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The sexual revolution, also known as a time of sexual liberation, was a
social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social wh ...
that challenged traditional codes of behavior related to sexuality and
interpersonal relationship The concept of interpersonal relationship involves social associations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people. Interpersonal relationships vary in their degree of intimacy or self-disclosure, but also in their duration, in t ...
s throughout the United States and the developed world from the 1960s to the 1980s. Sexual liberation included increased acceptance of
sex Sex is either of two divisions, typically male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male cannot sexual r ...

sex
outside of traditional heterosexual, monogamous relationships (primarily marriage). The normalization of
contraception Birth control, also known as contraception, anticonception, and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring In biology, offsp ...
and
the pill The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control Birth control, also known as contraception, anticonception, and fertility control, is a meth ...
,
public nudity Nudity is the state of being in which a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture, ...

public nudity
, pornography,
premarital sex Premarital sex is sexual activity Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality Human sexuality is the way people experience and express the ...
, homosexuality,
masturbation Masturbation ( ) is the sexual stimulation Sexual stimulation is any stimulus (including bodily contact) that leads to, enhances and maintains sexual arousal, and may lead to orgasm Orgasm (from Ancient Greek, Greek ὀργασμός ' ...

masturbation
, alternative forms of sexuality, and the legalization of abortion all followed.


Previous sexual revolutions

Several other periods in Western culture have been called the "first sexual revolution", to which the 1960s revolution would be the second (or later). The term "sexual revolution" itself has been used since at least the late 1920s. The term appeared as early as 1929; the book '' Is Sex Necessary? Or, Why You Feel the Way You Do'' by James Thurber and E. B. White, has a chapter titled "The Sexual Revolution: Being a Rather Complete Survey of the Entire Sexual Scene". According to
Konstantin DushenkoKonstantin Vasilyevich Dushenko (russian: Константин Васильевич Душенко) (born October 16, 1946, Moscow) is a Russian translator, culturologist and historian. His with the Institute of Scientific Information on Social Scie ...
, the term was in use in Russia in 1925. When speaking of the sexual revolution, historians make a distinction between the first and the second sexual revolution. In the first sexual revolution (1870–1910), Victorian morality lost its universal appeal. However, it did not lead to the rise of a "permissive society". Exemplary for this period is the rise and differentiation in forms of regulating sexuality. Classics professor Kyle Harper uses the phrase "first sexual revolution" to refer to the displacement of the norms of
sexuality in Ancient Rome Male–female couple on the back of a bronze mirror (''ca.'' 70–90 AD) Sexual attitudes and behaviors in ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome ...
with those of Christianity as it was adopted throughout the Roman Empire. Romans accepted and legalized prostitution,
bisexuality Bisexuality is romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement of the 18th and 19th centuries ** Romantic music, of that era ** Romantic poetry, of that era ** R ...
, and
pederasty Pederasty or paederasty ( or ) is a sexual relationship between an adult man and a pubescent or adolescent boy. The term ''pederasty'' is primarily used to refer to historical practices of certain cultures, particularly ancient Greece Ancie ...
. Male promiscuity was considered normal and healthy as long as masculinity was maintained, associated with being the penetrating partner. On the other hand, female chastity was required for respectable women, to ensure the integrity of family bloodlines. These attitudes were replaced by Christian prohibitions on homosexual acts and any sex outside marriage (including with slaves and prostitutes). History professor Faramerz Dabhoiwala cites the
Age of Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Reason or simply the Enlightenment); ger, Aufklärung, "Enlightenment"; it, L'Illuminismo, "Enlightenment"; pl, Oświecenie , "Enlightenment"; pt, Iluminismo, "Enlightenment"; es, link= ...
—approximately the 18th century—as a major period of transition in the United Kingdom. During this time, the philosophy of liberalism developed and was popularized, and migration to cities increased opportunities for sex and made enforcement of rules more difficult than in small villages. Sexual misconduct in the Catholic Church (called the "
Whore of Babylon Babylon the Great, commonly known as the Whore of Babylon, refers to both a symbolic female figure and place of evil Evil, in a general sense, is defined by what it is not—the opposite or absence of good. It can be an extremely broad conc ...

Whore of Babylon
" by some Protestant critics) undermined the credibility of religious authorities, and the rise of urban police forces helped distinguish crime from
sin In a religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecies, ...

sin
. Overall, toleration increased for heterosexual sex outside marriage, including prostitution, mistresses, and pre-marital sex. Though these acts were still condemned by many as
libertine A libertine is a person devoid of most moral principles, a sense of responsibility, or sexual restraints, which are seen as unnecessary or undesirable, especially someone who ignores or even spurns accepted morals and forms of behaviour sanctifi ...
, infidelity became more often a civil matter than a criminal offense receiving capital punishment. The rate of out-of-wedlock births went from about 1% in 1650 to about 25% in 1800, with about 40% of brides being pregnant, according to
Rod Dreher Raymond Oliver Dreher Jr. (born February 14, 1967), known as Rod Dreher, is an American writer and editor. He is a senior editor and blogger at ''The American Conservative ''The American Conservative'' (''TAC'') is a magazine published by t ...

Rod Dreher
in ''
The American Conservative ''The American Conservative'' (''TAC'') is a magazine published by the American Ideas Institute which was founded in 2002. The publication states that it exists to promote a Conservatism in the United States, conservatism that opposes unchecked p ...
''.
Masturbation Masturbation ( ) is the sexual stimulation Sexual stimulation is any stimulus (including bodily contact) that leads to, enhances and maintains sexual arousal, and may lead to orgasm Orgasm (from Ancient Greek, Greek ὀργασμός ' ...

