreational activities which are played on snow or ice. Most are variations of skiing, ...
, a combination of cross-country skiing and
rifle A rifle is a long-barrelled firearm A firearm is any type of gun A gun is a ranged weapon designed to use a shooting tube ( gun barrel) to launch typically solid projectiles, but can also project pressurized liquid (e.g. water gu ...

rifle
shooting Shooting is the act or process of discharging a projectile from a ranged weapon (such as a gun, bow and arrow, bow, crossbow, slingshot, or blowgun, blowpipe). Even the acts of launching flamethrower, flame, artillery, dart (missile), darts, ha ...
.
Paralympic cross-country skiing of Belarus , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Minsk Minsk ( be, Мінск/Менск , russian: link=no, Минск) is the capital and the largest city of Belarus, located on the Svislach (Berezina), Svislač and the Nyamiha ...
and
paralympic biathlon Paralympic biathlon is an adaptation of biathlon for athletes with a disability. Paralympic biathlon is one of two Nordic skiing disciplines in the Paralympic Games, Winter Paralympic Games. It is governed by the International Paralympic Committee ...

paralympic biathlon
are both included in the
Winter Paralympic Games The Winter Paralympic Games (german: Paralympische Winterspiele) is an international multi-sport event where athletes with physical disabilities compete in snow and ice sports. This includes athletes with mobility disabilities, amputations, blin ...
. *
Ski jumping Ski jumping is a winter sport in which competitors aim to achieve the farthest jump after sliding down from a specially designed curved ramp on their skis. Along with jump length, competitor's aerial style and other factors also affect the fina ...

Ski jumping
– Contested at the
FIS Ski Jumping World Cup The FIS Ski Jumping World Cup is the world's highest level of ski jumping Ski jumping is a winter sport in which competitors aim to achieve the longest jump after descending from a specially designed ramp on their skis. Along with jump length, ...
, the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships (odd-numbered years only), the
FIS Ski Jumping Grand Prix The FIS Ski Jumping Grand Prix is a summer circuit yearly arranged by International Ski Federation. This competition for men was first arranged in 1994 and for the first time for ladies in 2012. The competition is held on ski jumps with artific ...
, and the
FIS Ski Flying World Championships The FIS Ski Flying World Championships is a ski flying event organised by the International Ski Federation and held every two years. The event takes place on hills much larger than ski jumping hills, with the construction point, K-point set between ...
. Ski jumping has also been a regular Olympic discipline at every Winter Games since 1924. * Freeriding skiing – This category of skiing includes any practice of the sport on non-groomed terrain. *
Nordic combined Nordic combined is a winter sport in which athletes compete in cross-country skiing (sport), cross-country skiing and ski jumping. Nordic combined at the Winter Olympics and the FIS Nordic Combined World Cup are ongoing. History The first majo ...
– A combination of cross-country skiing and ski jumping, this discipline is contested at the
FIS Nordic Combined World Cup The FIS Nordic Combined World Cup is a Nordic combined Nordic combined is a winter sport in which athletes compete in cross-country skiing and ski jumping. Nordic combined at the Winter Olympics and the FIS Nordic Combined World Cup are ongo ...
, the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships (odd-numbered years only), and at the Winter Olympics. *
Alpine skiing Alpine skiing, or downhill skiing, is the pastime of sliding down snow-covered slopes on Ski, skis with fixed-heel Ski binding, bindings, unlike other types of skiing (Cross-country skiing, cross-country, Telemark skiing, Telemark, or ski jumpin ...
– Includes downhill,
slalom To slalom is to zigzag between obstacles. It may refer to: Sports ;Alpine skiing and/or snowboarding * Slalom skiing, an alpine skiing and alpine snowboarding discipline * Giant slalom, an alpine skiing and alpine snowboarding discipline * Super-G ...
,
giant slalom Giant slalom (GS) is an alpine skiing and alpine snowboarding discipline. It involves skiing between sets of poles ("gates") spaced at a greater distance from each other than in Slalom skiing, slalom but less than in Super-G. Giant slalom and slal ...
, super giant slalom (super-G), and para-alpine events. There are also
combined Combined may refer to: * Alpine combined (skiing), the combination of slalom and downhill skiing as a single event ** super combined (skiing) * Nordic combined (skiing), the combination of cross country skiing and ski jumping as a single event * Th ...
events where the competitors must complete one run of each event, for example, the Super Combined event consists of one run of super-G and one run of slalom skiing. The dual slalom event, where racers ski head-to-head, was invented in 1941 and has been a competitive event since 1960. Alpine skiing is contested at the
FIS Alpine Ski World Cup The FIS Alpine Ski World Cup is the top international circuit of alpine skiing competitions, launched in 1966 by a group of ski racing friends and experts which included French journalist Serge Lang (skiing), Serge Lang and the alpine ski team dire ...
, the
FIS Alpine World Ski Championships The FIS Alpine World Ski Championships is an alpine skiing competition organized by the International Ski Federation (FIS). History The inaugural world championships in alpine skiing were held in 1931. During the 1930s, the event was held annually ...
(held only in odd-numbered years), and the Winter Olympics.
Para-alpine skiing Paralympic alpine skiing is an adaptation of alpine skiing Alpine skiing, or downhill skiing, is the pastime of sliding down snow-covered slopes on skis with fixed-heel bindings, unlike other types of skiing Skiing is a means of transport ...
is contested at the World Para Alpine Skiing Championships (odd-numbered years) and the Winter Paralympics. *
Speed skiing Speed skiing is the sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants and, in some cases, ente ...
– Dating from 1898, with official records beginning in 1932 with an run by Leo Gasperi, this became an FIS discipline in the 1960s. It is contested at the FIS Speed Ski World Cup, and was demonstrated at the
1992 Winter Olympics ) , nations = 64 , athletes = 1,801 (1313 men, 488 women) , events = 57 in 6 sports Sport pertains to any form of competitive Competition arises whenever two or more parties strive for a common goal A goal is an i ...
in
Albertville Albertville (; Arpitan: ''Arbèrtvile'') is a subprefecture A subprefecture is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-le ...

