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Shaving is the removal of hair, by using a
razor A razor is a blade A blade is the portion of a tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use tool use by animals, simple tools, only human ...

razor
or any other kind of bladed implement, to slice it down—to the level of the skin or otherwise. Shaving is most commonly practiced by men to remove their facial hair and by women to remove their leg and underarm hair. A man is called ''clean-shaven'' if he has had his
beard A beard is the hair that grows on the jaw, chin, upper lip, lower lip, cheeks, and neck of humans and some non-human animals. In humans, usually only pubescent or adult males are able to grow beards. Some women with hirsutism Hirsutism is e ...

beard
entirely removed. Both men and women sometimes shave their
chest hair Chest hair is hair that grows on the chest of a male in the region between the neck and the Human abdomen, abdomen. Chest hair develops during and after puberty along with other types of androgenic hair. Development and growth Although vellus ...
,
abdominal hair Abdominal hair is the hair Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis. Hair is one of the defining characteristics of mammals. The human body, apart from areas of glabrous skin, is covered in follicles which ...
,
leg hair Leg hair is hair that grows on the legs of humans, generally appearing after the onset of puberty Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction. It is initia ...

leg hair
,
underarm hair Underarm hair, also known as axillary hair, is the hair Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis. Hair is one of the defining characteristics of mammals. The human body, apart from areas of glabrous skin ...
,
pubic hair Pubic hair is terminal body hair that is found in the genital area of adolescent and adult humans. The hair is located on and around the sex organs and sometimes at the top of the inside of the thighs. In the pubic region around the pubis ...

pubic hair
, or any other body hair.
Head shaving Head shaving is the practice of shaving the hair from a person's head. People throughout history have shaved all or part of their heads for diverse reasons including practicality, convenience, fashion, style, religion, aesthetics, culture, and pu ...
is much more common among men. It is often associated with religious practice, the
armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...
and some competitive sports such as
swimming Swimming is the self-propulsion of a person through water, or other liquid, usually for recreation, sport, exercise, or survival. Locomotion is achieved through coordinated movement of the limbs and the body to achieve hydrodynamic thrust whic ...
,
running Running is a method of terrestrial locomotion Terrestrial locomotion has evolved Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from ...

running
, and
extreme sports Action sports, adventure sports or extreme sports are activities perceived as involving a high degree of risk. These activities often involve speed, height, a high level of physical exertion and highly specialized gear. Definition The defin ...

extreme sports
. Historically, head shaving has also been used to humiliate, punish and show submission to an authority, and in more recent history also as part of fund-raising efforts, particularly for cancer research organizations and charitable organizations which serve cancer patients. The shaving of head hair is also sometimes done by cancer patients when their treatment may result in hair loss.


History

Before the advent of razors, hair was sometimes removed using two
shells Shell may refer to: Architecture and design * Shell (structure), a thin structure **Concrete shell, a thin shell of concrete, usually with no interior columns or exterior buttresses **Thin-shell structure, **Oil company Science Biology * Seashell ...
to pull the hair out or using water and a sharp tool. Around 3000 BC when
copper Copper is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elem ...

copper
tools were developed, copper razors were invented. The idea of an aesthetic approach to
personal hygiene Hygiene is a series of practices performed to preserve health Health, according to the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies a ...
may have begun at this time, though
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
ian
priests A priest is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities. They also have the authority or power to administer religious rites; in particu ...
may have practiced something similar to this earlier.
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title ...

Alexander the Great
strongly promoted shaving during his reign in the 4th century BC because he believed it looked tidier. In some Native American tribes, at the time of contact with British colonists, it was customary for men and women to remove all
body hair Body hair, or androgenic hair, is the terminal hair that develops on the human body during and after puberty. It is differentiated from the head hair and less visible vellus hair, which is much finer and lighter in color. The growth of androgenic ...
.
Straight razor A straight razor is a razor A razor is a blade A blade is the portion of a tool, weapon, or machine with an edge that is designed to wikt:puncture, puncture, wikt:chop, chop, Cutting, slice or scraper (archaeology), scrape surfaces or mater ...
s are known to have been manufactured in
Sheffield, England Sheffield is a city status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England. The name derives from the River Sheaf which runs through the city. Historic counties of England, Historically part of the West Riding of ...
since the 18th century. In the United States, getting a straight razor shave in a
barber A barber is a person whose occupation is mainly to cut, dress, groom, style and shave men's and boys' hair or beards. A barber's place of work is known as a "barbershop" or a "barber's". Barbershops are also places of social interaction and publi ...

