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Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of
weathering Weathering is the deterioration of Rock (geology), rocks, soils and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with water, atmospheric gases, and biological organisms. Weathering occurs ''in situ'' (on site, with little o ...
and
erosion In earth science Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific ...

erosion
, and is subsequently
transported ''Transported'' is an Australian convict melodrama film directed by W. J. Lincoln. It is considered a lost film. Plot In England, Jessie Grey is about to marry Leonard Lincoln but the evil Harold Hawk tries to force her to marry him and she woun ...
by the action of wind, water, or ice or by the force of
gravity Gravity (), or gravitation, is a by which all things with or —including s, s, , and even —are attracted to (or ''gravitate'' toward) one another. , gravity gives to s, and the causes the s of the oceans. The gravitational attracti ...

gravity
acting on the particles. For example,
sand Sand is a granular material composed of finely divided rock (geology), rock and mineral particles. Sand has various compositions but is defined by its grain size. Sand grains are smaller than gravel and coarser than silt. Sand can also refer ...

sand
and
silt Silt is granular material A granular material is a conglomeration of discrete solid, macroscopic scale, macroscopic particles characterized by a loss of energy whenever the particles interact (the most common example would be friction when gra ...
can be carried in
suspension Suspension or suspended may refer to: Science and engineering * Suspension (topology), in mathematics * Suspension (dynamical systems), in mathematics * Suspension of a ring, in mathematics * Suspension (chemistry), small solid particles suspende ...
in river water and on reaching the sea bed deposited by
sedimentation Sedimentation is the deposition of sediments Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering Weathering is the deterioration of rocks A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggreg ...
; if buried, they may eventually become
sandstone Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock of a clast (sand grain), derived from a basalt Basalt (, ) is a fine-grained extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of low-viscosity lava rich in magnesium and iron ('' mafic ' ...

sandstone
and
siltstone Siltstone, also known as aleurolite, is a clastic sedimentary rock of a clast (sand grain), derived from a basalt Basalt (, ) is a fine-grained extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of low-viscosity lava rich in magnes ...
(
sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compoun ...

sedimentary rock
s) through
lithification Lithification (from the Ancient Greek word ''lithos'' meaning 'rock' and the Latin-derived suffix ''-ific'') is the process in which sediments compact under pressure, expel connate fluids, and gradually become solid rock. Essentially, lithificatio ...
. Sediments are most often transported by water (
fluvial processes In geography and geology, fluvial processes are associated with rivers and streams and the Deposition (geology), deposits and landforms created by them. When the stream or rivers are associated with glaciers, ice sheets, or ice caps, the term glaci ...
), but also wind (
aeolian processes Aeolian or Eolian refers to things related to Aeolus In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, ori ...
) and
glacier A glacier (; ) is a persistent body of dense ice Ice is into a state. Depending on the presence of such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a more or less bluish-white color. In the , ice is abunda ...

glacier
s. Beach sands and river channel deposits are examples of fluvial transport and
deposition Deposition may refer to: * Deposition (law), taking testimony outside of court * List of deposed politicians, Deposition (politics), the removal of a person of authority from political power * Deposition (university), a widespread initiation ritual ...
, though sediment also often settles out of slow-moving or standing water in lakes and oceans. Desert sand dunes and
loess Loess (, ; from German ''Löss'' ) is a clastic, predominantly silt-sized sediment Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently sediment transport, transported by ...
are examples of aeolian transport and deposition.
Glacial A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age#REDIRECT Ice age {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from ambiguous term {{R from other capitalisation {{R unprintwor ...
moraine A moraine is any accumulation of unconsolidated debris (regolith and Rock (geology), rock), sometimes referred to as glacial till, that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions, and that has been previously carried along by a gla ...

moraine
deposits and
till image:Geschiebemergel.JPG, Closeup of glacial till. Note that the larger grains (pebbles and gravel) in the till are completely surrounded by the matrix of finer material (silt and sand), and this characteristic, known as ''matrix support'', is di ...

till
are ice-transported sediments.


Classification

Sediment can be classified based on its
grain size Grain size (or particle size) is the diameter In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ''wikt:γῆ, geo-'' "earth", ''wikt:μέτρον, -metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of ...
, grain shape, and composition.


Grain size

Sediment size is measured on a log base 2 scale, called the "Phi" scale, which classifies particles by size from "colloid" to "boulder".