Albertville
. *
Freestyle skiing Freestyle skiing is a skiing Skiing is the use of ski A ski is a narrow strip of semi-rigid material worn underfoot to glide over snow. Substantially longer than wide and characteristically employed in pairs, skis are attached to ski b ...

Freestyle skiing
– Includes
mogul skiing Moguls (at Sugarbush, Vermont) Mogul skiing is a freestyle Freestyle may refer to: Brands * Reebok Freestyle, a women's athletic shoe * Ford Freestyle, an SUV automobile * Coca-Cola Freestyle, a vending machine * ICD Freestyle, a paintball ma ...
, aerials,
ski cross #REDIRECT Ski cross Ski cross is a type of skiing Skiing is a means of transport using skis to glide on snow. Variations of purpose include basic transport, a recreational activity, or a competitive winter sport. Many types of competitive sk ...
,
half-pipe A half-pipe is a structure used in gravity extreme sports such as snowboarding, skateboarding, skiing, freestyle BMX, Inline skating, skating, and scooter riding. Overview The structure resembles a cross-section of a swimming pool, essentially t ...
, and
slopestyle Slopestyle is a winter sport#REDIRECT Winter sports#REDIRECT Winter sports Winter sports or winter activities are competitive sports or non-competitive recreational activities which are played on snow or ice. Most are variations of skiing, i ...

slopestyle
. The main freestyle competitions are the
FIS Freestyle Skiing World Cup The FIS Freestyle Ski World Cup is an annual freestyle skiing competition arranged by the International Ski Federation since 1980. Currently six disciplines are included in world cup: moguls, aerials, ski cross, halfpipe, slopestyle and big ...
and the
FIS Freestyle World Ski Championships The FIS Freestyle World Ski Championships is the world championship organized by the International Ski Federation, FIS for freestyle skiing. It was first organized in 1986 and is now held every odd year. Currently, the events included in the world c ...
(held in odd-numbered years). The discipline was first demonstrated at the 1988 Winter Olympics and was added to the Olympic programme in 1992. It became an Olympic sport in the 2014 Sochi Olympic games when the
Slope-style
Slope-style
and
Half pipe A half-pipe is a structure used in gravity extreme sports Action sports, adventure sports or extreme sports are activities perceived as involving a high degree of risk. These activities often involve speed, height, a high level of physical ...
events were introduced. *
Snowboarding Snowboarding is a recreational and competitive activity that involves descending a snow-covered slope while standing on a snowboard Snowboards are boards where both feet are placed, and most times secured, to the same board, which are wider ...

