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Secession is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a
political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of institutionalized social relations, and have a capacity to mobilize resources. A polity can be any other group of p ...
, but also from any organization, union or military alliance. Some of the most famous and significant secessions have been: the former
Soviet republics The Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the Union Republics ( rus, Сою́зные Респу́блики, r=Soyúznye Respúbliki) were ethnically based administrative units of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) ...
leaving the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, in practice its governmen ...
,
Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, ...
leaving the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...
and Algeria leaving
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of Fr ...
. Threats of secession can be a strategy for achieving more limited goals.
Allen Buchanan Allen Edward Buchanan is Professor of philosophy at the University of Arizona and also professor of the Philosophy of International Law at the Dickson Poon School of Law at King's College, London. He received his PhD from the University of North C ...

"Secession"
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2007.
It is, therefore, a process, which commences once a group proclaims the act of secession (e.g. declaration of independence). A secession attempt might be violent or peaceful, but the goal is the creation of a new state or entity independent from the group or territory it seceded from.


Secession theory

There is a great deal of theorizing about secession so that it is difficult to identify a consensus regarding its definition. There is also a claim that this subject has been neglected by
political philosophers This is a list of notable political philosophers, including some who may be better known for their work in other areas of philosophy. The entries are in order by year of birth to show rough direction of influences and of development of political t ...
and that by the 1980swhen it finally generated interestthe discourse concentrated on the moral justifications of the unilateral right to secession. It was only in the early 1990s when American philosopher
Allen Buchanan Allen Edward Buchanan is Professor of philosophy at the University of Arizona and also professor of the Philosophy of International Law at the Dickson Poon School of Law at King's College, London. He received his PhD from the University of North C ...
offered the first systematic account of the subject and contributed to the
normative Normative generally means relating to an evaluative standard. Normativity is the phenomenon in human societies of designating some actions or outcomes as good or desirable or permissible and others as bad or undesirable or impermissible. A norm in ...
classification of the literature on secession. In his 1991 book ''Secession: The Morality of Political Divorce From Fort Sumter to Lithuania and Quebec'', Buchanan outlined limited rights to secession under certain circumstances, mostly related to oppression by people of other ethnic or racial groups, and especially those previously conquered by other people.Allen Buchanan, ''Secession: The Morality of Political Divorce From Fort Sumter to Lithuania and Quebec'', West View Press, 1991. According to the 2017 book ''Secession and Security'' by George Mason political scientist Ahsan Butt, states respond violently to secessionist movements if the potential state would pose a greater threat than a violent secessionist movement would. States perceive future war as likely with a potentially new state if the ethnic group driving the secessionist struggle has deep identity division with the central state, and if the regional neighbourhood is violent and unstable.


Justifications for secession

Some theories of secession emphasize a general right of secession for any reason ("Choice Theory") while others emphasize that secession should be considered only to rectify grave injustices ("Just Cause Theory"). Some theories do both. A list of justifications may be presented supporting the right to secede, as described by Allen Buchanan,
Robert McGee The name Robert is an ancient Germanic given name, from Proto-Germanic "fame" and "bright" (Hrōþiberhtaz). Compare Old Dutch ''Robrecht'' and Old High German ''Hrodebert'' (a compound of ''Hruod'' (Old Norse: Hróðr) "fame, glory, honour ...
,
Anthony Birch Anthony Harold Birch (17 February 1924 – 13 December 2014) was a British scholar and an expert in British politics and comparative politics. He was a leading figure in the development of Britain's distinctive school of political science. Politica ...
,
Jane Jacobs Jane Jacobs (''née'' Butzner; May 4, 1916 – April 25, 2006) was an American-Canadian journalist, author, theorist, and activist who influenced urban studies, sociology, and economics. Her book, ''The Death and Life of Great American Cities'' ...

Jane Jacobs
,
Frances Kendall Frances is a French and English given name of Latin origin. In Latin the meaning of the name Frances is: From France or 'free one.' The male version of the name in English is Francis. People * Frances (musician) (born 1993) UK singer * Frances C ...
and
Leon Louw Leon Louw is a South African intellectual, author, speaker and policy advisor.http://www.speakersinc.co.za/?contenttype=speaker&contentid=12955271312 He is the executive director and cofounder of the Free Market Foundation, a nonprofit organisatio ...
,
Leopold Kohr Leopold Kohr (5 October 1909, in Oberndorf bei Salzburg, Austria – 26 February 1994, in Gloucester, England) was an economist, jurist and political scientist known both for his opposition to the "cult of bigness" in social organization and as one ...
,
Kirkpatrick Sale Kirkpatrick Sale (born June 27, 1937) is an author who has written prolifically about political decentralism, environmentalism, luddism and technology. He has been described as having a "philosophy unified by decentralism" and as being "a leader of ...
, and various authors in David Gordon's "Secession, State and Liberty", includes: * United States
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...
James Buchanan James Buchanan Jr. ( '; April 23, 1791June 1, 1868) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 15th president of the United States (1857–1861). He previously served as secretary of state (1845–1849) and represented Pennsylvani ...

James Buchanan
, Fourth Annual Message to Congress on the State of the Union December 3, 1860: "The fact is that our Union rests upon public opinion, and can never be cemented by the blood of its citizens shed in civil war. If it can not live in the affections of the people, it must one day perish. Congress possesses many means of preserving it by conciliation, but the sword was not placed in their hand to preserve it by force." * Former
President of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Ar ...
Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, philosopher, and Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809. He had previously served a ...

Thomas Jefferson
, in a letter to William H. Crawford,
Secretary of War The secretary of war was a member of the United States president's Cabinet, beginning with George Washington's administration. A similar position, called either "Secretary at War" or "Secretary of War", had been appointed to serve the Congress of ...
under President
James Madison James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751June 28, 1836) was an American statesman, diplomat, expansionist, philosopher, and Founding Father who served as the fourth president of the United States from 1809 to 1817. He is hailed as the "Father of the ...