Masturbation
, homosexuality, and rape were generally less tolerated. Women went from being considered as lustful as men to passive partners, whose purity was important to reputation. Commentators such as history professor Kevin F. White have used the phrase "first sexual revolution" to refer to the
Roaring Twenties The Roaring Twenties, sometimes stylized as the Roarin' 20s, refers to the decade of the 1920s in Western world, Western society and Western culture. It was a period of economic prosperity with a distinctive cultural edge in the United States ...
.
Victorian Era In the history of the United Kingdom The history of the United Kingdom began in the early eighteenth century with the Treaty of Union A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international l ...
attitudes were somewhat destabilized by
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
and alcohol
prohibition in the United States Prohibition Prohibition is the act or practice of forbidding something by law; more particularly the term refers to the banning of the manufacture, storage (whether in barrel A barrel or cask is a hollow cylindrical container with a ...
. At the same time the
women's suffrage Women's suffrage is the right of women to vote in elections. Beginning in the mid-19th century, aside from the work being done by women for broad-based economic and political equality and for social reforms, women sought to change voting law ...
movement obtained voting rights, the subculture of the
flapper girl Flappers were a generation of young Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality ...
included pre-marital sex and "petting parties".


Formative factors

Indicators of non-traditional sexual behavior (e.g., gonorrhea incidence, births out of wedlock, and births to teenagers) began to rise dramatically in the mid to late 1950s. It brought about profound shifts in attitudes toward women's sexuality, homosexuality, pre-marital sexuality, and the freedom of sexual expression. Psychologists and scientists such as
Wilhelm Reich Wilhelm Reich (; ; 24 March 1897 – 3 November 1957) was an Austrian Doctor of Medicine, doctor of medicine and psychoanalysis, psychoanalyst, a member of the second generation of analysts after Sigmund Freud. The author of several influent ...

Wilhelm Reich
and
Alfred Kinsey Alfred Charles Kinsey (; June 23, 1894 – August 25, 1956) was an American biologist Francesco Redi, the founder of biology, is recognized to be one of the greatest biologists of all time A biologist is a professional who has specialized kno ...
influenced the changes. As well, changing mores were both stimulated by and reflected in literature and films, and by the social movements of the period, including the
counterculture A counterculture is a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilitie ...
, the women's movement, and the gay rights movement. The counterculture contributed to the awareness of radical cultural change that was the social matrix of the sexual revolution. The sexual revolution was initiated by those who shared a belief in the detrimental impact of sexual repression, a view that had previously been argued by
Wilhelm Reich Wilhelm Reich (; ; 24 March 1897 – 3 November 1957) was an Austrian Doctor of Medicine, doctor of medicine and psychoanalysis, psychoanalyst, a member of the second generation of analysts after Sigmund Freud. The author of several influent ...

Wilhelm Reich
,
D. H. Lawrence David Herbert Lawrence (11 September 1885 – 2 March 1930) was an English writer and poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer ...
,
Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud ( , ; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist Neurology (from el, νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine M ...

Sigmund Freud
, and the
Surrealist movement Surrealism was a cultural movement A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. This embodies all art forms, the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") i ...

Surrealist movement
. The counterculture wanted to explore the body and mind, and free the personal self from the moral and legal sexual confines of modern America, as well as from the 1940s–50s morals in general. The sexual revolution of the 1960s grew from a conviction that the erotic should be celebrated as a normal part of life and not repressed by family, industrialized sexual morality, religion and the state. The development of the
birth control pill The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control Birth control, also known as contraception, anticonception, and fertility control, is a meth ...
in 1960 gave women access to easy and reliable
contraception Birth control, also known as contraception, anticonception, and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring In biology, offsp ...
. Another likely cause was a vast improvement in
obstetrics Obstetrics is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. As a medical specialty, obstetrics is combined with gynecology under the discipline known as obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN), which is a surgic ...
, greatly reducing the number of women who died due to childbearing, thus increasing the
life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age, and other demographic Demography (from prefix ''demo-'' from Ancient Greek Ancien ...

life expectancy
of women. A third, more indirect cause was the large number of children born in the 1940s and early 1950s all over the western world—the "
Baby Boom Generation Baby boomers (often shortened to boomers) are the demographic Demography (from prefix ''demo-'' from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly d ...
"—many of whom would grow up in relatively prosperous and safe conditions, within a middle class on the rise and with better access to education and entertainment than ever before. By their demographic weight and their social and educational background, they came to trigger a shift in society towards more permissive and informalized attitudes. The discovery of penicillin led to significant reductions in
syphilis Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the older term venereal disease, are infection An infection is the invasion of an orga ...
mortality, which, in turn, spurred an increase in non-traditional sex during the mid to late 1950s. There was an increase in sexual encounters between unmarried adults. Divorce rates were dramatically increasing and marriage rates were significantly decreasing in this time period. The number of unmarried Americans aged twenty to twenty-four more than doubled from 4.3 million in 1960 to 9.7 million in 1976. Men and women sought to reshape marriage by instilling new institutions of open marriage, mate swapping, swinging, and communal sex.


The Freudian school

Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud ( , ; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist Neurology (from el, νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine M ...

Sigmund Freud
of
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian ) is the Capital city, national capital, largest city, and one of States of Austria, nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's List of cities and towns in Austria, mos ...

Vienna
believed human behavior was motivated by unconscious , primarily by the
libido Libido (; colloquial Colloquialism or colloquial language is the style (sociolinguistics), linguistic style used for casual (informal) communication. It is the most common functional style of speech, the idiom normally employed in conversation ...
or "Sexual Energy". Freud proposed to study how these unconscious drives were repressed and found expression through other cultural outlets. He called this therapy "
psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis (from Greek language, Greek: + ) is a set of Theory, theories and Therapy, therapeutic techniques"What is psychoanalysis? Of course, one is supposed to answer that it is many things — a theory, a research method, a therapy, a bo ...

psychoanalysis
". While Freud's ideas were sometimes ignored or provoked resistance within Viennese society, his ideas soon entered the discussions and working methods of anthropologists, artists and writers all over Europe, and from the 1920s in the United States. His conception of a primary sexual drive that would not be ultimately curbed by law, education or standards of decorum spelled a serious challenge to Victorian prudishness, and his theory of
psychosexual development In Freudian psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconscious mind, unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought. It is an academic discipline of i ...
proposed a model for the development of sexual orientations and desires; children emerged from the
Oedipus complex #REDIRECT Oedipus complex describes the riddle of the Sphinx'', by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, (ca. 1805) The Oedipus complex (also spelled Œdipus complex) is a concept of psychoanalytic theory. Sigmund Freud introduced the concept in his ''T ...
, a sexual desire towards their parent of the opposite sex. The idea of children having their parents as their early sexual targets were particularly shocking to Victorian and early 20th-century society. According to Freud's theory, in the earliest stage of a child's psychosexual development, the
oral stage In Freudian Sigmund Freud ( , ; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist Neurology (from el, νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of ...
, the mother's breast became the formative source of all later
erotic Eroticism () is a quality that causes sexual feelings, as well as a philosophical contemplation concerning the aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), tas ...

erotic
sensation. Much of his research remains widely contested by professionals in the field, though it has spurred critical developments in the humanities.
Anarchist Anarchism is a political philosophy and Political movement, movement that is sceptical of authority and rejects all involuntary, coercive forms of hierarchy. Anarchism calls for the abolition of the State (polity), state, which it holds to ...

