HOME

TheInfoList




A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal or plant that is involved in
sexual reproduction Sexual reproduction is a type of reproduction Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process Biological processes are those processes that are vital for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, ...
. The reproductive organs together constitute the
reproductive system The reproductive system of an organism, also known as the genital system, is the biological system made up of all the anatomical organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs tha ...
. In animals, the
testis Testicle or testis (plural testes) is the male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male cannot sexual ...

testis
in the male, and the
ovary The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum. When released, this travels down the fallopian tube into the uterus, where it may become fertilized by a sperm. There is an ovary () found on each side of the b ...

ovary
in the female, are called the ''primary sex organs''. All others are called ''secondary sex organs'', divided between the external sex organs—the genitals or genitalia, visible at birth in both sexes—and the internal sex organs.
Moss Mosses are small, non-vascular plant, non-vascular flowerless plants in the taxonomic phylum, division Bryophyta (, ) ''sensu stricto''. Bryophyta (''sensu lato'', Wilhelm Philippe Schimper, Schimp. 1879) may also refer to the parent group bryo ...

Moss
es,
fern A fern (Polypodiopsida or Polypodiophyta ) is a member of a group of vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia art ...

fern
s, and some similar plants have
gametangia A gametangium (plural: gametangia) is an organ or cell Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small room, hut, or cave in which a monk or religio ...
for reproductive organs, which are part of the
gametophyte A gametophyte () is one of the two alternating multicellular phases in the life cycles of plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all ...
. The
flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other plants with a similar appearance that flower prof ...

flower
s of
flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...

flowering plant
s produce
pollen Pollen is a powdery substance consisting of pollen grains which are Sporophyte, microsporophytes of spermatophyta, seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells). Pollen grains have a hard coat made of sporopollenin that protects the ga ...

pollen
and
egg cell The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parent" or parents. Reproducti ...
s, but the sex organs themselves are inside the gametophytes within the pollen and the
ovule In seed plant The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae) or phaenogams (taxon Phaenogamae), comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants. They are a subset of the embryophytes or l ...

ovule
. Coniferous plants likewise produce their sexually reproductive structures within the gametophytes contained within the
cones A cone is a three-dimensional space, three-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a flat base (frequently, though not necessarily, circular) to a point called the Apex (geometry), apex or vertex (geometry), vertex. A cone is fo ...
and pollen. The cones and pollen are not themselves sexual organs.


Terminology

The ''primary sex organs'' are the
gonad A gonad, sex gland, or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism. In the female of the species the reproductive cells are the egg cells, and in the male the reproductive cells are t ...
s, a pair of sex organs, which diverge into
testes Testicle or testis (plural testes) is the or in all animals, including humans. It is to the female . The functions of the testes are to produce both and , primarily . Testosterone release is controlled by the anterior pituitary , whereas ...

testes
following male development or into
ovaries The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system 400px, 1. Labia_majora.html"_;"title="Vulva: 2. Labia_majora">Vulva: 2. Labia_majora; 3. Labia_minora; 4. Vulval_vestibule.html" ;"title="Labia_minora.html" ...

ovaries
following female development. As primary sex organs, gonads generate reproductive
gamete A gamete ( /ˈɡæmiːt/; from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply ...
s containing inheritable
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (; DNA) is a molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an electrically neutral gro ...

DNA
. They also produce most of the primary hormones that affect sexual development, and regulate other sexual organs and sexually differentiated behaviors. ''Secondary sex organs'' are the rest of the reproductive system, whether internal or external. The
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
term ''genitalia'', sometimes anglicized as ''genitals'', is used to describe the externally visible sex organs: in male mammals, the
penis A penis (plural ''penises'' or ''penes'' () is the primary that animals use to females (or s) during . Such organs occur in many animals, both and , but males do not bear a penis in every animal species, and in those species in which the ...

penis
and
scrotum The scrotum or scrotal sac is an Anatomy, anatomical male reproductive structure located at the base of the penis that consists of a suspended dual-chambered sac of skin and smooth muscle. It is present in most terrestrial male mammals. The scr ...

scrotum
; and in female mammals, the
vulva The vulva (plural: vulvas or vulvae; derived from Latin for wrapper or covering) consists of the external . The vulva includes the (or mons veneris), , , , , , , the , , and and vestibular s. The urinary meatus is also included as it opens ...