James Madison
, on June 20, 1816: "In your letter to Fisk, you have fairly stated the alternatives between which we are to choose: 1, licentious commerce and gambling speculations for a few, with eternal war for the many; or, 2, restricted commerce, peace, and steady occupations for all. If any State in the Union will declare that it prefers separation with the first alternative, to a continuance in union without it, I have no hesitation in saying, 'let us separate.' I would rather the States should withdraw, which are for unlimited commerce and war, and confederate with those alone which are for peace and agriculture." * Economic enfranchisement of an economically oppressed class that is regionally concentrated within the scope of a larger national territory. * The right to
liberty Broadly speaking, liberty is the ability to do as one pleases, or a right or immunity enjoyed by prescription or by grant (i.e. privilege). It is a synonym for the word freedom. In modern politics, liberty is the state of being free within soci ...

liberty
,
freedom of association Freedom of association encompasses both an individual's right to join or leave groups voluntarily, the right of the group to take collective action to pursue the interests of its members, and the right of an association to accept or decline member ...
and
private property Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities. Private property is distinguishable from public property, which is owned by a state entity, and from collective or cooperative property, w ...
* Consent as important democratic principle; will of majority to secede should be recognized * Making it easier for states to join with others in an experimental union * Dissolving such union when goals for which it was constituted are not achieved *
Self-defense Self-defense (self-defence in some varieties of English) is a countermeasure that involves defending the health and well-being of oneself from harm. The use of the right of self-defense as a legal justification for the use of force in times ...
when larger group presents lethal threat to minority or the government cannot adequately defend an area *
Self-determination The right of a people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a ''jus cogens'' rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms. It states ...
of peoples * Preserving culture, language, etc. from assimilation or destruction by a larger or more powerful group * Furthering diversity by allowing diverse cultures to keep their
identity Identity may refer to: Social sciences * Identity (social science), personhood or group affiliation in psychology and sociology Group expression and affiliation * Cultural identity, a person's self-affiliation (or categorization by others) ...
* Rectifying past injustices, especially past conquest by a larger power * Escaping "discriminatory redistribution", i.e., tax schemes, regulatory policies, economic programs, etc. that distribute resources away to another area, especially in an undemocratic fashion * Enhanced efficiency when the state or empire becomes too large to administer efficiently * Preserving "liberal purity" (or " conservative purity ") by allowing less (or more) liberal regions to secede * Providing superior constitutional systems which allow flexibility of secession * Keeping political entities small and
human scale 250px, The ''Vitruvian Man'', by Italian polymath Leonardo Da Vinci, is based on the correlations of ideal human proportions with geometry described by the ancient Roman architect Vitruvius. Human scale is the set of physical qualities, and qua ...
through right to secession Aleksander Pavkovic, associate professor at the Department of Politics and International Studies at
Macquarie University Macquarie University () is a public research university based in Sydney, Australia, in the suburb of Macquarie Park. Founded in 1964 by the New South Wales Government, it was the third university to be established in the metropolitan area of Syd ...
in Australia and the author of several books on secession describes five justifications for a general right of secession within liberal political theory:Aleksandar Pavkovic
Secession, Majority Rule and Equal Rights: a Few Questions
Macquarie University Macquarie University () is a public research university based in Sydney, Australia, in the suburb of Macquarie Park. Founded in 1964 by the New South Wales Government, it was the third university to be established in the metropolitan area of Syd ...
Law Journal, 2003.
*
Anarcho-Capitalism Anarcho-capitalism is a political philosophy and economic theory that advocates the elimination of centralized states in favor of a system of private property enforced by private agencies, free markets and the right-libertarian interpretation of ...
: individual liberty to form political associations and private property rights together justify right to secede and to create a "viable political order" with like-minded individuals. * Democratic Secessionism: the right of secession, as a variant of the right of self-determination, is vested in a "territorial community" which wishes to secede from "their existing political community"; the group wishing to secede then proceeds to delimit "its" territory by the majority. * Communitarian Secessionism: any group with a particular "participation-enhancing" identity, concentrated in a particular territory, which desires to improve its members' political participation has a
prima facie ''Prima facie'' (; ) is a Latin expression meaning ''on its first encounter'' or ''at first sight''. The literal translation would be 'at first face' or 'at first appearance', from the feminine forms of ''primus'' ('first') and ''facies'' ('face') ...
right to secede. * Cultural Secessionism: any group which was previously in a minority has a right to protect and develop its own culture and distinct national identity through seceding into an independent state. * The Secessionism of Threatened Cultures: if a minority culture is threatened within a state that has a majority culture, the minority needs a right to form a state of its own which would protect its culture.


Types of secession

Secession theorists have described a number of ways in which a political entity (city, county, canton, state) can secede from the larger or original state: * Secession from
federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government (federalism). In a federation, the self-governing ...

federation
or
confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty, confederations of states tend to be established for dealing with critical issu ...
(political entities with substantial reserved powers which have agreed to join together) versus secession from a
unitary state A unitary state is a state governed as a single entity in which the central government is ultimately supreme. Unitary states stand in contrast with federations, also known as ''federal states''. Overview In unitary states, the central govern ...
(a state governed as a single unit with few powers reserved to sub-units) * Colonial wars of independence from an imperial state * Recursive secession, such as India seceding from the British Empire, then Pakistan seceding from India, or Georgia seceding from the USSR, then South Ossetia seceding from Georgia. * National (seceding entirely from the national state) versus local (seceding from one entity of the national state into another entity of the same state) * Central or
enclave An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly s ...
(seceding entity is completely surrounded by the original state) versus peripheral (along a border of the original state) * Secession by contiguous units versus secession by non-contiguous units (
exclaves An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly s ...
) * Separation or partition (although an entity secedes, the rest of the state retains its structure) versus dissolution (all political entities dissolve their ties and create several new states) *
Irredentism Irredentism is a political and popular movement in which its members claim, reclaim (usually on behalf of their nation), and seek to occupy territory which they consider "lost" (or "unredeemed"), based on history or legend. The scope of this defin ...
where secession is sought in order to annex the territory to another state because of common ethnicity or prior historical links * Minority (a minority of the population or territory secedes) versus majority (a majority of the population or territory secedes) * Secession of better off regions versus secession of worse off regions * The threat of secession is sometimes used as a strategy to gain greater autonomy within the original state