barber
shop and self-shaving with a straight razor were still common in the early 1900s. The popularisation of self-shaving changed this. According to an estimate by New York City barber Charles de Zemler, barbers' shaving revenue dropped from about 50 percent around the time of the
Spanish–American War The Spanish–American War (April 21 – August 13, 1898, es, Guerra hispano-estadounidense or ; fil, Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was an armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, S ...
to 10 percent in 1939 due to the invention of the safety razor and electric razor. Safety razors have been known to exist since at least 1876 when the single-edge Star safety razor was patented by brothers Frederick and Otto Kampfe. The razor was essentially a small piece of a straight razor attached to a handle using a clamp mechanism. Before each shave the blade had to be attached to a special holder, stropped with a leather belt, and placed back into the razor. After a time, the blade needed to be honed by a cutler. In 1895,
King Camp Gillette Image:Gillette razor patent.png, Patent drawing of the razor King Camp Gillette (January 5, 1855 – July 9, 1932) was an Americans, American businessman. He invented a best-selling version of the safety razor. Several models were in existence bef ...

King Camp Gillette
invented the double-edged safety razor, which utilised inexpensive, disposable blades sharpened from two sides. It took him until 1901 to build a working, patentable model, and commercial production began in 1903. The razor gained popularity during
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
when the U.S. military started issuing Gillette shaving kits to its servicemen: in 1918, the
Gillette Safety Razor Company Gillette is an American brand of safety razors and other personal care products including shaving supplies, owned by the multi-national corporation Procter & Gamble (P&G). Based in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, it was owned by The Gill ...

Gillette Safety Razor Company
sold 3.5 million razors and 32 million blades. After the First World War, the company changed the pricing of its razor from a premium $5 to a more affordable $1, leading to another big surge in popularity. The
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
led to a similar increase in users when Gillette was ordered to dedicate its entire razor production and most blade production to the U.S. military. During the war, 12.5 million razors and 1.5 billion blades were provided to servicemen. In 1970,
Wilkinson Sword Wilkinson Sword is a British brand for razors A razor is a blade A blade is the portion of a tool, weapon, or machine with an edge that is designed to wikt:puncture, puncture, wikt:chop, chop, Cutting, slice or scraper (archaeology), scrap ...
introduced the 'bonded blade' razor, which consisted of a single blade housed in a plastic cartridge. Gillette followed in 1971 with its Trac II cartridge razor that utilised two blades. Gillette built on this twin blade design for a time, introducing new razors with added features such as a pivoting head, lubricating strip, and spring-mounted blades until their 1998 launch of the triple-bladed Mach3 razor. Schick launched a four-blade Quattro razor later the same year, and in 2006 Gillette launched the five-blade Fusion. Since then, razors with six and seven blades have been introduced. Wholly disposable razors gained popularity in the 1970s after Bic brought the first disposable razor to market in 1974. Other manufacturers, Gillette included, soon introduced their own disposable razors, and by 1980 disposables made up more than 27 percent of worldwide unit sales for razors.


Shaving methods

Shaving can be done with a
straight razor A straight razor is a razor A razor is a blade A blade is the portion of a tool, weapon, or machine with an edge that is designed to wikt:puncture, puncture, wikt:chop, chop, Cutting, slice or scraper (archaeology), scrape surfaces or mater ...
or
safety razor A safety razor is a shaving implement with a protective device positioned between the edge of the blade A blade is the portion of a tool, weapon, or machine with an edge that is designed to wikt:puncture, puncture, wikt:chop, chop, Cutting, sl ...

safety razor
(called 'manual shaving' or 'wet shaving') or an
electric razor An electric shaver (also known as the dry razor, electric razor, or simply shaver) is a razor A razor is a blade A blade is the portion of a tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the s ...
(called 'dry shaving') or beard trimmer. The removal of a full beard often requires the use of scissors or an electric (or beard) trimmer to reduce the mass of hair, simplifying the process.