Anarchist
Freud scholars
Otto Gross Otto Hans Adolf Gross (17 March 1877 – 13 February 1920) was an Austrian psychoanalyst. A maverick early disciple of Sigmund Freud, he later became an anarchist and joined the utopian Monte Verità, Ascona community. His father Hans Gross was a ...

Otto Gross
and
Wilhelm Reich Wilhelm Reich (; ; 24 March 1897 – 3 November 1957) was an Austrian Doctor of Medicine, doctor of medicine and psychoanalysis, psychoanalyst, a member of the second generation of analysts after Sigmund Freud. The author of several influent ...

Wilhelm Reich
(who famously coined the phrase "Sexual Revolution") developed a sociology of sex in the 1910s to 1930s in which the animal-like competitive reproductive behavior was seen as a legacy of ancestral human evolution reflecting in every social relation, as per the Freudian interpretation, and hence the liberation of sexual behavior a mean to social revolution.


The role of mass media


Mead's ''Coming of Age in Samoa''

The 1928 publication of anthropologist
Margaret Mead Margaret Mead (December 16, 1901 – November 15, 1978) was an American cultural anthropologist Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology Anthropology is the Science, scientific study of humanity, concerned with human behavior ...
's ''
Coming of Age in Samoa ''Coming of Age in Samoa'' is a book by American anthropologistAn anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of aspects of humans within past and present Society, societies. Social anthropology, c ...
'' brought the sexual revolution to the public scene, as her thoughts concerning sexual freedom pervaded academia. Mead's
ethnography Ethnography (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ap ...

ethnography
focused on the psychosexual development of adolescents in
Samoa Samoa (, ), officially the Independent State of Samoa ( sm, Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa; sm, Sāmoa, ) and until 1997 known as Western Samoa, is a Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from grc, πολύς "many" and grc, νῆσος "i ...

Samoa
. She recorded that their adolescence was not, in fact, a time of "storm and stress" as Erikson's stages of development suggest, but that the sexual freedom experienced by the adolescents actually permitted them an easy transition from childhood to adulthood. Mead called for a change in the suppression of sexuality in America, and her work directly resulted in the advancement of the sexual revolution in the 1930s. Mead's findings were later criticized by anthropologist
Derek Freeman John Derek Freeman (15 August 1916 – 6 July 2001) was a New Zealand anthropologistAn anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of aspects of humans within past and present Society, societies ...

Derek Freeman
, who investigated her claims of promiscuity and conducted his own ethnography of Samoan society.


Kinsey and Masters and Johnson

In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Alfred C. Kinsey published two surveys of modern sexual behavior. In 1948 Alfred C. Kinsey and his co-workers, responding to a request by female students at
Indiana University Indiana University (IU) is a major multicampus public research institution, grounded in the liberal arts and sciences. Indiana University’s mission is to provide broad access to undergraduate and graduate education for students throughout Ind ...
for more information on human sexual behavior, published the book ''
Sexual behavior in the Human Male Image:Kinsey-Male.jpg, The 1948 first edition of ''Sexual Behavior in the Human Male'', the first of the two Kinsey Reports The Kinsey Reports are two scholarly books on human sexual behavior, ''Sexual Behavior in the Human Male'' (1948) and ''Sexua ...
''. They followed this five years later with ''
Sexual behavior in the Human Female Image:Kinsey-Male.jpg, The 1948 first edition of ''Sexual Behavior in the Human Male'', the first of the two Kinsey Reports The Kinsey Reports are two scholarly books on human sexual behavior, ''Sexual Behavior in the Human Male'' (1948) and ''Sexua ...
''. These books began a revolution in social awareness of, and public attention given to, human sexuality. It is said that
public morality {{Sex and the law Public morality refers to moral and ethical standards enforced in a society, by law or police work or social pressure, and applied to public life, to the content of the media Media may refer to: Physical means Communic ...
severely restricted open discussion of sexuality as a human characteristic, and specific sexual practices, especially sexual behaviors that did not lead to procreation. Kinsey's books contained studies about controversial topics such as the frequency of homosexuality, and the sexuality of minors aged two weeks to fourteen years. Scientists working for Kinsey reported data that led to the conclusion that people are capable of sexual stimulation from birth. Furthermore, Kinsey's method of researching sexuality differs significantly from today's methods. Kinsey would watch his research subjects engage in sexual intercourse, sometimes engaging with his subjects as well. He would also encourage his research team to do the same, and encouraged them to engage in intercourse with him, too. These books laid the groundwork for
Masters and JohnsonThe Masters and Johnson research team, composed of William H. Masters and Virginia E. Johnson, pioneered research into the nature of human sexual response and the diagnosis and treatment of sexual disorders and dysfunctions from 1957 until the 19 ...
's life work. A study called ''Human Sexual Response'' in 1966 revealed the nature and scope of the sexual practices of young Americans.


The ''Playboy'' culture

In 1953, Chicago resident
Hugh Hefner Hugh Marston Hefner (April 9, 1926 – September 27, 2017) was an American magazine publisher. He was the founder and editor-in-chief of ''Playboy'' magazine, a publication with revealing photographs and articles which provoked charges of obs ...
founded ''
Playboy ''Playboy'' is an American men's lifestyle Lifestyle often refers to: * Lifestyle (sociology), the way a person lives * ''Otium'', ancient Roman concept of a lifestyle * Style of life (german: Lebensstil), dealing with the dynamics of personal ...