Arguments against secession

Allen Buchanan, who supports secession under limited circumstances, lists arguments that might be used against secession: * "Protecting Legitimate Expectations" of those who now occupy territory claimed by secessionists, even in cases where that land was stolen * "Self Defense" if losing part of the state would make it difficult to defend the rest of it * "Protecting Majority Rule" and the principle that minorities must abide by them * "Minimization of Strategic Bargaining" by making it difficult to secede, such as by imposing an exit tax * "Soft Paternalism" because secession will be bad for secessionists or others * "Threat of Anarchy" because smaller and smaller entities may choose to secede until there is chaos, although this is not the true meaning of the political and philosophical concept * "Preventing Wrongful Taking" such as the state's previous investment in infrastructure * "Distributive Justice" arguments that wealthier areas cannot secede from poorer ones


Explanations for the 20th century increase in secessionism

According to University of California, Santa Barbara, political scientist Bridget L. Coggins, there are four potential explanations in the academic literature for the drastic increase in state birth during the 20th century: * Ethnonational mobilization – Ethnic minorities have been increasingly mobilized to pursue states of their own. * Institutional empowerment – The growing inability of empires and ethnic federations to maintain colonies and member states. * Relative strength – Increasingly powerful secessionist movements are more likely to achieve statehood. * Negotiated consent – Home states and the international community increasingly consent to secessionist demands. Other scholars have linked secession to resource discoveries and extraction. David B. Carter, H. E. Goemans and Ryan Griffiths find that border changes among states tend to conform to borders for previous administrative units. Several scholars have argued that changes in the international system have made it easier to survive and prosper as a small state. Tanisha Fazal and Ryan Griffiths link increased numbers of secessions to an international system that is more favorable for new states. For example, new states can obtain assistance from international organizations, such as the International Monetary Fund, World Bank and United Nation. Alberto Alesina and Enrico Spolaore argue that greater levels of free trade and peace have reduced the benefits of being part of a larger state, thus motivating nations within larger states to seek secession. Woodrow Wilson's proclamations on self-determination in 1918 created a surge in secessionist demands.


Rights to secession

Most
sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government ...
s do not recognize the right to self-determination through secession in their constitutions. Many expressly forbid it. However, there are several existing models of self-determination through greater autonomy and through secession.Andrei Kreptul
The Constitutional Right of Secession in Political Theory and History
Journal of Libertarian Studies ''The Journal of Libertarian Studies'' (''JLS'') was an interdisciplinary scholarly journal published by the Ludwig von Mises Institute and Lew Rockwell. It was established in the spring of 1977 by Murray Rothbard who also served as its editor unti ...
,
Ludwig von Mises Institute The Ludwig von Mises Institute for Austrian Economics, or Mises Institute, is a libertarian nonprofit think-tank located in Auburn, Alabama, United States. It is named after Austrian School economist Ludwig von Mises (1881–1973). The Mises Ins ...
, Volume 17, no.4 (Fall 2003), pp. 39–100.
In liberal constitutional democracies the principle of
majority rule Majority rule is a decision rule that selects alternatives which have a majority, that is, more than half the votes. It is the binary decision rule used most often in influential decision-making bodies, including all the legislatures of democr ...
has dictated whether a minority can secede. In the United States
Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln (; February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil ...
acknowledged that secession might be possible through amending the
United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. This founding document, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government. Its first three articles embody the doctrine ...

United States Constitution
. The
Supreme Court The supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions. Other descriptions for such courts include court of last resort, apex court, and high (or final) court of appeal. Broadly speaking, the decisio ...

Supreme Court
in ''
Texas v. White ''Texas v. White'', 74 U.S. (7 Wall.) 700 (1869), was a case argued before the United States Supreme Court in 1869. The case involved a claim by the Reconstruction government of Texas that United States bonds owned by Texas since 1850 had been ille ...
'' held secession could occur "through revolution, or through consent of the States".Aleksandar Pavković, Peter Radan
Creating New States: Theory and Practice of Secession
p. 222, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007.

74 U.S. 700 (1868) at
Cornell University Law School Cornell Law School is the law school of Cornell University, a private Ivy League university in Ithaca, New York. One of the five Ivy League law schools, it offers three law degree programs, JD, LL.M., and JSD, along with several dual-degree progra ...
Supreme Court collection.
The
British Parliament The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and the British overseas territories. It alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other politic ...
in 1933 held that
Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the western percent of the land area of Australia excluding external territories. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, and the Southern Ocean to the south, the Northe ...
could secede from Australia only upon vote of a majority of the country as a whole; the previous two-thirds majority vote for secession via referendum in Western Australia was insufficient.Aleksandar Pavkovic and Peter Radan
In Pursuit of Sovereignty and Self-determination: Peoples, States and Secession in the International Order
Macquarie University Macquarie University () is a public research university based in Sydney, Australia, in the suburb of Macquarie Park. Founded in 1964 by the New South Wales Government, it was the third university to be established in the metropolitan area of Syd ...
Law Journal, 1, 2003.
The
Chinese Communist Party The Communist Party of China (CPC), commonly known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and sole governing political party of the People's Republic of China (PRC). The CCP leads eight other legally permitted subordinate minor p ...
followed the Soviet Union in including the right of secession in its 1931 constitution in order to entice ethnic nationalities and Tibet into joining. However, the Party eliminated the right to secession in later years, and had anti-secession clause written into the Constitution before and after the founding the People's Republic of China. The 1947 Constitution of the
Union of Burma Union commonly refers to: * Trade union, an organization of workers * Union (set theory), in mathematics, a fundamental operation on sets Union may also refer to: Arts and entertainment Music * Union (band), an American rock group ** ''Unio ...
contained an express state right to secede from the union under a number of procedural conditions. It was eliminated in the 1974 constitution of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma (officially the "Union of Myanmar"). Burma still allows "local autonomy under central leadership". As of 1996 the constitutions of Austria, Ethiopia, France, and
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis (), officially known as the Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis, is an island country in the West Indies. Located in the Leeward Islands chain of the Lesser Antilles, it is the smallest sovereign state in the West ...
have express or implied rights to secession. Switzerland allows for the secession from current and the creation of new
cantons A canton is a type of administrative division of a country. In general, cantons are relatively small in terms of area and population when compared with other administrative divisions such as counties, departments, or provinces. Internationally, t ...
. In the case of proposed
Quebec ) , image_map = Quebec in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = French , capital = Quebec City , CapCoord = , largest_city ...
separation from Canada the
Supreme Court of Canada Supreme may refer to: * Supreme (brand), a clothing brand based in New York * Supreme (comics), a comic book superhero * Supreme (cookery), a term used in cookery * ''Supreme'' (film), a 2016 Telugu film * Supreme (producer), hip-hop record produc ...