Wet shaving

There are two types of manual razors: straight razor and safety razors. Safety razors are further subdivided into double-edged razors, single edge, injector razors, cartridge razors and disposable razors. Double-edge razors are named so because the blade that they use has two sharp edges on opposite sides of the blade. Current multi-bladed cartridge manufacturers attempt to differentiate themselves by having more or fewer blades than their competitors, each arguing that their product gives a greater shave quality at a more affordable price. Before wet shaving, the area to be shaved is usually doused in warm to hot water by showering or bathing or covered for several minutes with a hot wet towel to soften the skin and hair. A lathering or lubricating agent such as
cream Cream is a dairy product Dairy products or milk products are a type of food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains e ...

cream
,
shaving soap Shaving soap is a hard soap that is used to produce lather with a shaving brush. The lather it produces is used to coat the face during shaving, softening the hair in preparation for shaving. While shaving soap produces plenty of dense and long- ...
, gel, foam or oil is normally applied after this. Lubricating and moisturizing the skin to be shaved helps prevent irritation and damage known as razor burn. Many razor cartridges include a lubricating strip, made of
polyethylene glycol Polyethylene glycol (PEG; ) is a polyether Ethers are a class of organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), millions of organic compounds ...

polyethylene glycol
, to function instead of or in supplement to extrinsic agents. It also lifts and softens the hairs, causing them to swell. This enhances the cutting action and sometimes permits cutting the hairs slightly below the surface of the skin. Additionally, during shaving, the lather indicates areas that have not been addressed. When soap is used, it is generally applied with a
shaving brush A shaving brush or shave brush is a small brush with a handle parallel to the bristles used to make lather from shaving soap Shaving soap is a hard soap Soap is a salt (chemistry), salt of a fatty acid used in a variety of cleansing and ...

shaving brush
, which has long, soft bristles. It is worked up into a usable lather by the brush, either against the face, in a
shaving mug A mug is a type of cup typically used for drinking hot drinks, such as coffee, hot chocolate, or tea. Mugs usually have handles and hold a larger amount of fluid than other types of cup. Typically, a mug holds approximately of liquid. A mug is ...
, bowl, scuttle, or palm of the hand. Since cuts are more likely when using safety razors and straight razors, wet shaving is generally done in more than one pass with the blade. The goal is to reduce the amount of hair with each pass, instead of trying to eliminate all of it in a single pass. This also reduces the risks of cuts, soreness, and
ingrown hair Ingrown hair is a condition where a hair Hair is a protein filament In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Mo ...
s.
Alum An alum () is a type of chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together ...

Alum
blocks and
styptic pencil An antihemorrhagic (antihæmorrhagic) agent is a substance that promotes hemostasis (stops bleeding). It may also be known as a hemostatic (also spelled hæmostatic) agent. Antihemorrhagic agents used in medicine have various mechanisms of action: ...
s are used to close cuts resulting from the shave.


Aftershave

An aftershave lotion or balm is sometimes used after finishing shaving. It may contain an
antiseptic Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί ''anti'', "against" and σηπτικός ''sēptikos'', "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cel ...

antiseptic
agent such as
isopropyl alcohol Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering OrganizationsNational Adhering Organizations in chemistry are the organizations that work as the aut ...
, both to prevent
infection An infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host A host is a person responsible for guests at an event or for providing hospitality during it. Host may ...

infection
from cuts and to act as an astringent to reduce skin irritation, a
perfume Perfume (, ; french: parfum) is a mixture of fragrance, fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds (fragrances), Fixative (perfumery), fixatives and solvents, usually in liquid form, used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and livin ...

perfume
, and a
moisturizer Moisturizer, or emollient, is a cosmetic preparation used for protecting, moisturizing, and lubricating the skin Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate animal, with three main functions: pro ...
to soften the facial skin.