Playboy
'', a magazine which aimed to target males between the ages of 21 and 45. The coverpage and nude centerfold in the first edition featured
Marilyn Monroe Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson; June 1, 1926 – August 4, 1962) was an American actress, model and singer. Famous for playing comedic " blonde bombshell" characters, she became one of the most popular sex symbol A sex ...

Marilyn Monroe
, then a rising
sex symbol A sex symbol is a person or character widely considered sexually attractive.Pam Cook Pam Cook (born 6 January 1943) is Professor Emerita in Film at the University of Southampton. She was educated at Sir William Perkins's School, Chertsey, ...
. Featuring cartoons, interviews, short fiction, Hefner's "Playboy Philosophy" and unclothed female "Playmates" posing provocatively, the magazine became immensely successful. In 1960, Hefner expanded
Playboy Enterprises PLBY Group, Inc. (formerly Playboy Enterprises) is an American global media and lifestyle company founded by Hugh Hefner to oversee the ''Playboy ''Playboy'' is an American men's Lifestyle magazine, lifestyle and entertainment magazine, forme ...
, opening the first
Playboy Club The Playboy Club was initially a chain of nightclubs and resorts owned and operated by Playboy Enterprises. The first Playboy Club opened in Chicago in 1960. Each club generally featured a Living Room, a Playmate Bar, a Dining Room, and a Club R ...
in Chicago, which grew to a chain of nightclubs and resorts. The private clubs offered relaxation for members, who were waited on by . While Hefner claimed his company contributed to America's more liberal attitude towards sex, others believe he simply exploited it.


Erotic novels

In the United States in the years 1959 through 1966, bans on three books with explicit erotic content were challenged and overturned. This also occurred in the United Kingdom starting with the 1959 Obscene Publications Act and reaching a peak with the LCL court case. Prior to this time, a patchwork of regulations (as well as local customs and vigilante actions) governed what could and could not be published. For example, the
United States Customs Service The United States Customs Service was an agency of the U.S. federal government that collected import An import is the receiving country in an export An export in international trade International trade is the exchange of capital, ...
banned
James Joyce James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, poet and literary critic. He contributed to the modernist , Solomon Guggenheim Museum 1946–1959 Modernism is both a philosoph ...
's ''
Ulysses Ulysses is the Roman name for Odysseus, a hero in ancient Greek literature. Ulysses may also refer to: People * Ulysses (given name), including a list of people with this name Places in the United States * Ulysses, Kansas * Ulysses, Kentucky * U ...
'' by refusing to allow it to be imported into the United States. The
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Roman Catholic Church
's ''
Index Librorum Prohibitorum The ''Index Librorum Prohibitorum'' ("List of Prohibited Books") was a list of publications deemed heretical Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beli ...
'' carried great weight among Catholics and amounted to an effective and instant boycott of any book appearing on it. Boston's Watch and Ward Society, a largely Protestant creation inspired by
Anthony Comstock Anthony Comstock (March 7, 1844 – September 21, 1915) was an anti- vice activist, United States Postal Inspector and secretary of the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice, who was dedicated to upholding Victorian morality. He opposed O ...

Anthony Comstock
, made "
banned in Boston "Banned in Boston" was a phrase employed from the late 19th century through the mid-20th century, to describe a literature, literary work, song, motion picture, or play which had been prohibited from distribution or exhibition in Boston, Massachu ...
" a national by-word. In 1959
Grove Press Grove Press is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States ...
published an unexpurgated version of the 1928 novel ''
Lady Chatterley's Lover ''Lady Chatterley's Lover'' is a novel by English author D. H. Lawrence that was first published privately in 1928 in Italy and in 1929 in France. An unexpurgated edition was not published openly in the United Kingdom until 1960, when it was th ...
'' by D. H. Lawrence. The U.S.  Post Office confiscated copies sent through the mail. Lawyer Charles Rembar sued the New York City Postmaster, and won in New York and then on federal appeal.
Henry Miller Henry Valentine Miller (December 26, 1891 – June 7, 1980) was an American writer and artist. He was known for breaking with existing literary forms and developing a new type of semi-autobiographical novel An autobiographical novel is a form ...

Henry Miller
's 1934 novel, ''
Tropic of Cancer The Tropic of Cancer, which is also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted ...
'', had explicit sexual passages and could not be published in the United States; an edition was printed by the
Obelisk PressObelisk Press was an English-language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading language of inte ...
in Paris and copies were smuggled into the United States. In 1961 Grove Press issued a copy of the work, and dozens of booksellers were sued for selling it. The issue was ultimately settled by the 1964 decision in ''Grove Press, Inc. v. Gerstein''. In 1963 Putnam published
John Cleland John Cleland (c. 1709, baptised – 23 January 1789) was an English novelist best known for his fictional '' Fanny Hill: or, the Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure'', whose eroticism led to his arrest. James Boswell James Boswell, 9th Laird ...

John Cleland
's 1750 novel ''
Fanny Hill ''Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure''—popularly known as ''Fanny Hill'' (possibly an anglicisation of the Latin ''Mons pubis, mons veneris'', mound of Venus)—is an erotic novel by English novelist John Cleland first published in London in 1 ...
''. Charles Rembar appealed a restraining order against it all the way to the U.S.  Supreme Court and won. In '' Memoirs v. Massachusetts'', 383  U.S. 413, the court ruled that sex was "a great and mysterious motive force in human life", and that its expression in literature was protected by the
First Amendment First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill, ...
. By permitting the publication of ''Fanny Hill'', the U.S.  Supreme Court set the bar for any ban so high that Rembar himself called the 1966  decision "the end of obscenity". Only books primarily appealing to "prurient interest" could be banned. In a famous phrase, the court said that obscenity is "utterly without redeeming social importance"—meaning that, conversely, a work with any redeeming social importance or
literary merit Artistic merit is the artistic quality or value of any given work of art A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an artistic creation of aesthetics, aesthetic value. Except for "work of art", which may be ...
was arguably not obscene, even if it contained isolated passages that could "deprave and corrupt" some readers.