Supreme Court of Canada
in 1998 ruled that only both a clear majority of the province and a constitutional amendment confirmed by all participants in the Canadian federation could allow secession. The 2003 draft of the European Union Constitution allowed for the voluntary withdrawal of member states from the union, although the State which wanted to leave could not be involved in the vote deciding whether or not they can leave the Union. There was much discussion about such self-determination by minorities before the final document underwent the unsuccessful ratification process in 2005. As a result of the successful constitutional referendum held in 2003, every municipality in the
Principality of Liechtenstein Liechtenstein ( ; ), officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (german: link=no, Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a German-speaking microstate situated in the Alps and in the southwest of Central Europe. The principality is a semi-constitution ...

Principality of Liechtenstein
has the right to secede from the Principality by a vote of a majority of the citizens residing in this municipality.


Secession movements

:' Movements that work towards political secession may describe themselves as being
autonomy The federal subject in Russia">Federal subjects of Russia">federal subject in Russia, close to borders of Finland. Picture of Petrozavodsk, the capital of the Republic of Karelia. In developmental psychology and morality, moral, pol ...
,
separatist Separatism is the advocacy of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group. As with secession, separatism conventionally refers to full political separation. Groups simply seeking greater ...
,
independence upright=1.0, Pedro surrounded by a crowd in Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822">Independence of Brazil">Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822. Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or state in which its residen ...
,
self-determination The right of a people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a ''jus cogens'' rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms. It states ...
, partition,
devolution Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level. It is a form of administrative decentralization. Devolved territories hav ...
,
decentralization Decentralization or decentralisation is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision making, are distributed or delegated away from a central, authoritative location or group. Concep ...

decentralization
,
sovereignty Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. In any state, sovereignty is assigned to the person, body, or institution that has the ultimate authority over other people in order to establish a law or change an existing law. In polit ...
,
self-governance __NOTOC__ Self-governance, self-government, or self-rule is the ability of a person or group to exercise all necessary functions of regulation without intervention from an external authority. It may refer to personal conduct or to any form of i ...
or
decolonization Decolonization (American and Oxford English) or decolonisation (other British English) is the undoing of colonialism, the latter being the process whereby a nation establishes and maintains its domination of foreign territories (often overseas ter ...
movements instead of, or in addition to, being secession movements. Countries which separated from a colonial empire but which where never an integral part of the colonial state are not included in the list below; instead see
Decolonization Decolonization (American and Oxford English) or decolonisation (other British English) is the undoing of colonialism, the latter being the process whereby a nation establishes and maintains its domination of foreign territories (often overseas ter ...
and
Unilateral declaration of independence A unilateral declaration of independence (UDI) is a formal process leading to the establishment of a new state by a subnational entity which declares itself independent and sovereign without a formal agreement with the state from which it is seced ...
.


Australia

During the 19th century, the single
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, t ...
colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original country of the colonizers, the metropolitan state (or ...
in eastern mainland Australia,
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of :Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Coral and Tasman Seas to the east. The Australian ...
(NSW) was progressively divided up by the British government as new settlements were formed and spread. Victoria (Vic) in 1851 and Queensland (Qld) in 1859. However, settlers agitated to divide the colonies throughout the later part of the century; particularly in
central Queensland Central Queensland is an ambiguous geographical division of Queensland (a state in Australia) that centres on the eastern coast, around the Tropic of Capricorn. Its major regional centre is Rockhampton. The region extends from the Capricorn Coast ...
(centred in
Rockhampton Rockhampton is a city in the Rockhampton Region of Central Queensland, Australia. The population of Rockhampton in June 2018 was 78,592, Estimated resident population, 30 June 2018. making it the fourth-largest city in the state outside of the cit ...
) in the 1860s and 1890s, and in
North Queensland North Queensland or the Northern Region is the northern part of the Australian state of Queensland that lies just south of Far North Queensland. Queensland is a massive state, larger than many countries, and its tropical northern part has been hi ...
(with Bowen as a potential colonial capital) in the 1870s. Other secession (or territorial separation) movements arose and these advocated the secession of New England in northern central New South Wales,
Deniliquin Deniliquin, () known locally as "Deni", is a town in the Riverina region of New South Wales close to the border with Victoria. It is the largest town in the Edward River Council local government area. Deniliquin is located at the intersection of ...

Deniliquin
in the
Riverina The Riverina is an agricultural region of south-western New South Wales, Australia. The Riverina is distinguished from other Australian regions by the combination of flat plains, warm to hot climate and an ample supply of water for irrigation. ...
district also in NSW, and
Mount Gambier Mount is often used as part of the name of specific mountains, e.g. Mount Everest. Mount or Mounts may also refer to: Places * Mounts, Indiana, a community in Gibson County, Indiana, United States People * Mount (surname) * William L. Mounts (1 ...
in the eastern part of
South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, a ...
. ;Western Australia Secession movements have surfaced several times in Western Australia (WA), where a 1933 referendum for secession from the
Federation of Australia The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia agreed to unite and form the Commonwealth of Austr ...
passed with a two-thirds majority. The referendum had to be ratified by the
British Parliament The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and the British overseas territories. It alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other politic ...
, which declined to act, on the grounds that it would contravene the
Australian Constitution The Constitution of Australia (or Australian Constitution) is a written constitution that is the supreme law of Australia. It establishes Australia as a federation under a constitutional monarchy and outlines the structure and powers of the fed ...
. * The Principality of Hutt River claimed to have seceded from Australia in 1970, although its status was not recognised by Australia or any other country.


Austria

After being liberated by the
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established immedi ...
and the U.S. Army,
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine federated states (''Bund ...
seceded from
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich. until 1943 and Greater German Reich. from 1943 to 1945, was the German state ...

Nazi Germany
on April 27, 1945. This took place after seven years of Austria's being part of Adolf Hitler's
Third Reich Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich. until 1943 and Greater German Reich. from 1943 to 1945, was the German state ...
due to the
Anschluss The ''Anschluss'' (, or ''Anschluß'' before the German orthography reform of 1996, "joining"), also known as the ''Anschluss Österreichs'' (, en, Annexation of Austria), was the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938. The ...
annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany in March 1938, and could not have taken place without the Third Reich being defeated by the Allies.