Shape

The shape of particles can be defined in terms of three parameters. The ''form'' is the overall shape of the particle, with common descriptions being spherical, platy, or rodlike. The ''roundness'' is a measure of how sharp grain corners are. This varies from well-rounded grains with smooth corners and edges to poorly rounded grains with sharp corners and edges. Finally, ''surface texture'' describes small-scale features such as scratches, pits, or ridges on the surface of the grain.


Form

Form (also called ''sphericity'') is determined by measuring the size of the particle on its major axes. William C. Krumbein proposed formulas for converting these numbers to a single measure of form, such as :\psi_l = \sqrt /math> where D_L, D_I, and D_S are the long, intermediate, and short axis lengths of the particle. The form \psi_l varies from 1 for a perfectly spherical particle to very small values for a platelike or rodlike particle. An alternate measure was proposed by Sneed and Folk: :\psi_p = \sqrt /math> which, again, varies from 0 to 1 with increasing sphericity.


Roundness

Roundness describes how sharp the edges and corners of particle are. Complex mathematical formulas have been devised for its precise measurement, but these are difficult to apply, and most geologists estimate roundness from comparison charts. Common descriptive terms range from very angular to angular to subangular to subrounded to rounded to very rounded, with increasing degree of roundness.


Surface texture

Surface texture describes the small-scale features of a grain, such as pits, fractures, ridges, and scratches. These are most commonly evaluated on
quartz Quartz is a hard, crystalline mineral composed of silica (silicon dioxide). The atoms are linked in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon-oxygen Tetrahedral molecular geometry, tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, ...

quartz
grains, because these retain their surface markings for long periods of time. Surface texture varies from polished to frosted, and can reveal the history of transport of the grain; for example, frosted grains are particularly characteristic of aeolian sediments, transported by wind. Evaluation of these features often requires the use of a
scanning electron microscope A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons interact with atoms in the sample, producing various signals that ...
.


Composition

Composition of sediment can be measured in terms of: * parent
rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical composition and the way in w ...
lithology as seen in southeastern Utah The lithology of a Rock (geology), rock unit is a description of its physical characteristics visible at outcrop An outcrop or rocky outcrop is a visible exposure of bedrock Bedrock in geology Geology (fr ...
*
mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.John P. Rafferty, ed. (2 ...

mineral
composition *
chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of atoms, which ...

chemical
make-up. This leads to an ambiguity in which
clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="glacial till, Northern Ireland">glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic m ...

clay
can be used as both a size-range and a composition (see
clay mineral Clay minerals are hydrous In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements. The chemical state of the water varies widely between different classes of hydrates, some of which were so labeled before their ch ...
s).


Sediment transport

Sediment is transported based on the strength of the flow that carries it and its own size, volume, density, and shape. Stronger flows will increase the lift and drag on the particle, causing it to rise, while larger or denser particles will be more likely to fall through the flow.


Fluvial processes: rivers, streams, and overland flow


Particle motion

Rivers and streams carry sediment in their flows. This sediment can be in a variety of locations within the flow, depending on the balance between the upwards velocity on the particle (drag and lift forces), and the
settling velocity Terminal velocity is the maximum velocity (speed) attainable by an object as it falls through a fluid (air is the most common example). It occurs when the sum of the Drag (physics), drag force (''Fd'') and the buoyancy is equal to the downward fo ...

settling velocity
of the particle. These relationships are shown in the following table for the
Rouse numberThe Rouse number (P or Z) is a non-dimensional number in fluid dynamics In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids—liquids and gases. It has several subdisciplines, inclu ...
, which is a ratio of sediment settling velocity (fall velocity) to upwards velocity. \textbf=\frac=\frac where * w_s is the settling velocity * \kappa is the von Kármán constant * u_* is the
shear velocity Shear velocity, also called friction velocity, is a form by which a shear stress Shear stress, often denoted by ( Greek: tau), is the component of stress coplanar with a material cross section. It arises from the shear force, the component of ...
If the upwards velocity is approximately equal to the settling velocity, sediment will be transported downstream entirely as
suspended load The suspended load of a flow of fluid, such as a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end ...
. If the upwards velocity is much less than the settling velocity, but still high enough for the sediment to move (see Initiation of motion), it will move along the bed as
bed load 300px, Bed load sediment in the Campbell Creek in Alaska">Campbell_Creek_(Alaska).html" ;"title="thalweg of Campbell Creek (Alaska)">Campbell Creek in Alaska. The term bed load or bedload describes particles in a flowing fluid (usually water) that ...
by rolling, sliding, and saltating (jumping up into the flow, being transported a short distance then settling again). If the upwards velocity is higher than the settling velocity, the sediment will be transported high in the flow as
wash load Wash load as described by Hans Albert Einstein Hans Albert Einstein (May 14, 1904 – July 26, 1973) was a Swiss-American engineer and educator, the second child and first son of Albert Einstein Albert Einstein ( ; ; 14 March 1879 – ...
. As there are generally a range of different particle sizes in the flow, it is common for material of different sizes to move through all areas of the flow for given stream conditions.