Snowboarding
– Disciplines include slopestyle,
cross A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two intersecting lines or bars, usually perpendicular to each other. The lines usually run vertically and horizontally. A cross of oblique lines, in the shape of the Latin letter X, is also termed a ...
, half-pipe,
alpine Alpine may refer to: Places * Alps, a European mountain range * Alpine states, associated with the mountain range, or relating to any lofty mountain areas * Mountainous or alpine; the mountains. Australia * Alpine, New South Wales, a Northern Vill ...
, parallel slalom, and parallel giant slalom. The main competitions are the annual
FIS Snowboard World Cup The FIS Snowboard World Cup is an annual snowboarding Snowboarding is a recreational and competitive activity that involves descending a snow-covered slope while standing on a snowboard that is almost always attached to a rider's feet. It featu ...
and the
FIS Snowboard World Championships The FIS Snowboarding World Championships is the world championship organized by the International Ski Federation, FIS for Snowboarding. It was first held in 1996 and is now held every odd year. The championship events include Big air, Half-pipe, Sno ...
(held in odd-numbered years). Snowboarding debuted as an Olympic discipline in
1998 1998 was designated as the ''International Year of the Ocean''. Events January * January 2 – Russia begins to Monetary reform in Russia, 1998, circulate new rubles to stem inflation and promote confidence. * January 4 – Wilaya of Reliza ...
(as part of the Alpine skiing programme) and was contested as a separate discipline at the
2018 Winter Olympics The 2018 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXIII Olympic Winter Games (french: Les XXIIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver; ko, 제23회 동계 올림픽, Jeisipsamhoe Donggye Ollimpik) and commonly known as PyeongChang 2018, was an internationa ...

2018 Winter Olympics
. *
Skiboarding Snowboards are boards where the users places both feet usually secured, to the same board. The board itself is wider than most skis, with the ability to glide on snow Snow comprises individual ice Ice is water Water (c ...
– Using a
snowboard Snowboards are boards where the users places both feet usually secured, to the same board. The board itself is wider than most skis, with the ability to glide on snow Snow comprises individual ice Ice is water Water is ...

snowboard
in conjunction with standard
ski boot Ski boots are used in to provide a way to attach the skier to s using s. The ski/boot/binding combination is used to effectively transmit control inputs from the skier's legs to the snow. History Ski boots were winter boots, held to the ski wi ...

ski boot
s, this discipline is essentially a combination of skiing and snowboarding. Various skiboarding competitions have been trialed over recent years, including the Skiboard Triple Challenge, United Skiboard Series, European Skiboard Cup, Skiboard World Cup and the US Skiboard Open. *
Telemark Telemark is a traditional region, a former Counties of Norway, county and a current electoral district in southern Norway. In 2020, Telemark merged with the former county of Vestfold to form the county of Vestfold og Telemark. Telemark border ...
– Named after the Telemark region of Norway, this discipline combines elements of Alpine and Nordic skiing. A relatively new competitive sport, Telemark racing is contested at the FIS Telemark World Cup and the FIS Telemark World Championships. * Grass skiing – Originally developed as an alpine skiing training method, skiing on grass has become established as a skiing discipline in its own right. It is contested at the FIS Grass Skiing World Cup and the FIS Grass Ski World Championships.


Equipment

Equipment used in skiing includes: *
Ski A ski is a narrow strip of semi-rigid material worn underfoot to glide over snow. Substantially longer than wide and characteristically employed in pairs, skis are attached to ski boot Ski boots are used in to provide a way to attach the ski ...

Ski
s, which may have skins applied or be textured for uphill traction or
wax Waxes are a diverse class of organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), millions of organic compounds are known. The study of the properties, ...
applied for minimizing sliding friction.
Twin-tip ski A modified version of their alpine skiing, alpine counterparts, twin-tip skis are designed to enable a skiing, skier to take off and land backward while jumping and to ski backwards (switch) down a slope. The name "twin-tip" comes from the dual sha ...
s are designed to move forwards or backwards. *
Boots A boot A boot, plural boots, is a type of specific footwear Footwear refers to garments worn on the feet, which typically serves the purpose of protective clothing, protection against adversities of the environment such as ground textures and ...

Boots
and bindings *
Poles The Poles,, ; singular masculine: ''Polak'', singular feminine: ''Polka'' or Polish people, are a nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the loc ...