vulva
and its organs. In general
zoology Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is usually regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical stru ...
, given the great variety in organs, physiologies, and behaviors involved in
copulation Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is a sexual activity typically involving the insertion and Pelvic thrust, thrusting of the penis into the vagina for Sexual stimulation, sexual pleasure, sexual reproduction, reproduction, or both.S ...
, male genitalia are more strictly defined as "all male structures that are inserted in the female or that hold her near her
gonopore A gonopore, sometimes called a gonadopore, is a genital A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal or plant that is involved in sexual reproduction Sexual reproduction is a type of reproduction Reproduction (or procreati ...
during sperm transfer"; female genitalia are defined as "those parts of the female reproductive tract that make direct contact with male genitalia or male products (sperm,
spermatophores A spermatophore or sperm ampulla is a capsule or mass containing spermatozoa created by males of various animal species, especially salamanders and arthropod An arthropod (, (gen. ποδός)) is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a ...
) during or immediately after copulation".


Evolution of sex organs


Evolution of gonads

It is hard to find a common origin for
gonads A gonad, sex gland, or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes A gamete ( /ˈɡæmiːt/; from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiqu ...
but, gonads most likely evolved independently several times. At first
testes Testicle or testis (plural testes) is the or in all animals, including humans. It is to the female . The functions of the testes are to produce both and , primarily . Testosterone release is controlled by the anterior pituitary , whereas ...

testes
and
ovaries The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system 400px, 1. Labia_majora.html"_;"title="Vulva: 2. Labia_majora">Vulva: 2. Labia_majora; 3. Labia_minora; 4. Vulval_vestibule.html" ;"title="Labia_minora.html" ...

ovaries
evolved due to
natural selection Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype right , Here the relation between genotype and phenotype is illustrated, using a Punnett square, for the character of peta ...
.


Evolution of genitalia

A consensus has emerged that
sexual selection Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype right , Here the relation between genotype and phenotype is illustrat ...
represents a primary factor for genital evolution. Male genitalia show traits of
divergent evolution Divergence is a function that associates a scalar with every point of a vector field. Divergence or Divergent may also refer to: Mathematics * Divergence (computer science), a computation which does not terminate (or terminates in an exception ...
that are driven by sexual selection.


Animals


Mammals


External and internal organs

The visible portion of the mammalian genitals for males consists of the
scrotum The scrotum or scrotal sac is an Anatomy, anatomical male reproductive structure located at the base of the penis that consists of a suspended dual-chambered sac of skin and smooth muscle. It is present in most terrestrial male mammals. The scr ...

scrotum
and
penis A penis (plural ''penises'' or ''penes'' () is the primary sexual organ that male animals use to inseminate females (or hermaphrodites) during Copulation (zoology), copulation. Such organs occur in many animals, both #Vertebrates, vertebrate ...
; for females, it consists of the
vulva The vulva (plural: vulvas or vulvae; derived from Latin for wrapper or covering) consists of the external . The vulva includes the (or mons veneris), , , , , , , the , , and and vestibular s. The urinary meatus is also included as it opens ...

vulva
(
labia The labia are part of the female genitalia; they are the major externally visible portions of the vulva. In humans, there are two pairs of labia: the ''labia majora'' (or the outer labia) are larger and thicker, while the ''labia minora'' are fold ...

labia
,
clitoris The clitoris ( or ) is a female sex organ A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal or plant that is involved in sexual reproduction. The reproductive organs together constitute the reproductive system. In animals, the te ...

clitoris
, etc.) and
vagina In mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biology), class Mammalia (), and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in Female#Mammalian female, femal ...

vagina
. In
placental mammals Placentalia is one of the three extant subdivisions of the class of animals Mammalia; the other two are Monotremata and Marsupial Marsupials are any members of the mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group ...
, females have two genital orifices, the vagina and urethra, while males have only one, the
urethra The urethra (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...
. Male and female genitals have many nerve endings, resulting in pleasurable and highly sensitive touch. In most human societies, particularly in
conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of aest ...
ones, exposure of the genitals is considered a
public indecency Indecent exposure is a legal expression that describes the deliberate public exposure by a person of a portion of their body in a manner contrary to local standards of appropriate behavior. Laws and social attitudes regarding indecent exposure v ...
. In humans, sex organs include:


Development

In typical
prenatal development Prenatal development () includes the development of the embryo and of the foetus during a viviparous animal's gestation. Prenatal development starts with fertilization , in the germinal stage of embryonic development, and continues in fetal d ...