Fluvial bedforms

Sediment motion can create self-organized structures such as ripples,
dune A dune is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical body Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the sc ...

dune
s, or
antidune 300px, Surface waves forming in phase above antidunes in a small stream. Water flow is away from the camera. An antidune is a bedform found in fluvial In geography and geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λo ...
s on the river or
stream bed A stream bed or streambed is the channel bottom of a stream A stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the stream bed, bed and Bank (geography), banks of a Channel (geography), channel. The flow of a stream is controlle ...
. These bedforms are often preserved in sedimentary rocks and can be used to estimate the direction and magnitude of the flow that deposited the sediment.


Surface runoff

Overland flow can erode soil particles and transport them downslope. The erosion associated with overland flow may occur through different methods depending on meteorological and flow conditions. * If the initial impact of rain droplets dislodges soil, the phenomenon is called rainsplash erosion. * If overland flow is directly responsible for sediment entrainment but does not form gullies, it is called "sheet erosion". * If the flow and the substrate permit channelization, gullies may form; this is termed "gully erosion".


Key fluvial depositional environments

The major fluvial (river and stream) environments for deposition of sediments include: *
Deltas A river delta is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body. Landforms together make up a given terrain, and their arrangement in the landscape is known as topography. Lan ...

Deltas
(arguably an intermediate environment between fluvial and marine) *
Point bar A point bar is a depositional feature made of alluvium that accumulates on the inside bend of streams and rivers below the slip-off slope. Point bars are found in abundance in mature or meandering streams. They are crescent-shaped and located on t ...

Point bar
s *
Alluvial fan Pyrenees An alluvial fan is an accumulation of sediments shaped like a section of a shallow cone, with its apex at a point source of sediments, such as a narrow canyon emerging from an escarpment. They are characteristic of mountainous terrain in ...

Alluvial fan
s *
Braided river A braided river, or braided channel, consists of a network of river s separated by small, often temporary, s called s or, in English usage, ''s'' or ''eyots''. Braided streams tend to occur in rivers with high loads and/or coarse grain sizes, and ...
s *
Oxbow lake An oxbow lake is a U-shaped lake that forms when a wide meander of a river is Meander cutoff, cut off, creating a free-standing body of water. In south Texas, oxbows left by the Rio Grande are called ''resaca (channel), resacas''. In Australia ...

Oxbow lake
s *
Levee file:River Levee Cross Section Figure.svg, Components of a levee: file:Sacramento River Levee.jpg, The side of a levee in Sacramento, California A levee (), dike (American English), dyke (Commonwealth English), embankment, floodbank, or stop ...

Levee
s *
Waterfall A waterfall is a point in a or where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of steep drops. Waterfalls also occur where drops over the edge of a tabular or . Waterfalls can be formed in several ways, but the most common method of fo ...

Waterfall
s


Aeolian processes: wind

Wind results in the transportation of fine sediment and the formation of sand dune fields and soils from airborne dust.


Glacial processes

Glaciers carry a wide range of sediment sizes, and deposit it in
moraine A moraine is any accumulation of unconsolidated debris (regolith and Rock (geology), rock), sometimes referred to as glacial till, that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions, and that has been previously carried along by a gla ...

moraine
s.


