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botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ...

botany
, a plant shoot consists of any
plant stem '' has lost its leaves, but is producing adventitious roots from the nodes. A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root. It supports leaves, flowers and fruits, transports water and dissolved substances ...

plant stem
together with its appendages, leaves and lateral buds, flowering stems, and
flower bud In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes k ...
s. The new growth from
seed germination A seed is an embryonic plant Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energ ...

seed germination
that grows upward is a shoot where leaves will develop. In the spring,
perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years. The term ('' per-'' + '' -ennial'', "through the years") is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter-lived annuals and biennials. The term is also wide ...
plant shoots are the new growth that grows from the ground in
herbaceous Herbaceous plants are vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from the Greek ''trācheia''), form a large group of plants ( 300,000 accepted known species) that are defined ...
plants or the new stem or flower growth that grows on woody plants. In everyday speech, shoots are often synonymous with stems. Stems, which are an integral component of shoots, provide an axis for buds, fruits, and leaves. Young shoots are often eaten by animals because the fibers in the new growth have not yet completed
secondary cell wallThe secondary cell wall is a structure found in many plant cells, located between the primary cell wall and the plasma membrane cell membrane vs. Prokaryotes The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane (PM) or cytoplasmic membrane, an ...
development, making the young shoots softer and easier to chew and digest. As shoots grow and age, the cells develop secondary cell walls that have a hard and tough structure. Some plants (e.g.
bracken Bracken (''Pteridium'') is a genus of large, coarse ferns in the family (biology), family Dennstaedtiaceae. Ferns (Pteridophyta) are vascular plants that have alternating generations, large plants that produce spores and small plants that produc ...
) produce
toxin A toxin is a harmful substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded. The term was first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger (1849–1919), derived from the word toxic ...
s that make their shoots inedible or less palatable. File:Cucumber leaf.jpg, The shoot of a
cucumber Cucumber (''Cucumis sativus'') is a widely-cultivated creeping vine plant in the '' Cucurbitaceae'' gourd family that bears cucumiform fruits In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Scien ...
File:GiantKnotweed048.jpg, Edible shoots of Sachaline File:Sunflower seedlings.jpg,
Sunflower ''Helianthus'' () is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also re ...

Sunflower
seedlings
germinate seedlings, three days after germination. Germination is the process by which an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Lif ...

germinate
File:Persea americana (Avocado) Sprout 08May2010.JPG, A young
hass avocado The Hass avocado is a cultivar '' 'Pink Whirls' A cultivar selected for its intriguing and colourful flowers A cultivarCultivar () has two denominations as explained in ''#Formal definition, Formal definition''. When referring to a taxon, the ...
shoot


Shoot types of woody plants

Many
woody plant A woody plant is a plant that produces wood as its structural tissue and thus has a hard stem. In cold climates, woody plants further survive winter or dry season The dry season is a yearly period of low rainfall, especially in the tropics ...
s have distinct short shoots and long shoots. In some
angiosperm The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families, approximately 13,000 known genera and 300,000 known species In biology, a species is the ...
s, the short shoots, also called spur shoots or fruit spurs, produce the majority of flowers and fruit. A similar pattern occurs in some
conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The division contains a single ex ...
s and in ''
Ginkgo ''Ginkgo'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV classification, viruses. ...

Ginkgo
'', although the "short shoots" of some genera such as ''Picea'' are so small that they can be mistaken for part of the leaf that they have produced. A related phenomenon is seasonal heterophylly, which involves visibly different leaves from spring growth and later
lammas growth Lammas growth, also called Lammas leaves, Lammas flush, second shoots, or summer shoots, is a season of renewed growth in some trees in temperate regions put on in July and August (if in the northern hemisphere, January and February if in the south ...
. Whereas spring growth mostly comes from buds formed the previous season, and often includes flowers, lammas growth often involves long shoots. File: Suckers on stump.jpg, Long shoot growth File: Pyrus pyrifolia (Hosui) blossom.jpg, A mature fruiting spur on a Nashi pear tree, ''
Pyrus pyrifolia ''Pyrus pyrifolia'' is a species of pear tree native to East Asia. The tree's edible fruit is known by many names, including: Asian pear, Japanese pear, Chinese pear, Korean pear, Taiwanese pear, apple pear, zodiac pear, three-halves pear, pap ...

Pyrus pyrifolia
'' File: Cedrus deodara 02.JPG, On long shoots of ''
Cedrus deodara ''Cedrus deodara'', the deodar cedar, Himalayan cedar, or deodar, is a species of cedar native to the western Himalayas. It grows at altitudes of . Description It is a large evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phy ...
'' individual leaves may have
bud In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes k ...
s in the axils. File:20130903Cedrus deodara2.jpg, ''Cedrus deodara'' forms short shoots (from buds) along the long shoots.


See also

*
Bud In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes k ...
*
Heteroblasty (botany) Heteroblasty is significant and abrupt change in form and function that occurs over the lifespan of certain plants. Characteristics affected include internode length and stem structure as well as leaf A leaf (plural leaves) is the princip ...
, an abrupt change in the growth pattern of some plants as they mature *
Lateral shoot A lateral shoot, commonly known as a branch, is a part of a plant's shoot system that develops from axillary buds on the stem's surface, extending laterally from the Plant stem, plant's stem. Importance to photosynthesis As a plant grows it require ...
*
Sterigma In biology, a sterigma (pl. sterigmata) is a small supporting structure. It commonly refers to an extension of the basidium (the spore-bearing cells) consisting of a basal filamentous part and a slender projection which carries a spore at the tip ...

Sterigma
, the "woody peg" below the leaf of some conifers *
Thorn (botany) In plant morphology, thorns, spines, and prickles, and in general spinose structures (sometimes called ''spinose teeth'' or ''spinose apical processes''), are hard, rigid extensions or modifications of leaves, root In vascular plants, the roots ...
, true thorns, as distinct from spines or prickles, are short shoots


References

{{Botany
Plant morphology ''Plant morphology'' is the field in botany that studies the diversity in forms, with the naked eye or slight optical magnification. This is opposed to plant anatomy (see :Plant anatomy) that needs to cut into plants to be able to study its subject, ...