prenatal development
, sex organs originate from a common
primordium 250px, Root primordia (brown spots) as seen on the butt of a freshly cut pineapple crown intended for vegetative reproduction. A primordium (; plural: primordia; synonym: anlage) in embryology, is an Organ (anatomy), organ or tissue in its earli ...
during early
gestationGestation is the period of development during the carrying of an embryo An embryo is the early stage of development of a multicellular organism. In general, in organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανι ...
and differentiate into male or female
sex Sex is either of two divisions, typically male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male cannot sexual r ...
es. The
SRY Testis-determining factor (TDF), also known as sex-determining region Y (SRY) protein, is a DNA-binding protein protein complex with DNA s (blue). These proteins' basic amino acids bind to the acidic phosphate groups on DNA. repressor heli ...
gene In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mecha ...

gene
, usually located on the
Y chromosome The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in therian mammals, including humans, and many other animals. The other is the X chromosome. Y is normally the Sex chromosome#Sex determination, sex-determining chromosome in many species, s ...
and encoding the
testis determining factor Testis-determining factor (TDF), also known as sex-determining region Y (SRY) protein, is a DNA-binding protein protein complex with DNA s (blue). These proteins' basic amino acids bind to the acidic phosphate groups on DNA. repressor heli ...
, determines the direction of the differentiation. The absence of it allows the gonads to continue to develop into ovaries. The development of the internal, and external reproductive organs is determined by hormones produced by certain fetal gonads (ovaries or testes) and the cells' response to them. The initial appearance of the
fetal A fetus or foetus (; plural fetuses, feti, foetuses, or foeti) is the unborn offspring that develops from an animal embryo An embryo is the early stage of development of a multicellular organism A multicellular organism is an organism tha ...

fetal
genitalia looks female-like: a pair of
urogenital folds The development of the reproductive system is a part of prenatal development Prenatal development () includes the development of the embryo and of the foetus during a viviparous animal's gestation. Prenatal development starts with fertilizati ...
with a small protuberance in the middle, and the
urethra The urethra (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appro ...

urethra
behind the protuberance. If the fetus has testes and the testes produce testosterone, and if the cells of the genitals respond to the testosterone, the outer urogenital folds swell and fuse in the midline to produce the scrotum; the protuberance grows larger and straighter to form the penis; the inner urogenital swellings grow, wrap around the penis, and fuse in the midline to form the penile urethra. Each sex organ in one sex has a homologous counterpart. The process of sexual differentiation includes development of
secondary sexual characteristics Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence ...
, such as patterns of pubic and facial hair and female breasts that emerge at puberty. Because of the strong
sexual selection Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype right , Here the relation between genotype and phenotype is illustrat ...
affecting the structure and function of genitalia, they form an organ system that evolves rapidly. A great variety of genital form and function may therefore be found among animals.


Other animals

In many other animals a single posterior orifice, called the
cloaca In animal anatomy, a cloaca (plural cloacae or ) is the posterior that serves as the only opening for the , reproductive, and s (if present) of many animals. All s, s, birds, and a few mammals (s, s, s, and s) have this orifice, from which ...
, serves as the only opening for the reproductive, digestive, and urinary tracts (if present). All amphibians, birds, reptiles, some fish, and a few mammals (monotremes, tenrecs, golden moles, and marsupial moles) have this orifice, from which they excrete both urine and feces in addition to serving reproductive functions. Excretory systems with analogous purpose in certain invertebrates are also sometimes referred to as cloacae.


Insects

The organs concerned with
insect Insects (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in ...

insect
mating and the deposition of eggs are known collectively as the external genitalia, although they may be largely internal; their components are very diverse in form.


Slugs and snails

The reproductive system of gastropods (slugs and snails) varies greatly from one group to another.


Planaria

Planaria ''Planaria'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to ...

Planaria
are flat worms widely used in biological research. There are sexual and asexual planaria. Sexual planaria are hermaphrodites, possessing both testicles and ovaries. Each planarian transports its excretion to the other planarian, giving and receiving sperm.


Plants

In most plant species an individual has both male and female sex organs. The
life cycle Life cycle, life-cycle, or lifecycle may refer to: Science and academia *Biological life cycle, the sequence of life stages that an organism undergoes from birth to reproduction ending with the production of the offspring *Life-cycle hypothesis, ...
of
land plant The Embryophyta (), or land plants, are the most familiar group of green plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all living things that w ...
s involves
alternation of generations Alternation of generations (also known as metagenesis or heterogenesis) is the type of that occurs in those s and in the and the that have distinct haploid sexual and diploid asexual stages. In these groups, a with ''n'' s alternates with ...