Nonfiction

The court decisions that legalized the publication of ''
Fanny Hill ''Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure''—popularly known as ''Fanny Hill'' (possibly an anglicisation of the Latin ''Mons pubis, mons veneris'', mound of Venus)—is an erotic novel by English novelist John Cleland first published in London in 1 ...
'' had an even more important effect: freed from fears of legal action, nonfiction works about sex and sexuality started to appear more often. These books were factual and in fact, educational, made available in mainstream bookstores and mail-order book clubs to a mainstream readership, and their authors were guests on late-night talk shows. Earlier books such as ''What Every Girl Should Know'' (
Margaret Sanger Margaret Higgins Sanger (born Margaret Louise Higgins; September 14, 1879September 6, 1966), also known as Margaret Sanger Slee, was an American birth control activist, Sex education, sex educator, writer, and nurse. Sanger popularized the term ...
, 1920) and ''A Marriage Manual'' (Hannah and Abraham Stone, 1939) had broken the silence and, by the 1950s, in the United States, it had become rare for women to go into their wedding nights not knowing what to expect. The open discussion of sex as pleasure, and descriptions of sexual practices and techniques, was revolutionary. There were practices which, perhaps, some had heard of. But many adults did not know for sure whether they were realities, or fantasies found only in pornographic books. The Kinsey report revealed that these practices were, at the very least, surprisingly frequent. These other books asserted, in the words of a 1980  book by Dr.  Irene Kassorla, that ''Nice Girls Do – And Now You Can Too''. In 1962, Helen Gurley Brown published '' Sex and the Single Girl: The Unmarried Woman's Guide to Men, Careers, the Apartment, Diet, Fashion, Money and Men.'' In 1969
Joan Garrity Joan Theresa Garrity (born c. 1940) is an American author, best known as the author of ''The Sensuous Woman''. Garrity was raised in Lee's Summit, Missouri and studied at Palm Beach Junior College in Florida. She worked on the staff of publisher L ...
, identifying herself only as "J.", published '' The Way to Become the Sensuous Woman'', with information on exercises to improve the dexterity of one's tongue and how to have anal sex. The same year saw the appearance of Dr.  David Reuben's book '' Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sex* (*But Were Afraid to Ask)''. Despite the dignity of Reuben's medical credentials, this book was light-hearted in tone. In 1970 the Boston Women's Health Collective published ''Women and Their Bodies'', reissued a year later as ''
Our Bodies, Ourselves ''Our Bodies, Ourselves'' is a book about women's health and Human sexuality, sexuality produced by the nonprofit organization Our Bodies Ourselves (originally called the Boston Women's Health Book Collective). First published in 1970, it contain ...
''). Though not an erotic treatise or sex manual, the book included frank descriptions of sexuality, and contained illustrations that could have caused legal problems just a few years earlier.
Alex Comfort Alexander Comfort (10 February 1920 – 26 March 2000) was a British scientist and physician known best for his Sexual revolution#Nonfiction sex manuals, nonfiction sex manual, ''The Joy of Sex'' (1972). He was an author of both fiction an ...
's ''
The Joy of Sex ''The Joy of Sex'' is a 1972 illustrated sex manual Sex manuals are book A book is a medium for recording information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and t ...
: A Gourmet Guide to Love Making'' appeared in 1972. In later editions, Comfort's exuberance was tamed in response to AIDS. In 1975 Will McBride's ''Zeig Mal!'' ( Show Me!), written with psychologist Helga Fleichhauer-Hardt for children and their parents, appeared in bookstores on both sides of the Atlantic. Appreciated by many parents for its frank depiction of pre-adolescent sexual discovery and exploration, it scandalized others and was pulled from circulation in the United States and some other countries. The book was followed in 1989 by ''Zeig Mal Mehr!'' ("Show Me More!").


Pornographic film

In 1969, ''
Blue Movie ''Blue Movie'' (stylized as ''blue movie''; also known as ''Fuck'') is a 1969 American film written, produced, and directed by Andy Warhol. It is the first pornographic, adult erotic film depicting Unsimulated sex, explicit sex to receive New A ...
'', directed by
Andy Warhol Andy Warhol (; born Andrew Warhola; August 6, 1928 – February 22, 1987) was an American artist, film director, and producer who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. His works explore the relationship betwe ...

Andy Warhol
, was the first
adult erotic film Erotic photography is a style of art photography Fine-art photography is photography created in line with the vision of the photographer as artist, using photography as a medium for creative expression. The goal of fine-art photography is to ex ...
depicting explicit sex to receive wide theatrical release in the United States. The film helped inaugurate the "
porno chic https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MediaWiki_talk:Spam-whitelist/Archives/2018/01#Another_Worthy_Journal_Article_on_Wordpress ---> The term "Golden Age of Porn", or "porno chic", refers to a 15-year period (1969–1984) in commercial American porno ...
" phenomenon in modern American culture. According to Warhol, ''Blue Movie'' was a major influence in the making of ''
Last Tango in Paris ''Last Tango in Paris'' ( it, Ultimo tango a Parigi; french: Le Dernier Tango à Paris) is a 1972 Erotic film, erotic Drama (film and television), drama film directed by Bernardo Bertolucci, which portrays a recently widowed American who begins ...
'', starring
Marlon Brando Marlon Brando Jr. (April 3, 1924 – July 1, 2004) was an American actor with a career spanning 60 years, during which he won many accolades, including two Academy Awards for Best Actor, three BAFTA Awards for Best Foreign Actor and two Go ...
, and released a few years after ''Blue Movie'' was made. In 1970, ''
Mona the Virgin Nymph ''Mona'' (1970) (also promoted as ''Mona; the Virgin Nymph'') is a sex in film, sexually explicit adult film that contains a number of unsimulated sex, unsimulated non-penetrative sex scenes as well as penetrative ones. The film is regarded as the ...
'' became the second film to gain wide release. The third, '' Deep Throat'', despite being rudimentary by the standards of mainstream filmmaking, achieved major box office success, following mentions by
Johnny Carson John William Carson (October 23, 1925 – January 23, 2005) was an American television host, comedian, writer, and producer. He is best known as the host of ''The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson'' (1962–1992). Carson received six Pri ...
on ''
The Tonight Show ''The Tonight Show'' is an American late-night talk show A late-night talk show is a genre of talk show A talk show (or chat show in British English) is a television programming or radio programming genre structured around the act of spon ...
'', and
Bob Hope Leslie Townes "Bob" Hope (May 29, 1903 – July 27, 2003) was a British-American British American usually refers to Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nati ...