Poles
*
Helmets French cyclist Jérémy Leveau wearing a bicycle helmet ">bicycle_helmet.html" ;"title="Jérémy Leveau wearing a bicycle helmet">Jérémy Leveau wearing a bicycle helmet A helmet is a form of protective gear worn to protect the Human head, he ...
*
Ski suit Image:Rennanzug-OESV.jpg, Austrian professional ski suit A ski suit is a suit made to be worn over the rest of the clothes when skiing or snowboarding.
s * Ski goggles * Skiing gloves


Technique

Technique has evolved along with ski technology and
ski geometry Ski geometry is the shape of the ski. Described in the direction of travel, the front of the ski, typically pointed or rounded, is the tip, the middle is the waist and the rear is the tail. Skis have four aspects that define their basic performance: ...
. Early techniques included the
telemark Telemark is a traditional region, a former Counties of Norway, county and a current electoral district in southern Norway. In 2020, Telemark merged with the former county of Vestfold to form the county of Vestfold og Telemark. Telemark border ...
turn, the
stem Stem or STEM may refer to: Biology * Plant stem, the aboveground structures that have vascular tissue and that support leaves and flowers ** Stipe (botany), a stalk that supports some other structure ** Stipe (mycology), the stem supporting the c ...
, the
stem Christie The stem christie or "wedge christie" is a technique used in skiing for turning. The turn comprises three steps: 1. Forming a wedge by rotating the tail of one ski outwards at an angle to the direction of movement, which initiates a change in dire ...
, snowplough, and
parallel turn The parallel turn in alpine skiing Alpine skiing, or downhill skiing, is the pastime of sliding down snow-covered slopes on Ski, skis with fixed-heel Ski binding, bindings, unlike other types of skiing (Cross-country skiing, cross-country, Tel ...
. New parabolic designs like the
Elan SCX The SCX, for "SideCut eXtreme" (or "eXperiment"), was an alpine Alpine may refer to: Places * Alps, a European mountain range * Alpine states, associated with the mountain range, or relating to any lofty mountain areas * Mountainous or alpine; the ...
have enabled the more modern
carve turn A carved turn is a skiing Skiing is a means of transport using skis to glide on snow. Variations of purpose include basic transport, a recreational activity, or a competitive winter sport. Many types of competitive skiing events are recognize ...
.


On other surfaces

Originally and primarily a
winter sport#REDIRECT Winter sports#REDIRECT Winter sports Winter sports or winter activities are competitive sports or non-competitive recreational activities which are played on snow or ice. Most are variations of skiing, ice skating and sledding. Traditio ...
, skiing can also be practiced indoors without snow, outdoors on grass, on
dry ski slope A dry ski slope or artificial ski slope is a ski slope that mimics the attributes of snow using materials that are stable at room temperature, to enable people to skiing, ski, snowboarding, snowboard or Tubing (recreation)#Snow, snow tube in pla ...
s, with
ski simulator
ski simulator
s, or with roller skis. A
treadmill Image:Exercise Treadmill Convey Motion.jpg, Example of modern treadmill A treadmill is a device generally used for walking, running, or climbing while staying in the same place. Treadmills were introduced before the development of powered machines ...

treadmill
-like surface can also be used, to enable skiing while staying in the same place. Sand skiing involves sliding on sand instead of snow, but the skier uses conventional skis, ski poles, bindings and boots.


Gallery

File:Wilmot-ski-racer-cmsc.jpg, Giant Slalom Ski Racer File:Freestyle skiing jump2.jpg,
Freestyle Freestyle may refer to: Brands * Reebok Freestyle, a women's athletic shoe * Ford Freestyle, an SUV automobile * Coca-Cola Freestyle, a vending machine * ICD Freestyle, a paintball marker * Freestyle, NATO reporting name for the Yakovlev Yak-141, ...
switch 720 mute grab File:Calgary.jpg, A ski jumper using the
V-style The sport of ski jumping has seen the use of numerous different techniques, or "styles", over the course of its more than two-hundred-year history. Depending on how the skis are positioned by an athlete, distances have increased by as much as withi ...
File:Priit Narusk at Tour de Ski.jpg, Cross country skiing—free-style or skate-skiing File:Danplastic.jpg, Dry slope racing File:Vail Veterans monoski.jpg, A skier with a disability on a , using two outriggers.


See also

* Glossary of skiing and snowboarding terms


References


External links

* {{Authority control Winter Olympic sports Articles containing video clips Partial squatting position