alternation of generations
between a
sporophyte 350px, Sporophytes of moss during spring A sporophyte () is the diploid Ploidy () is the number of complete sets of chromosome A chromosome is a long DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material of an organism. Most eukaryo ...
and a
haploid Ploidy () is the number of complete sets of chromosome A chromosome is a long DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material of an organism. Most eukaryotic chromosomes include packaging proteins called histones which, aided by ...
gametophyte A gametophyte () is one of the two alternating multicellular phases in the life cycles of plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all ...
. The gametophyte produces sperm or egg cells by
mitosis In cell biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical proce ...

mitosis
. The sporophyte produces spores by
meiosis Meiosis (; , because it is a reductional division) is a special type of of in organisms used to produce the , such as or . It involves two rounds of division that ultimately result in four cells with only one copy of each (). Additionall ...

meiosis
which in turn develop into gametophytes. Any sex organs that are produced by the plant will develop on the gametophyte. The
seed plant A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was released to generally positi ...
s, which include
conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The division contains a single ex ...
s and
flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...

flowering plant
s have small gametophytes that develop inside the pollen grains (male) and the
ovule In seed plant The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae) or phaenogams (taxon Phaenogamae), comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants. They are a subset of the embryophytes or l ...

ovule
(female).


Flowering plants

In flowering plants the
flowers A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other plants with a similar appearance that flower prof ...

flowers
contain the sex organs. Sexual reproduction in
flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...

flowering plant
s involves the union of the male and female germ cells, sperm and egg cells respectively. Pollen is produced in
stamen The stamen (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ve ...
s, and is carried to the
pistil '' stigmas and style Gynoecium (, from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided in ...
, which has the
ovary The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum. When released, this travels down the fallopian tube into the uterus, where it may become fertilized by a sperm. There is an ovary () found on each side of the b ...
at its base where
fertilization Fertilisation or fertilization (see American and British English spelling differences#-ise.2C -ize .28-isation.2C -ization.29, spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes ...

fertilization
can take place. Within each pollen grain is a male gametophyte which consists of only three cells. In most flowering plants the female gametophyte within the ovule consists of only seven cells. Thus there are no sex organs as such.


Fungi

The sex organs in
fungi A fungus (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ...

fungi
are called
gametangia A gametangium (plural: gametangia) is an organ or cell Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small room, hut, or cave in which a monk or religio ...
. In some fungi the sex organs are indistinguishable from each other but in other cases male and female sex organs are clearly different. Similar gametangia that are similar are called isogametangia. While male and female gametangia are called heterogametangia, which occurs in the majority of fungi.


See also

*
Andrology Andrology (from grc, ἀνήρ, ''anēr'', genitive In grammar In linguistics, the grammar (from Ancient Greek ''grammatikḗ'') of a natural language is its set of structure, structural constraints on speakers' or writers' composition of c ...
*
Emasculation Emasculation is the removal of both the penis A penis (plural ''penises'' or ''penes'' () is the primary sexual organ A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal or plant that is involved in sexual reproduction. The repro ...
*
Genital modification and mutilation The terms genital modification and genital mutilation can refer to permanent or temporary changes to human sex organs A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal or plant that is involved in sexual reproduction. The reproductive ...
*
Hermaphrodite In reproductive biology Reproductive biology includes both sexual and asexual reproduction. Reproductive biology includes a wide number of fields: * Reproductive systems * Endocrinology Endocrinology (from '' endocrine'' + '' -ology'') is a b ...

Hermaphrodite
*
Human sexuality Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually. This involves biological Biology is the natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning ...
*
Hysterectomy Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus. It may also involve removal of the cervix, ovary, ovaries (oophorectomy), Fallopian tubes (salpingectomy), and other surrounding structures. Usually performed by a gynaecology, gynecologist, a h ...

Hysterectomy
*
Intimate part An intimate part, personal part or private part is a place on the human body which is customarily kept covered by clothing A kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are it ...
*
Obstetrics and gynaecology Obstetrics and gynaecology (British English) or obstetrics and gynecology (American English) is the medical specialty that encompasses the two subspecialties of obstetrics Obstetrics is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy, childbirt ...
*
Oophorectomy Oophorectomy (; from Greek , , 'egg-bearing' and , , 'a cutting out of') is the surgical Surgery ''cheirourgikē'' (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via la, chirurgiae, meaning "hand work". is a medical or dental specia ...
*
Orchiectomy Orchiectomy (also named orchidectomy, and sometimes shortened as orchi) is a surgery, surgical procedure in which one or both testicles are removed. The surgery is performed as treatment for testicular cancer, as part of Sex reassignment surgery ...


References


Further reading

* {{Authority control