Bob Hope
on television as well. In 1973, the far-more-accomplished (though still low-budget) ''
The Devil in Miss Jones ''The Devil in Miss Jones'' is a 1973 pornographic film Pornographic films (pornos), erotic films, or sex films are films that present sexually explicit subject matter in order to arouse and satisfy the viewer. Pornographic films pre ...
'' was the seventh-most-successful film of the year, and was well received by major media, including a favorable review by film critic
Roger Ebert Roger Joseph Ebert (; June 18, 1942 – April 4, 2013) was an American Film criticism, film critic, film historian, journalist, screenwriter, and author. He was a film critic for the ''Chicago Sun-Times'' from 1967 until his death in 2013. In ...

Roger Ebert
. In 1976, ''
The Opening of Misty Beethoven ''The Opening of Misty Beethoven'' is an American pornographic comedy Comedy (from the el, wikt:κωμῳδία, κωμῳδία, ''kōmōdía'') is a genre of fiction consisting of discourses or works intended to be humorous or amusing by i ...
'' (based on the play '' Pygmalion'' by
George Bernard Shaw George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemic Polemic () is contentious rhetoric Rhetoric () is the art Art is a diverse range ...

George Bernard Shaw
) was released theatrically and is considered by Toni Bentley the "crown jewel" of "the golden age of porn." By the mid-1970s and through the 1980s, newly won sexual freedoms were being exploited by big businesses looking to capitalize on an increasingly permissive society, with the advent of public and hardcore pornography.


Explicit sex on screen and stage

Swedish filmmakers like Ingmar Bergman and Vilgot Sjöman contributed to sexual liberation with sexually themed films that challenged conservative international standards. The 1951 film ''Hon dansade en sommar'' (''She Danced One Summer AKA One Summer of Happiness'') displayed explicit nudity, including bathing in a lake. This film, as well as Bergman's ''Sommaren med Monika'' (''The Summer with Monika'', 1951) and ''The Silence (1963 film), Tystnaden (The Silence'', 1963), caused an international uproar, not least in the United States, where the films were charged with violating standards of decency. Vilgot Sjöman's film ''I Am Curious (Yellow)'', also was very popular in the United States. Another of his films, ''491 (film), 491'', highlighted homosexuality. ''Language of Love, Kärlekens språk'' (''The Language of Love'') was an informative documentary about sex and sexual techniques that featured the first real act of sex in a mainstream film. From these films, the myth of "Swedish sin" (licentiousness and seductive nudity) arose. The image of "hot love and cold people" emerged, with sexual liberalism seen as part of the modernization process that, by breaking down traditional borders, would lead to the emancipation of natural forces and desires. In Sweden and nearby countries at the time, these films, by virtue of being made by directors who had established themselves as leading names in their generation, helped delegitimize the idea of habitually demanding that films should avoid overtly sexual subject matter. The films eventually progressed the public's attitude toward sex, especially in Sweden and other northern European countries, which today tend to be more sexually liberal than others.


Normalization of pornography

The somewhat more open and commercial circulation of pornography was a new phenomenon. Pornography operated as a form of "cultural critique" insofar as it transgresses societal conventions. Manuel Castells claims that the online communities, which emerged (from the 1980s) around early bulletin-board systems, originated from the ranks of those who had been part of the counterculture movements and alternative way of life emerging out of the sexual revolution. Lynn Hunt points out that early modern "pornography" (18th century) is marked by a "preponderance of female narrators", that the women were portrayed as independent, determined, financially successful (though not always socially successful and recognized) and scornful of the new ideals of female virtue and domesticity, and not objectification of women's bodies as many view pornography today. The sexual revolution was not unprecedented in identifying sex as a site of political potential and social culture. It was suggested that the interchangeability of bodies within pornography had radical implications for gender differences and that they could lose their meaning or at least redefine the meaning of gender roles and norms. In 1971 ''
Playboy ''Playboy'' is an American men's lifestyle Lifestyle often refers to: * Lifestyle (sociology), the way a person lives * ''Otium'', ancient Roman concept of a lifestyle * Style of life (german: Lebensstil), dealing with the dynamics of personal ...

Playboy
'' stopped airbrushing pubic hair out of its centerfold picture spreads; this new addition caused the magazine to hit its all-time peak circulation of more than seven million copies in 1972 and men started having more choices when it came to magazines. In 1972 '' Deep Throat'' became a popular movie for heterosexual couples. The movie played all over America and was the first porn movie to earn a gross of a million dollars. Pornography was less stigmatized by the end of the 1980s, and more mainstream movies depicted sexual intercourse as entertainment. Magazines depicting nudity, such as the popular ''
Playboy ''Playboy'' is an American men's lifestyle Lifestyle often refers to: * Lifestyle (sociology), the way a person lives * ''Otium'', ancient Roman concept of a lifestyle * Style of life (german: Lebensstil), dealing with the dynamics of personal ...

Playboy
'' and ''Penthouse (magazine), Penthouse'' magazines, won some acceptance as mainstream journals, in which public figures felt safe expressing their fantasies. Some figures in the feminist movement, such as Andrea Dworkin, challenged the depiction of women as objects in these pornographic or "urban men's" magazines. Other feminists such as Betty Dodson went on to found the pro-sex feminist movement in response to anti-pornography campaigns. In India, an organization named Indians For Sexual Liberties is advocating the legalization of the porn business in India. The organization's founder, Laxman Singh, questioned the reasoning behind deeming as illegal the depiction of legal acts.