Mass balance

The overall balance between sediment in transport and sediment being deposited on the bed is given by the
Exner equation The Exner equation is a statement of conservation of mass that applies to sediment in a fluvial system such as a river. It was developed by the Austrian meteorologist and sedimentologist Felix Maria Exner, from whom it derives its name. The equatio ...
. This expression states that the rate of increase in bed elevation due to deposition is proportional to the amount of sediment that falls out of the flow. This equation is important in that changes in the power of the flow change the ability of the flow to carry sediment, and this is reflected in the patterns of erosion and deposition observed throughout a stream. This can be localized, and simply due to small obstacles; examples are scour holes behind boulders, where flow accelerates, and deposition on the inside of
meander A meander is one of a series of regular sinuous curves in the channel of a river or other watercourse. It is produced as a watercourse the s of an outer, concave bank () and deposits sediments on an inner, convex bank which is typically a . Th ...

meander
bends. Erosion and deposition can also be regional; erosion can occur due to
dam removal Dam removal is the process of demolishing a dam, returning water flow to the river. Arguments for dam removal consider whether their negative effects outweigh their benefits. The benefits of dams include hydropower production, flood control, irri ...

dam removal
and
base level In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which it is composed, and the processe ...
fall. Deposition can occur due to dam emplacement that causes the river to pool and deposit its entire load, or due to base level rise.


Shores and shallow seas

Seas, oceans, and lakes accumulate sediment over time. The sediment can consist of ''terrigenous'' material, which originates on land, but may be deposited in either terrestrial, marine, or lacustrine (lake) environments, or of sediments (often biological) originating in the body of water. Terrigenous material is often supplied by nearby rivers and streams or reworked
marine sediment Marine sediment, or ocean sediment, or seafloor sediment, are deposits of insoluble particles that have accumulated on the seafloor The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean, no matter how ...
(e.g.
sand Sand is a granular material composed of finely divided rock (geology), rock and mineral particles. Sand has various compositions but is defined by its grain size. Sand grains are smaller than gravel and coarser than silt. Sand can also refer ...

sand
). In the mid-ocean, the exoskeletons of dead organisms are primarily responsible for sediment accumulation. Deposited sediments are the source of
sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compoun ...

sedimentary rock
s, which can contain
fossil A fossil (from Classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, inc ...

fossil
s of the inhabitants of the body of water that were, upon death, covered by accumulating sediment. Lake bed sediments that have not solidified into rock can be used to determine past
climatic Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. More rigorously, it is the mean and variability of meteorological variables over a time spanning from months to millions of years. Some of the Meteorology, ...

climatic
conditions.


Key marine depositional environments

The major areas for deposition of sediments in the marine environment include: *
Littoral The littoral zone or nearshore is the part of a sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface ...

Littoral
sands (e.g. beach sands, runoff river sands, coastal bars and spits, largely
clastic Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Gre ...
with little faunal content) * The continental shelf (
silt Silt is granular material A granular material is a conglomeration of discrete solid, macroscopic scale, macroscopic particles characterized by a loss of energy whenever the particles interact (the most common example would be friction when gra ...
y
clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="glacial till, Northern Ireland">glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic m ...

clay
s, increasing marine faunal content). * The shelf margin (low terrigenous supply, mostly
calcareous ''Calcareous'' is an adjective meaning "mostly or partly composed of calcium carbonate Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecula ...

calcareous
faunal skeletons) * The shelf slope (much more fine-grained silts and clays) * Beds of estuaries with the resultant deposits called "
bay mud Bay mud consists of thick deposits of soft, unconsolidated silty clay, which is saturated with water; these soil layers are situated at the bottom of certain estuary, estuaries, which are normally in temperate regions that have experienced cyclica ...
". One other depositional environment which is a mixture of fluvial and marine is the
turbidite A turbidite is the geologic Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly ...

turbidite
system, which is a major source of sediment to the deep
sedimentary Sedimentary rocks are types of rock (geology), rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic matter, organic particles at Earth#Surface, Earth's surface, followed by cementation (geology), cementation. Sedimentatio ...
and abyssal basins as well as the deep
oceanic trench , while the lithosphere is subducted back into the asthenosphere at trenches Oceanic trenches are prominent long, narrow topography, topographic depressions of the ocean floor. They are typically wide and below the level of the surrounding ocean ...
es. Any depression in a marine environment where sediments accumulate over time is known as a
sediment trap Sediment traps are instruments used in oceanography and limnology to measure the quantity of sinking particulate Organic material, organic (and inorganic) material in aquatic ecosystem, aquatic systems, usually oceans, Lake, lakes, or Reservoir, ...
. The null point theory explains how sediment deposition undergoes a hydrodynamic sorting process within the marine environment leading to a seaward fining of sediment grain size.