Belgium and the Netherlands

On August 25, 1830, during the reign of
William I William I (c. 1028Bates ''William the Conqueror'' p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman monarch of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 108 ...

William I
, the nationalistic opera
La muette de Portici ''La muette de Portici'' (''The Mute Girl of Portici'', or ''The Dumb Girl of Portici''), also called ''Masaniello'' () in some versions, is an opera in five acts by Daniel Auber, with a libretto by Germain Delavigne, revised by Eugène Scribe. Th ...
was performed in
Brussels Brussels (french: Bruxelles or ; nl, Brussel ), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (french: link=no, Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; nl, link=no, Brussels Ho ...
. Soon after, the Belgian Revolt occurred, which resulted in the Belgian secession from the Netherlands.


Brazil

In 1825, soon after the
Empire of Brazil The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil and (until 1828) Uruguay. Its government was a representative parliamentary constitutional monarchy under the rule of Emperors Dom Pedro&n ...
managed to defeat the Cortes-Gerais and Portugal in an Independence War, the platinean nationalists in
Cisplatina Cisplatina Province or Cisplatine Province ( pt, Província Cisplatina, ) was a Brazilian province in existence from 1821 to 1828 created by the Luso-Brazilian annexation of the Oriental Province. From 1815 until 1822 Brazil was part of the Unit ...
declared independence and joined the United Provinces, which led to a stagnated war between both, as they were both weakened, without manpower and fragile politically. The peace treaty accepted Uruguay's independence, reasserted the rule of both nations over their land and some important points like free navigation in the Silver River. Three rather disorganized secessionist rebellions happened in Grão-Pará, Bahia and Maranhão, where the people were unhappy with the Empire (these provinces were Portuguese bastions in the Independence War). The
Malê Revolt Male, in biology, is the half of a reproduction system that produces sperm cells. Male may also refer to: Gender * Male plant, a plant that gives rise to male gametophytes * Male pregnancy, the incubation of embryos or fetuses by male members of ...
, in Bahia, was an Islamic slave revolt. These three rebellions were bloodily crushed by the Empire of Brazil. The
Pernambuco Pernambuco () is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country. With an estimated population of 9.6 million people as of 2020, it is the seventh-most populous state of Brazil, the sixth-most densely populated and the 19th larg ...
was one of the most nativist of all Brazilian regions, which in five revolts (1645–1654, 1710, 1817, 1824, 1848), the province ousted the Dutch West India Company, tried to secede from the Portuguese Empire and from the Brazilian Empire. In the attempts the rebels were crushed, the leaders shot and its territory divided, nevertheless they kept revolting until its territory was a little fraction of what it was before. In the
Ragamuffin War The Ragamuffin War (Portuguese: ''Guerra dos Farrapos'' or, more commonly ''Revolução Farroupilha'') was a Republican uprising that began in southern Brazil, in the province (currently state) of Rio Grande do Sul in 1835. The rebels, led by gen ...
, the was undergoing a (at that time common) liberal vs conservative "cold" war. After the Emperor favoured the conservatives, the liberals took the Capital and declared an independent Republic, fighting their way to the , declaring the
Juliana Republic The Juliana Republic (Portuguese: ''República Juliana'') was a revolutionary state that existed in the province of Santa Catarina, in the Brazilian Empire, between July 24, 1839, and November 15 of the same year. The Republic was declared in an ...
. Eventually they were slowly forced back, and made a reunification peace with the Empire. The war was not a secessionist war, even if it could become if the Empire were defeated, after the Empire agreed to aid its economy by taxing Argentina's products (like dry meat), the rebels reunited with the Empire and even filled its ranks, as the rebels were very good fighters. In modern times, the South Region of Brazil has been the centre of a secessionist movement led by an organization called The South is My Country since the 1990s. Reasons cited for South Region Brazil's secession are taxation due to it being one of the wealthiest regions in the country and political disputes with the northernmost states of Brazil as well as the recent scandal revolving around the Workers Party found to be making shady deals with state-owned oil company
Petrobras Petróleo Brasileiro S.A., better known by the acronym Petrobras (), is a state-owned Brazilian multinational corporation in the petroleum industry headquartered in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The company's name translates to Brazilian Petroleum Co ...
and the impeachment of then-
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...
Dilma Rousseff Dilma Vana Rousseff (; bg, Дилма Вана Русеф; born 14 December 1947) is a Brazilian economist and politician who served as the 36th president of Brazil, holding the position from 2011 until her impeachment and removal from office on ...
additionally there is also an ethnic divide as the South Region is predominately European populated primarily by
Germans The Germans (german: Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe.. "Germans are a Germanic (or Teutonic) people that are indigenous to Central Europe... Germanic tribes have inhabited Central Europe since at least Roman time ...
,
Italians Italians ( it, italiani ) are a Romance ethnic group and nation native to the Italian geographical region and its neighboring insular territories. Italians share a common culture, history, ancestry and language.
,
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...
and other European countries in contrast to the rest of Brazil which is a multicultural melting pot "
Racial Democracy Racial democracy ( pt, Democracia racial) is a term used by some to describe race relations in Brazil. The term denotes some scholars' belief that Brazil has escaped racism and racial discrimination. Those researchers contend that Brazilians do no ...
". The South Region in 2016 voted in an unofficial referendum called "Plebisul" in which 616,917 (or half a million) voters overwhelmingly supported secession and the creation of an independent South Region by 95%. Another Brazilian secession movement is based in the state of
Sao Paulo Sao may refer to: * Sáo, a Vietnamese flute * Sao (moon), a satellite of Neptune * Sao civilisation, in Middle Africa from 6th century BC to 16th century AD * Sao, or Thao language, of the Thao people in central Taiwan * Sao, a town in Boussé Dep ...
which seeks to create to make the state an independent country from the rest of Brazil.