Electric shaving

The
electric razor An electric shaver (also known as the dry razor, electric razor, or simply shaver) is a razor A razor is a blade A blade is the portion of a tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the s ...
(electric shaver) consists of a set of oscillating or rotating blades, which are held behind a perforated metal screen which prevents them from coming into contact with the skin and behaves much like the second blade in a pair of scissors. When the razor is held against the skin, the whiskers poke through the holes in the screen and are sliced by the moving blades. In some designs the blades are a rotating cylinder. In others they are one or more rotating disks or a set of oscillating blades. Each design has an optimum motion over the skin for the best shave and manufacturers provide guidance on this. Generally, circular or cylindrical blades (rotary-type shaver) move in a circular motion and oscillating blades (foil-type shaver) move left and right. Hitachi has produced foil-type shavers with a rotary blade that operates similarly to the blade assembly of a reel-type
lawn mower A lawn mower (also known as a mower, grass cutter or lawnmower) is a machine utilizing one or more revolving blades to cut a grass surface to an even height. The height of the cut grass may be fixed by the design of the mower, but generally is ...

lawn mower
. The first electric razor was built by Jacob Schick in 1928. The main disadvantages of electric shaving are that it may not cut the whiskers as closely as razor shaving does and it requires a source of electricity. The advantages include fewer cuts to the skin, quicker shaving and no need for a water/lather supply. The initial cost of electric shaving is higher, due to the cost of the shaver itself, but the long-term cost can be significantly lower, since the cutting parts do not need replacement for approximately 18 months and a lathering product is not required. Some people also find they do not experience ingrown hairs (
pseudofolliculitis barbae Pseudofolliculitis barbae (PFB) is a persistent irritation caused by shaving Shaving is the removal of hair, by using a razor A razor is a blade A blade is the portion of a tool, weapon, or machine with an edge that is designed to wik ...

pseudofolliculitis barbae
, also called razor bumps), when using an electric shaver. In contrast to wet shaving, electric shave lotions are intended to stiffen the whiskers. Stiffening is achieved by dehydrating the follicles using solutions of alcohols and a degreaser such as
isopropyl myristate Isopropyl myristate (IPM) is the ester of isopropyl alcohol and myristic acid. Uses Isopropyl myristate is a polar Moisturizer, emollient and is used in cosmetic and topical pharmaceutical preparations where skin absorption is desired. It is also ...

isopropyl myristate
."Hair Preparations," Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim (2006). Lotions are also sold to reduce skin irritation, but electric shaving does not usually require the application of any lubrication. Mechanical shavers powered by a spring motor have been manufactured, although in the late 20th century they became rare. Such shavers can operate for up to two minutes each time the spring is wound and do not require an electrical outlet or batteries. Such type of shaver, the "Monaco" brand, was used on American space flights in the 1960s and 1970s, during the Apollo missions.


Beard trimmer

The mechanics of a beard trimmer involves rotatory mechanics, crafted with a mini size motor, which rounds at a very fast speed. This motor causes two sets of hinged blades to move back and forth past one another allowing for the hair cuticles to be cut. The main advantage of a beard trimmer, unlike other shaving tools is that longer beards can be trimmed to a short length efficiently and effectively.


Effects of shaving


Aberrations

Shaving can have numerous side effects, including cuts, abrasions, and irritation. Many side effects can be minimized by using a fresh blade, applying plenty of lubrication, shaving in the direction of hair growth, and avoiding pressing the razor into the skin. A shaving brush can also help to lift the hair and spread the lubrication. The cosmetic market in some consumer economies offers many products to reduce these effects; they commonly dry the affected area, and some also help to lift out the trapped hair(s). Some people who shave choose to use only single-blade or wire-wrapped blades that shave farther away from the skin. Others have skin that cannot tolerate razor shaving at all; they use depilatory shaving powders to dissolve hair above the skin's surface, or grow a beard. Some anatomical parts, such as the
scrotum The scrotum or scrotal sac is an Anatomy, anatomical male reproductive structure located at the base of the penis that consists of a suspended dual-chambered sac of skin and smooth muscle. It is present in most terrestrial male mammals. The scr ...

scrotum
, require extra care and more advanced equipment due to the uneven surface of the skin when the testicles shrivel during
coldness In statistical thermodynamics, thermodynamic beta, also known as coldness, is the reciprocal of the thermodynamic temperature of a system:\beta = \frac (where is the temperature and is Boltzmann constant).J. Meixner (1975) "Coldness and Tempe ...
, or its imbalance when the
testicle Testicle or testis (plural testes) is the male Male (symbol: ♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete (sex cell) known as sperm, which fuses with the larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male or ...

testicle
s hang low due to being warmer.