Modern revolutions

The Industrial Revolution during the nineteenth century and the growth of science and technology, medicine and health care, resulted in better contraceptives being manufactured. Advances in the manufacture and production of rubber made possible the design and production of condoms that could be used by hundreds of millions of men and women to prevent pregnancy at little cost. Advances in chemistry, pharmacology, and biology, and human physiology led to the discovery and perfection of the combined oral contraceptive pill, first oral contraceptives, popularly known as "the Pill." All these developments took place alongside and combined with an increase in the world literacy and a decline in religious observance. Old values such as the biblical notion of "be fruitful and multiply" were cast aside as people continued to feel alienated from the past and adopted the lifestyles of progressive modernizing cultures. Another contribution that helped bring about this modern revolution of sexual freedom were the writings of Herbert Marcuse and
Wilhelm Reich Wilhelm Reich (; ; 24 March 1897 – 3 November 1957) was an Austrian Doctor of Medicine, doctor of medicine and psychoanalysis, psychoanalyst, a member of the second generation of analysts after Sigmund Freud. The author of several influent ...

Wilhelm Reich
, who took the philosophy of Karl Marx and similar philosophers. "No-fault divorce, No-fault" unilateral divorce became legal and easier to obtain in many countries during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. The women's movement redefined sexuality, not in terms of simply pleasing men but recognizing women's sexual satisfaction and sexual desire. ''The Myth of the Vaginal Orgasm'' (1970) by Anne Koedt illustrates an understanding of a women's sexual anatomy including evidence for the Clitoris, clitoral orgasm, arguing against Freud's "assumptions of women as inferior appendage to man, and her consequent social and psychological role." The women's movement was able to develop lesbian feminism, freedom from heterosexual act, and freedom from reproduction. Feminist Betty Friedan published the ''Feminine Mystique'' in 1963, concerning the many frustrations women had with their lives and with separate spheres which established a pattern of inequality. The Gay Rights Movement started when the Stonewall riots of 1969 crystallized a broad grass-roots mobilization. New gay liberationist gave political meaning to "coming out" by extending the psychological-personal process into public life. During the 1950s the most feared thing of the homosexual culture was "coming out", the homosexual culture of the 1950s did everything they could to help keep their sexuality a secret from the public and everyone else in their lives, but Alfred Kinsey's research on homosexuality alleged that 39% of the unmarried male population had had at least one homosexual experience to orgasm between adolescence and old age.


Feminism and sexual liberation

Coinciding with second-wave feminism and the women's liberation movement initiated in the early 1960s, the sexual liberation movement was aided by feminist ideologues in their mutual struggle to challenge traditional ideas regarding Human female sexuality, female sexuality and queer sexuality. Elimination of undue favorable bias towards men and objectification of women as well as support for women's right to choose her sexual partners free of outside interference or judgment were three of the main goals associated with sexual liberation from the feminist perspective. Since during the early stages of feminism, women's liberation was often equated with sexual liberation rather than associated with it. Many feminist thinkers believed that assertion of the primacy of sexuality would be a major step towards the ultimate goal of women's liberation, thus women were urged to initiate sexual advances, enjoy sex and experiment with new forms of sexuality. The feminist movements insisted and focused on the sexual liberation for women, both physical and psychological. The pursuit of sexual pleasure for women was the core ideology, which subsequently was to set the foundation for female independence. Although whether or not sexual freedom should be a feminist issue is currently a much-debated topic, the feminist movement overtly defines itself as the movement for social, political, and economic equality of men and women. Feminist movements are also involved the fight against sexism and since sexism is a highly complex notion, it is difficult to separate the feminist critique toward sexism from its fight against sexual oppression. The feminist movement has helped create a social climate in which LGBT people and women are increasingly able to be open and free with their sexuality, which enabled a spiritual liberation of sorts with regards to sex. Rather than being forced to hide their sexual desires or feelings, women and LGBT people have gained and continue to gain increased freedom in this area. Consequently, the feminist movement to end sexual oppression has and continues to directly contribute to the sexual liberation movement. Nevertheless, among many feminists, the view soon became widely held that, thus far, the sexual freedoms gained in the sexual revolution of the 1960s, such as the decreasing emphasis on monogamy, had been largely gained by men at women's expense. In ''Anticlimax (book), Anticlimax: A Feminist Perspective on the Sexual Revolution'', Sheila Jeffreys asserted that the sexual revolution on men's terms contributed less to women's freedom than to their continued oppression, an assertion that has both commanded respect and attracted intense criticism. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, feminist sex wars broke out due to disagreements Feminist views on pornography, on pornography, Feminist views on prostitution, on prostitution, and Feminist views on BDSM, on BDSM, as well as Feminist views on sexuality, sexuality in general.


Contraception

As birth control became widely accessible, men and women began to have more choice in the matter of having children than ever before. The 1916 invention of thin, disposable latex condoms for men led to widespread affordable condoms by the 1930s; the demise of the Comstock laws in 1936 set the stage for the promotion of available effective contraceptives such as the Diaphragm (contraceptive), diaphragm and cervical cap; the 1960s introduction of the IUD and combined oral contraceptive pill, oral contraceptives for women gave a sense of freedom from barrier contraception. The Catholic Church under Pope Paul VI (1968) published ''Humanae vitae'' (Of Human Life), which was a declaration that banned the use of artificial contraception. Churches allowed for the rhythm method, which was a natural method of regulating fertility that pushed men and women to take advantage of the "natural cycles" of female fertility, during which women were "naturally infertile." The opposition of Churches (e.g. ''Humanae vitae'') led people who felt alienated from or not represented by religion to form parallel movements of secularization and exile from religion. Women gained much greater access to birth control in the ''Griswold'' "girls world" decision in 1965. The 1965 Supreme Court case ''Griswold v. Connecticut'' ruled that the prohibition of contraception was unconstitutional on the grounds that it violated peoples' rights to marital privacy. In addition, in the 1960s and 1970s, the birth control movement advocated for the legalization of abortion and large scale education campaigns about contraception by governments. The ''Griswold v. Connecticut'' case and subsequent birth control movements created a precedent for later cases granting rights to birth control for unmarried couples ''Eisenstadt v. Baird, (Eisenstadt v. Baird, 1972)'', rights to abortion for any woman (''Roe v. Wade'', 1973), and the right to contraception for juveniles (Carey v. Population Services International, 1977). The Griswold case was also influential in and cited as precedent for landmark cases dealing with the right to homosexual relations (''Lawrence v. Texas,'' 2003) and the right to same-sex marriage (''Obergefell v. Hodges,'' 2015).