Cameroon

In October 2017, Ambazonia declared its independence from Cameroon. Less than a month beforehand, tensions had escalated into Anglophone Crisis, open warfare between separatists and the Cameroonian military. Ambazonia-Cameroun conflict is deeply rooted in the October 1, 1961 incomplete decolonization of the former British Southern Cameroons (UNGA Resolution 1608). On January 1, 1960, Cameroon under French administration (Cameroun) was granted independence from France and admitted into the United Nations. The more advanced democratic and self ruling people of former British Southern Cameroons were instead limited to two choices. Through a UN plebiscite, they were directed to gain independence by either joining the independent Federation of Nigeria or the independent Republic of Cameroun as a federation of two equal states. They decided on independence by joining Cameroun, but they did so without a formal UN Treaty of Union on record at the UN. In 1972, Cameroun used her majority population to abolish the federation and implement a system which resulted in the occupation of Southern Cameroon territory by French-speaking Cameroon administrators. To make matters worse in 1984, Cameroun returned to her name at independence "Republic of Cameroun" which did not include the territory of the former British Southern Cameroons or Ambazonia. For more than fifty years the English-speaking people of the Former British Southern Cameroons made multiple attempts both nationally and internationally to get the Cameroon government to address these issue and possibly return to the previously agreed federation at independence. When all these attempts failed in 2016 and Cameroon engaged in a military crackdown including cutting the internet in the English-speaking regions, the people of Southern Cameroons declared on October 1, 2017, the restoration of their UN state of Southern Cameroons, which they called the "Federal Republic of Ambazonia".


Canada

Throughout Canada's history, there has been tension between English-speaking and French-speaking Canadians. Under the Constitutional Act of 1791, the Quebec colony (including parts of what are today Quebec, Ontario and Newfoundland and Labrador) was divided in two: Lower Canada (which retained French law and institutions and is now part of the provinces of
Quebec ) , image_map = Quebec in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = French , capital = Quebec City , CapCoord = , largest_city ...
and Newfoundland and Labrador) and Upper Canada (a new colony intended to accommodate the many new English-speaking settlers, including the United Empire Loyalists, and now part of Ontario). The intent was to provide each group with its own colony. In 1841, the two Canadas were merged into the Province of Canada. The union proved contentious, however, resulting in a legislative deadlock between English and French legislators. The difficulties of the union led (amongst other factors) in 1867 to Canadian Confederation, Confederation, the adoption of a Federation, federal system that united the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick (later joined by other British colonies in North America). The federal framework did not eliminate all tensions, however, leading to the Quebec sovereignty movement in the latter half of the 20th century. Other occasional secessionist movements have included anti-Confederation movements in 19th century Atlantic Canada (see Anti-Confederation Party), the North-West Rebellion of 1885, and various small separatism movements in Alberta particularly (see Alberta separatism) and Western Canada generally (see, for example, Western Canada Concept).


Central America

After the 1823 collapse of the First Mexican Empire, the former Captaincy-General of Guatemala was organized into a new Federal Republic of Central America. In 1838 Nicaragua seceded. The Federal Republic was formally dissolved in 1840, all but one of the states having seceded amidst general disorder.


China

* The ''Anti-Secession Law'' against the Taiwan independence movement * Western regions of Xinjiang (East Turkistan) and Tibet are the focus of secessionist calls by the Tibetan independence movement and East Turkestan Independence Movement. * The Special Administrative Region of Hong Kong has a secessionist movement in the city that the Chinese Communist Party has placed on national security agenda in 2017 which is called the Hong Kong independence movement.


Congo

In 1960 the State of Katanga declared independence from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. United Nations troops crushed it in Congo Crisis#UN Operation Grand Slam ends Katanga secession, Operation Grand Slam.


Cyprus

In 1974, Greece, Greek Irredentism, irredentists 1974 Cypriot coup d'état, launched a ''coup d'état'' in Cyprus, in an attempt to annex the island with Greece. Almost immediately, the Turkish Army invaded northern Cyprus to protect the interests of the ethnic Turkish minority, who in the following year formed the ''Turkish Federated State of Cyprus'' and in 1983 declared independence as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, recognized only by Turkey.


East Timor

The East Timor, Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (also known as East Timor) has been described as having "seceded" from Indonesia. After Portugal, Portuguese sovereignty was terminated in 1975, East Timor was occupied by Indonesia. However the United Nations and the International Court of Justice refused to recognize this incorporation. Therefore, the resulting civil war and eventual 2002 East Timorese vote for complete separation are better described as an
independence upright=1.0, Pedro surrounded by a crowd in Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822">Independence of Brazil">Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822. Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or state in which its residen ...
movement.


Ethiopia

Following the May 1991 victory of EPLF forces against the communist Derg regime during the Eritrean War of Independence, Eritrea (formerly known as "Medri Bahri") gained de facto independence from Ethiopia. Following the United Nations observed 1993 Eritrean independence referendum, Eritrea gained de jure independence.


European Union

Before the Treaty of Lisbon entered into force on 1December 2009 no provision in the treaties or law of the European Union outlined the ability of a state to voluntarily withdraw from the EU. The European Constitution did propose such a provision and, after the failure to ratify the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, that provision was then included in the Lisbon Treaty. The treaty introduces an exit clause for members who wish to withdraw from the Union. This formalises the procedure by stating that a member state may notify the European Council that it wishes to withdraw, upon which withdrawal negotiations begin; if no other agreement is reached the treaty ceases to apply to the withdrawing state two years after such notification.


Finland

Finland successfully and peacefully seceded from the newly formed and weak Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1917, the latter led by Lenin who had goodwill towards the Finns due to their having helped in his revolutionary struggle. Unsuccessful attempts at greater autonomy or peaceful secession had already been made during the preceding Russian Empire but had been denied by the Russian emperor.


France

France was one of the European Great Powers with populous foreign empires; like the othersthe United Kingdom, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Belgium and the Netherlands; and formerly Germany and the Ottoman Empirepopulous states abroad have all seceded, in most cases granted independence. These generally took place at similar stages by continent, see decolonization of the Ottoman Empire, Decolonization of the Americas, Americas, Decolonization of Asia, Asia and Decolonization of Africa, Africa. As to France's contiguous state, these have few present representatives at national level, see: * Alsace independence movement * Breton independence * Corsican nationalism * Occitan nationalism


Gran Colombia

After a decade of tumultuous federalism, Ecuador and Venezuela seceded from Gran Colombia in 1830, leaving the similarly tumultuous United States of Colombia, now the Republic of Colombia which also lost Panama in 1903.