Cuts

Cuts from shaving can bleed for about fifteen minutes. Shaving cuts can be caused by blade movement perpendicular to the blade's cutting axis or by regular / orthogonal shaving over prominent bumps on the skin (which the blade incises). As such, the presence of acne can make shaving cuts more likely, and extra care must be exercised. The use of a fresh, sharp blade as well as proper cleaning and lubrication of skin can help prevent cuts. Some razor blade manufacturers include disposal containers or receptacles to avoid injuries to anyone handling the garbage.


Razor burn

Razor burn is an irritation of the skin caused by using a blunt blade or not using proper technique. It appears as a mild
rash A rash is a change of the human skin The human skin is the outer covering of the body and is the largest organ of the integumentary system The integumentary system is the set of organs forming the outermost layer of an animal's body. It c ...

rash
2–4 minutes after shaving (once hair starts to grow through sealed skin) and usually disappears after a few hours to a few days, depending on severity. In severe cases, razor burn can also be accompanied by , where the area around shaved hairs get raised red welts or infected
pustule A skin condition, also known as cutaneous condition, is any medical condition A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements ...
s. A rash at the time of shaving is usually a sign of lack of lubrication. Razor burn is a common problem, especially among those who shave coarse hairs on areas with
sensitive skin Sensitive skin is a skin condition in which skin is prone to itching and irritation experienced as a subjective sensation when using cosmetics and toiletries. When questioned, over 50% of women in the UK and US, and 38% of men, report that they ha ...
like the bikini line,
pubic hair Pubic hair is terminal body hair that is found in the genital area of adolescent and adult humans. The hair is located on and around the sex organs and sometimes at the top of the inside of the thighs. In the pubic region around the pubis ...

pubic hair
,
underarms The axilla (also, armpit, underarm or oxter) is the area on the human body directly under the joint A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bone A bone is a Stiffness, rigid tissue (anatomy), tissue ...

underarms
,
chest The thorax or chest is a part of the anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανι ...

chest
, and
beard A beard is the hair that grows on the jaw, chin, upper lip, lower lip, cheeks, and neck of humans and some non-human animals. In humans, usually only pubescent or adult males are able to grow beards. Some women with hirsutism Hirsutism is e ...

beard
. The condition can be caused by shaving too closely, shaving with a blunt blade, dry shaving, applying too much pressure when shaving, shaving too quickly or roughly, or shaving against the grain. Ways to prevent razor burn include keeping the skin moist, using a shaving brush and lather, using a moisturizing shaving gel, shaving in the direction of the
hair Hair is a protein filament In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Ph ...

hair
growth, resisting the urge to shave too closely, applying minimal pressure, avoiding scratching or irritation after shaving, avoiding irritating products on the shaved area (
cologne Cologne ( ; german: Köln ; ksh, Kölle ) is the largest city of Germany, Germany's most populous States of Germany, state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and the List of cities in Germany by population, fourth-most populous city and one of t ...
s,
perfume Perfume (, ; french: parfum) is a mixture of fragrance, fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds (fragrances), Fixative (perfumery), fixatives and solvents, usually in liquid form, used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and livin ...

perfume
s, etc.) and using an
aftershave Aftershave is a product applied to skin after shaving with two blades Shaving is the removal of hair, by using a razor or any other kind of bladed implement, to slice it down—to the level of the skin or otherwise. Shaving is most commo ...
cream with
aloe vera#REDIRECT Aloe vera
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from incorrect capitalisation {{R from other capitalisation, plant ...