Free love

Free love is a
social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social wh ...
that accepts all forms of love. The movement's initial goal was to separate the State (polity), state from sexual matters such as marriage, birth control, and adultery. It stated that such issues were the concern of the people involved, and no one else. Free love continued in different forms throughout the 1970s and into the early 1980s, but its more assertive manifestations faced increased pushback in the mid-1980s, when the public first became aware of AIDS, a deadly sexually-transmitted disease.


Non-marital sex

Premarital sex, heavily stigmatized for some time, became more widely accepted. The increased availability of birth control (and the legalization of abortion in some places) helped reduce the chance that pre-marital sex would result in unwanted children. By the mid-1970s the majority of newly married American couples had experienced sex before marriage. Central to the change was the development of relationships between unmarried adults, which resulted in earlier sexual experimentation reinforced by a later age of marriage. On average, Americans were gaining sexual experience before entering into monogamous relationships. The increasing divorce rate and the decreasing stigma attached to divorce during this era also contributed to sexual experimentation. By 1971, more than 75% of Americans thought that premarital sex was acceptable, a threefold increase from the 1950s, and the number of unmarried Americans aged twenty to twenty-four more than doubled from 1960 to 1976. Americans were becoming less and less interested in getting married and settling down and as well less interested in monogamous relationships. In 1971, 35% of the country said they thought marriage was obsolete. The idea of marriage being outdated came from the development of casual sex between Americans. With the development of the birth control pill and the legalization of abortion in 1973, there was little threat of unwanted children out of wedlock. Also, during this time every known sexually transmitted disease was readily treatable. Swinging (sexual practice), Swinger clubs were organizing in places ranging from the informal suburban home to disco-sized emporiums that offered a range of Extramarital sex, sexual possibilities with multiple partners. In New York City in 1977, Larry Levenson opened Plato's Retreat, which eventually shut down in 1985 under regular close scrutiny by public health authorities.


Legacy

Fraenkel (1992) believes that the "sexual revolution", which the West supposedly experienced in the late 1960s, is a misconception/misnomer, and that sex is never actually enjoyed freely as such, being rather ''observed'' in all fields of culture: a stance adopted toward human behavior referable to the concept of "repressive desublimation". According to this concept or interpretation (first evolved by Marxist philosopher Herbert Marcuse), the 'sexual revolution' would be an instance of a conservative force masquerading under the guise of liberation – a force sapping energies (here sexual) which would otherwise be available for a true social critique of a given behavior – and thus an impediment to any real political change which might emancipate the individual from "totalitarian democracy". (See also Bread and circuses, False consciousness and Frankfurt School). Put baldly, the pursuit of "sexual freedom" may be construed as a distraction from the pursuit of ''actual'' freedom. Allyn argues that the sexual optimism of the 1960s waned with the economic crises of the 1970s, the massive commercialization of sex, increasing reports of child exploitation, disillusionment with the counter-culture and the New Left, and a combined left-right backlash against sexual liberation as an ideal. The discovery of herpes escalated anxieties rapidly and set the stage for the nation's panicked response to AIDS. Among radical feminists, the view soon became widely held that, thus far, the sexual freedoms gained in the sexual revolution of the 1960s, such as the decreasing emphasis on monogamy, had been largely gained by men at women's expense. In ''Anticlimax: A Feminist Perspective on the Sexual Revolution'', Sheila Jeffreys asserted that the sexual revolution on men's terms contributed less to women's freedom than to their continued oppression, an assertion that has both commanded respect and attracted intense criticism. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, feminist sex wars broke out due to disagreements Feminist views on pornography, on pornography, Feminist views on prostitution, on prostitution, and Feminist views on BDSM, on BDSM, as well as Feminist views on sexuality, sexuality in general. Although the rate of teenage sexual activity is hard to record, the prevalence of teenage pregnancy in developed nations such as Canada and the UK have seen a steady decline since the 1990s. For example, in 1991 there were 61.8 children born per 1,000 teenage girls in the United States. By 2013, this number had declined to 26.6 births per 1,000 teenage girls.United Nations Statistics Division. (2014). Demographic Yearbook 2012: Live births by age of mother. New York, NY: United Nations. Retrieved January 15, 2015, from Women and men who lived with each other without marriage sought "palimony" equal to the alimony. Teenagers assumed their right to a sexual life with whomever they pleased, and bathers fought to be topless or nude at beaches.


See also

* Birth control movement in the United States * Combined oral contraceptive pill * Commodification of nature * Comprehensive sex education * Exploitation of women in mass media * Feminist sex wars * Indecent exposure * Miscegenation * Nordic sexual morality debate * Open marriage * Pornographication * Public display of affection * Public sex * Radical feminism, Radical and Liberal feminism, Liberal feminism * Reproductive rights * Second-wave feminism * Sex in the American Civil War * Sex magic * Sex-positive feminism * Sex-positive movement * Sexual objectification * Sexual revolution in 1960s United States * Sexualization * Social Darwinism * Spring break * Underwear as outerwear * List of universities with BDSM clubs


References


Works cited

* * * *


Further reading

* Fraenkel, Boris (1936). Die Sexualität im Kulturkampf. Erre emme (pub). * Klepacki, Linda (2008). A Look at the Sexual Revolution in the United States . Focus on the Family Action, Inc. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
70's Origin War & Sex
— Seventies Origin History war & sex. * Richardson, Diane (2000). ''Critical Social Policy'', Vol. 20, No. 1, 105–135. "Constructing sexual citizenship: theorizing sexual rights". Sage Journals Online. Retrieved 2008-04-20. * ''Time (magazine), Time'' (1967-07-07). "The Hippies". Retrieved 2008-04-20. * Mahdavi, Pardis (2008). ''Passionate Uprisings''. Stanford University Press. Retrieved 2021-12-30. {{DEFAULTSORT:Sexual Revolution Sexual revolution, Feminism Progressivism Progressivism in the United States Radical feminism All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Counterculture of the 1960s LGBT studies articles needing attention