India

Pakistan seceded from the British Indian empire in what is known as Partition of India, the Partition. Today, the Constitution of India does not allow Indian states to secede from the Union. The Indian Union Territory bulk of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir hosts some paramilitary Muslim-state-advocating nationalists, operating against the Indian establishment. They are mostly in the Valley of Kashmir since 1989, where the Indian army sometimes patrol, having bases along the nearby international border. They are supported via Pakistan, though the country denies any direct involvement. The militancy reached at its peak influence in the 1990s. Other secessionist movements in Nagaland, Assam, Manipur, Indian Punjab, Punjab (known as the Khalistan movement), Mizoram and Tripura were also formerly active, while Tamil Nadu had a Dravida Nadu, non-violent movement in the 1960s. The sometimes violent, Maoism, Maoist, Naxalite insurgency operates in eastern rural India is rarely considered secessionist as its goal is to overthrow the government of India. Its commanders sometimes idealise a Communist republic to be made up swathes of India.


Italy

The Movement for the Independence of Sicily (Movimento Indipendentista Siciliano, MIS) has its roots in the Sicilian Independence Movement of the late 1940s; they have been around for 60 years. Today, the MIS no longer exists, though many other parties have been born. One is Nation Sicily (Sicilia Nazione), which still believes in the idea that Sicily, due to its deeply personal and ancient history, has to be a sovereign country. Moreover, a common ideology shared by all the Sicilian independentist movements is to fight against Cosa Nostra and all the other Mafia organizations, that have a very deep influence over Sicily's public and private institutions. Also, the Sicilian branch of the Five Star Movement, which is according to the polls Sicily's most popular party, has publicly expressed the intention to start working for a possible secession from Italy in the case where the central government would not collaborate in shifting the nation's administrative organization from a unitary country to a federal state. Lega Nord has been seeking the independence of the so-called region of Padania, which includes lands along the Po Valley in northern Italy. Some organizations separately work for the Venetian nationalism, independence of Venetia or Veneto and the South Tyrolean secessionist movement, secession or reunification of South Tyrol with
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine federated states (''Bund ...
. Lega Nord governing Lombardy has expressed a will to turning the region into a sovereign country. Also the island of Sardinia is home to a notable Sardinian nationalism, nationalist movement. In Southern Italy several movements have expressed a will to secede from Italy. This newborn ideology is so-called neo-Bourbonic, because the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was under the control of the House of Bourbon. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was created in 1816 after the Congress of Vienna, and it comprised both Sicily and continental Southern Italy. The Kingdom came to an end in 1861, being annexed to the newborn Kingdom of Italy. However, the patriotic feelings shared among the southern Italian population is more ancient, starting in 1130 with the Kingdom of Sicily, which was composed by both the island and south Italy. According to the neo-Bourbonic movements the Italian regions which should secede are Sicily, Calabria, Basilicata, Apulia, Molise, Campania, Abruzzo, and Latio's provinces of Province of Rieti, Rieti, Province of Latina, Latina and Province of Frosinone, Frosinone. The major movements and parties which believe in this ideology are Unione Mediterranea, Mo! and Brigandage in Southern Italy after 1861, Briganti.


Iran

Active secession movements include: Iranian Azeri, Assyrian independence movement, Bakhtiary lurs movement in 1876, Iranian Kurdistan; Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iran, Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iran (KDPI), Khūzestān Province Balochistan and independence movement for free separated Balochistan, (''Arab nationalism, Arab nationalist''); Al-Ahwaz Arab People's Democratic Popular Front, Democratic Solidarity Party of Al-Ahwaz (See Politics of Khūzestān Province#Arab politics and separatism, Politics of Khūzestān Province: Arab politics and separatism), and Balochistan People's Party (BPP) supporting Baloch people, Baloch Baloch nationalism, Separatism.


Japan

The ethnic Ryukyuan (a branch of modern Okinawan) people had their own state historically (Ryukyu Kingdom). Although some Okinawan people have sought to become independent from Japan since they were annexed by Japan in 1879, and especially after 1972 when the islands were transferred from U.S. rule to Japan, their activism and movement have been consistently supported by single digit of Okinawan people.


Malaysia

When racial and PAP-UMNO relations, partisan strife erupted, Singapore Singapore in Malaysia#Expulsion, was expelled from the Malaysian federation in 1965.


Mexico

* Republic of Texas, Texas seceded from Mexico in 1836 (see Texas Revolution), after animosity between the Mexican government and the American settlers of the Coahuila y Tejas, Coahuila y Tejas State. It was later annexed by the United States in 1845. * The Republic of the Rio Grande seceded from Mexico on January 17, 1840. It rejoined Mexico on November6 the same year. * After the Federal government, federal system was abandoned by President of Mexico, President Antonio López de Santa Anna, Santa Anna, the Congress of Yucatán approved in 1840 a declaration of independence, establishing the Republic of Yucatán. The Republic rejoined Mexico in 1843.


Netherlands

The United Provinces of the Netherlands, commonly referred to historiographically as the 'Dutch Republic', was a federal republic formally established from the formal creation of a federal state in 1581 by several Dutch provinces Dutch Revolt, seceded from Spanish Netherlands, Spain.


New Zealand

Secession movements have surfaced several times in the South Island of New Zealand. A Prime Minister of New Zealand, Premier of New Zealand, Sir Julius Vogel, was amongst the first people to make this call, which was voted on by the Parliament of New Zealand as early as 1865. The desire for South Island independence was one of the main factors in moving the capital of New Zealand from Auckland to Wellington in the same year. The NZ South Island Party with a pro-South agenda, fielded only five candidates (4.20% of electoral seats) candidates in the 1999 New Zealand general election, 1999 General Election but achieved only 0.14% (2622 votes) of the general vote. The reality today is that although "South Islanders" are most proud of their geographic region, secession does not carry any real constituency; the party was not able to field any candidates in the 2008 election due to being unable to enlist 500 paying members, a requirement by the New Zealand Electoral commission. The party is treated more as a "joke" party than any real political force.