aloe vera
or other
emollient Moisturizer, or emollient, is a cosmetic preparation used for protecting, moisturizing, and lubricating the skin Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate animal, with three main functions: pro ...
s. Putting a warm, wet cloth on one's skin helps as well, by softening hairs. This can also be done by using pre-shave oil before the application of shaving cream. Essential oils such as coconut oil, tea-tree oil, peppermint oil, and lavender oil help to soothe skin after shaving. They have anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and antibacterial properties. In some cases multi-bladed razors can cause skin irritation by shaving too close to the skin. Switching to a single- or double-bladed razor and not stretching the skin while shaving can mitigate this. One other technique involves exfoliating the skin before and after shaving, using various
exfoliating Exfoliation involves the removal of the oldest dead skin cells from the skin's surface. The word comes from the Latin word ''exfoliare'' (to strip off leaves). Exfoliation is involved in all facials and can be achieved by mechanical or chemical ...
products, included but not limited to, brushes, mitts, and loofah. This process removes dead skin cells, reducing the potential for ingrown hairs and allowing the razor to glide across the skin smoothly decreasing the risk of the razor snagging or grabbing causing razor burn.


Razor bumps

Pseudofolliculitis barbae is a medical term for persistent inflammation caused by shaving. It is also known by the initials PFB or colloquial terms such as "razor bumps".


Myths

Shaving does not cause
terminal hair In humans, terminal hair is thick and long, such as what grows on the scalp, as compared with vellus hair Vellus hair is short, thin, light-colored, and barely noticeable hair Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles foun ...
to grow back thicker, coarser or darker. This belief arose because hair that has never been cut has a naturally tapered end, as it emerges from the skin's
hair follicle The hair follicle is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given org ...

hair follicle
, whereas, after cutting, there is no taper. The cut hair may thus appear to be thicker, and feel coarser as a result of the sharp edges on each cut strand. The fact that shorter hairs are "harder" (less flexible) than longer hairs also contributes to this effect. Hair can also appear darker after it grows back because hair that has never been cut is often lighter from sun exposure. In addition, as humans grow older hair tends to grow coarser and in more places on the face and body. For example, teenagers may start shaving their face or legs at around 16, but as they age hair will start to grow more abundantly and thicker, leading some to believe this was due to the shaving, but in reality is just part of the maturation process.


Shaving in religion


Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Christianity

Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...

Hindu
,
Jain Jainism (), traditionally known as ''Jain Dharma'', is an ancient Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religion ...

Jain
and
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, an ...

Buddhist
(usually only monks or nuns) temples have ceremonies of shaving the hair from the scalp of priests, nuns, and certain followers, as a symbol of their renunciation of worldly fashion and esteem.
Amish The Amish (; pdc, Amisch; german: Amische) are a group of traditionalist Christian church fellowships with Swiss German Swiss German (Standard German Standard High German (SHG), less precisely Standard German or High German (not to ...

Amish
men and some other
plain people Plain people are Christian groups characterized by separation from the world and by simple living Simple living encompasses a number of different voluntary practices to simplicity, simplify one's lifestyle (sociology), lifestyle. These may inc ...
s shave their beard until they are
married Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock is a culturally and often legally recognized union between people called spouses. It establishes rights and obligations between them, as well as between them and their children, and between them ...

married
, after which they allow it to grow but continue to shave their mustaches.
Tonsure Tonsure () is the practice of cutting or shaving some or all of the hair Hair is a protein filament In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Bioch ...

Tonsure
is the practice of some
Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...

Christian
churches. In
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
, in certain communities, a child's birth hair is shaved off as part of a set of religious rites (
samskaras Samskara, saṃskāra, saṅskāra or sanskara may refer to: * Sanskara (rite of passage) Sanskara (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation R ...
)


Islam


Sunni

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen said: The definition of the beard as stated by the scholars of (Arabic) language is: the hair of the face, jawbone and cheeks, in the sense that all the hair on the cheeks, jawbone and chin is part of the beard and removing any of it is counted as a sin, because the Messenger said: “Let your beards grow,” “Leave your beards alone,” “Let your beards increase,” “Let your beards be full.” This indicates that it is not permissible to remove anything from the beard. However, Ibn Omar, a companion of the Prophet Muhammad, used to cut from his beard anything that outgrew a fist’s length.


Shia

According to the Shia scholars, the length of beard should not exceed the width of a fist. Trimming of facial hair is allowed, however, shaving it is ''makruh'' (religiously discouraged).


Judaism

Observant
Jew Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), ...