Environmental issues


Erosion and agricultural sediment delivery to rivers

One cause of high sediment loads is
slash and burn Slash-and-burn agriculture is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest A forest is an area of land dominated by trees. Hundreds of definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating ...
and
shifting cultivation Shifting cultivation is an agricultural Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated ...

shifting cultivation
of
tropical The tropics are the region of Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere at S; these latitudes correspond to ...

tropical
forests. When the ground surface is stripped of vegetation and then seared of all living organisms, the upper soils are vulnerable to both wind and water erosion. In a number of regions of the earth, entire sectors of a country have become erodible. For example, on the
Madagascar Madagascar (; mg, Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar ( mg, Repoblikan'i Madagasikara, links=no, ; french: République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic The Malagasy Republic ( mg, Repoblika Mal ...

Madagascar
high central
plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which it is composed, and the proces ...

plateau
, which constitutes approximately ten percent of that country's land area, most of the land area is devegetated, and gullies have eroded into the underlying soil to form distinctive gulleys called '' lavakas''. These are typically wide, long and deep. Some areas have as many as 150 lavakas/square kilometer, and lavakas may account for 84% of all sediments carried off by rivers. This
siltation Siltation, is water pollution Water pollution (or aquatic pollution) is the contamination of water bodies ( Lysefjord) in Norway Norway ( nb, ; nn, ; se, Norga; smj, Vuodna; sma, Nöörje), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is ...
results in discoloration of rivers to a dark red brown color and leads to fish kills. Erosion is also an issue in areas of modern farming, where the removal of native vegetation for the cultivation and harvesting of a single type of crop has left the soil unsupported. Many of these regions are near rivers and drainages. Loss of soil due to erosion removes useful farmland, adds to sediment loads, and can help transport anthropogenic fertilizers into the river system, which leads to
eutrophication Eutrophication (from Greek ''eutrophos'', "well-nourished") is the process by which an entire body of water (Lysefjord) in Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokm ...

eutrophication
. The Sediment Delivery Ratio (SDR) is fraction of gross erosion (interill, rill, gully and stream erosion) that is expected to be delivered to the outlet of the river. The sediment transfer and deposition can be modelled with sediment distribution models such as WaTEM/SEDEM. In Europe, according to WaTEM/SEDEM model estimates the Sediment Delivery Ratio is about 15%.


Coastal development and sedimentation near coral reefs

Watershed development near coral reefs is a primary cause of sediment-related coral stress. The stripping of natural vegetation in the watershed for development exposes soil to increased wind and rainfall, and as a result, can cause exposed sediment to become more susceptible to erosion and delivery to the marine environment during rainfall events. Sediment can negatively affect corals in many ways, such as by physically smothering them, abrading their surfaces, causing corals to expend energy during sediment removal, and causing algal blooms that can ultimately lead to less space on the seafloor where juvenile corals (polyps) can settle. When sediments are introduced into the coastal regions of the ocean, the proportion of land, marine and organic-derived sediment that characterizes the seafloor near sources of sediment output is altered. In addition, because the source of sediment (i.e. land, ocean, or organically) is often correlated with how coarse or fine sediment grain sizes that characterize an area are on average, grain size distribution of sediment will shift according to relative input of land (typically fine), marine (typically coarse), and organically-derived (variable with age) sediment. These alterations in marine sediment characterize the amount of sediment that is suspended in the water column at any given time and sediment-related coral stress.


Biological considerations

In July 2020, marine biologists reported that
aerobic Aerobic means "requiring Earth's atmosphere, air," in which "air" usually means oxygen. Aerobic may also refer to * Aerobic exercise, prolonged exercise of moderate intensity * Aerobics, a form of aerobic exercise * Cellular respiration#Aerobic r ...
microorganism A microorganism, or microbe,, ''mikros'', "small") and ''organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes ...
s (mainly), in " quasi-suspended animation", were found in organically-poor sediments, up to 101.5 million years old, 250 feet below the
seafloor The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean, no matter how deep. All floors of the ocean are known as 'seabeds'. Structure Most of the oceans have a common structure, created by common ph ...

seafloor
in the
South Pacific Gyre __NOTOC__ The Southern Pacific Gyre is part of the Earth’s system of rotating ocean currents, bounded by the Equator The Earth's equator is an imaginary planetary line that is about long in circumference. The equator divides the planet in ...

South Pacific Gyre
(SPG) ("the deadest spot in the ocean"), and could be the longest-living life forms ever found.


See also

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


References


Further reading

* * * * {{Authority control Sedimentology Environmental soil science Petrology