Jew
ish men are subject to restrictions on the shaving of their beards, as Leviticus 19:27 forbids the shaving of the ''corners of the head'' and prohibits the ''marring'' of the ''corners of the beard''. The Hebrew word used in this verse refers specifically to shaving with a blade against the skin; rabbis at different times and places have interpreted it in many ways. Tools like
scissors Scissors are hand-operated shearing tools. A pair of scissors consists of a pair of metal blades pivoted so that the sharpened edges slide against each other when the handles (bows) opposite to the pivot are closed. Scissors are used for cutti ...

scissors
and
electric razors An electric shaver (also known as the dry razor, electric razor, or simply shaver) is a razor A razor is a blade A blade is the portion of a tool, weapon, or machine with an edge that is designed to wikt:puncture, puncture, wikt:chop, chop, ...
, which cut the hair between two blades instead of between blade and skin, are permitted.


See also

*
Androgenic hair Body hair, or androgenic hair, is the terminal hair that develops on the human body during and after puberty. It is differentiated from the head hair and less visible vellus hair, which is much finer and lighter in color. The growth of androgenic ...

Androgenic hair
*
Barber A barber is a person whose occupation is mainly to cut, dress, groom, style and shave men's and boys' hair or beards. A barber's place of work is known as a "barbershop" or a "barber's". Barbershops are also places of social interaction and publi ...

Barber
*
Beard A beard is the hair that grows on the jaw, chin, upper lip, lower lip, cheeks, and neck of humans and some non-human animals. In humans, usually only pubescent or adult males are able to grow beards. Some women with hirsutism Hirsutism is e ...

Beard
*
Beard Liberation Front The Beard Liberation Front (BLF) is a United Kingdom, British interest group which campaigns in support of beards and opposes pogonophobia, pogonophobic discrimination against those who wear them. It was founded in 1995 by socialist historian Keith ...
*
Burma-Shave Burma-Shave was an American brand of brushless shaving cream Shaving cream or shave cream is a category of cream cosmetics used for shaving with two blades Shaving is the removal of hair, by using a razor or any other kind of bladed i ...
*
Cutting Cutting is the separation or opening of a physical object, into two or more portions, through the application of an acutely directed force. Implements commonly used for wikt:cut, cutting are the knife and saw, or in medicine and science the scal ...

Cutting
*
Glabrousness Hair is a protein filament In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, ...
*
Hair removal Hair removal, also known as epilation or depilation, is the deliberate removal of body hair or head hair. Hair typically grows all over the human body and can vary in thickness and length across human populations. Hair can become more visible d ...
*
Head shaving Head shaving is the practice of shaving the hair from a person's head. People throughout history have shaved all or part of their heads for diverse reasons including practicality, convenience, fashion, style, religion, aesthetics, culture, and pu ...
*
Leg shaving Leg shaving is the practice of removing leg hair by shaving the hair off using a razor or electric shaver. In addition, some people remove leg hair using waxing, sugaring (epilation), sugaring, depilation, depilatories, epilator, epilators or ...
*
Pogonotomia Pogonotomia is the art of shaving Shaving is the removal of hair, by using a razor A razor is a blade A blade is the portion of a tool, weapon, or machine with an edge that is designed to wikt:puncture, puncture, wikt:chop, chop, Cuttin ...
, the art of shaving * '' Fraternal Order of Police v. City of Newark'' *
Pubic hair Pubic hair is terminal body hair that is found in the genital area of adolescent and adult humans. The hair is located on and around the sex organs and sometimes at the top of the inside of the thighs. In the pubic region around the pubis ...

Pubic hair
*
Shaving cream Shaving cream or shave cream is a category of cream cosmetics used for shaving preparation. The purpose of shaving cream is to soften the hair by providing lubrication. Different types of shaving creams include Aerosol spray, aerosol shaving ...

Shaving cream
*
Shaving soap Shaving soap is a hard soap that is used to produce lather with a shaving brush. The lather it produces is used to coat the face during shaving, softening the hair in preparation for shaving. While shaving soap produces plenty of dense and long- ...


References


Bibliography

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Further reading

* Ham, Michael (2012). “Leisureguy’s Guide to Gourmet Shaving, 6th edition: Shaving Made Enjoyable,” Pogonotomy Press. {{Authority control Facial hair