Nigeria

Between 1967 and 1970, the state of Biafra (The Biafra, Republic of Biafra) seceded from Nigeria and fought a war that ended with the state returning to Nigeria. Later in 1999 at the beginning of a new democratic regime, other secessionist movements emerged, the movement for the Actualization of a Sovereign state of Biafra was formed as a military wing of the Republic of Biafra.


Norway and Sweden

Sweden, having left the Kalmar Union with Denmark and Norway in the 16th century, entered into a loose personal union with Norway in 1814. Following a constitutional crisis, on June 7, 1905 the Norwegian Parliament declared that King Oscar II of Norway, OscarII had failed to fulfill his constitutional duties. He was therefore no longer King of Norway and because the union depended on the two countries sharing a king, it was thus dissolved. After negotiations Sweden agreed to this on October 26 and on April 14.


Pakistan

After the Awami League won the 1970 national elections, negotiations to form a new government floundered, resulting in the Bangladesh Liberation War by which the eastern wing of Pakistan seceded, to become Bangladesh. The Balochistan Liberation Army (also Baloch Liberation Army or Boluchistan Liberation army) (BLA) is a Baloch nationalist militant secessionist organization. The stated goals of the organization include the establishment of an independent state of Balochistan (region), Balochistan free of Pakistani, Iranian and Afghan Federations. The name Baloch Liberation Army first became public in summer 2000, after the organization claimed credit for a series of bomb attacks in markets and removal of railways lines.


Papua New Guinea

The island of Bougainville Island, Bougainville has made several efforts to secede from Papua New Guinea.


Somalia

Somaliland is an autonomous region, which is part of the Somalia, Federal Republic of Somalia. Those who call the area the ''Republic of Somaliland'' consider it to be the successor state of the former British Somaliland protectorate. Having established its own local government in Somalia in 1991, the region's self-declared independence remains Diplomatic recognition, unrecognized by any country or international organization.The Signs Say Somaliland, but the World Says Somalia
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Soviet Union

The Constitution of the Soviet Union guaranteed all Republics of the Soviet Union, SSRs the right to secede from the Union. In 1990, after free elections, the Lithuanian SSR Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania, declared independence and other Republics of the Soviet Union, SSRs soon followed. Despite the Soviet central government's refusal to recognize the independence of the republics, the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Soviet Union dissolved in 1991.


South Africa

In 1910, following the British Empire's defeat of the Afrikaners in the Boer Wars, four self-governing colonies in the south of Africa were merged into the Union of South Africa. The four regions were the Cape Colony, Orange Free State, Colony of Natal, Natal and Transvaal Colony, Transvaal. Three other territories, High Commissioner for Southern Africa, High Commission Territories of Bechuanaland (now Botswana), Basutoland (now Lesotho) and Swaziland (now Eswatini) later became independent states in the 1960s. Following the election of the National Party (South Africa), Nationalist government in 1948, some English language, English-speaking whites in Natal advocated either secession or a loose federation. There were also calls for secession, with Natal and the eastern part of the Cape Province breaking away. following the 1960 South African republic referendum, referendum in 1960 on establishing a republic, and in 1993, prior to South Africa's first elections under universal suffrage and the end of apartheid, some Zulu people, Zulu leaders in KwaZulu-Natal considered secession as did some politicians in the Cape Province. In 2008, a political movement calling for the return to independence of the Cape resurged in the shape of the political organisation, the Cape Party. The Cape Party contested their first elections on 22 April 2009.


Spain

Present-day Spain (known officially as "the Kingdom of Spain") was assembled as a Nation state, central state in the French model between the Nueva Planta decrees, 18th and 1833 territorial division of Spain, 19th centuries from various component kingdoms with varying languages, cultures and legislations. Spain has several List of active separatist movements in Europe#Spain, secessionist movements, the most notable ones being in Catalan separatism, Catalonia, the Basque separatism, Basque Country and Galician independence, Galicia.


Sri Lanka

The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, operated a de facto independent state for Tamils called Tamil Eelam in eastern and northern Sri Lanka until 2009.


South Sudan

A referendum took place in Southern Sudan from 9to 15 January 2011, on whether the region should remain a part of Sudan or become independent. The referendum was one of the consequences of the 2005 Naivasha Agreement between the Khartoum central government and the Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M). A simultaneous referendum was supposed to be held in Abyei on whether to become part of Southern Sudan but it has been postponed due to conflict over demarcation and residency rights. On 7 February 2011, the referendum commission published the final results, with 98.83% voting in favour of independence. While the ballots were suspended in 10 of the 79 counties for exceeding 100% of the voter turnout, the number of votes were still well over the requirement of 60% turnout, and the majority vote for secession is not in question. The predetermined date for the creation of an independent state was 9July 2011.


Switzerland

In 1847, seven disaffected Catholic cantons formed a separate alliance because of moves to change the cantons of Switzerland from a
confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty, confederations of states tend to be established for dealing with critical issu ...
to a more centralized government
federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government (federalism). In a federation, the self-governing ...

federation
. This effort was crushed in the Sonderbund War and a new Swiss Federal Constitution was created.


Ukraine

In 2014 after the start of Russian military intervention in Ukraine (2014–present), Russian intervention in Ukraine, several groups of people declared independence of several Ukrainian regions: * The Donetsk People's Republic was declared to be independent from Ukraine on 7April 2014, comprising the territory of the Donetsk Oblast. There have been military confrontations between the Ukrainian Army and the forces of the Donetsk People's Republic when the Ukrainian Government attempted to reassert control over the oblast. * The Lugansk Parliamentary Republic was proclaimed on 27 April 2014. before being succeeded by the Lugansk People's Republic. The Lugansk forces have successfully occupied vital buildings in Lugansk since 8April, and controlled the City Council, prosecutor's office, and police station since 27 April. The Government of the Lugansk Oblast announced its support for a referendum, and granted the governorship to independence leader Valeriy Bolotov.


United Kingdom

The Republic of Ireland is the only part of the British Isles that has withdrawn from the country. Ireland Proclamation of the Irish Republic, proclaimed independence in 1916 and, as the Irish Free State, gained independence in 1922. The United Kingdom has a number of secession movements: * In Northern Ireland, Irish republicanism, Irish Republicans and Irish nationalism, Nationalists have long called for the secession of Northern Ireland to join the Republic of Ireland. This is opposed by Unionism in Ireland, Unionists. * In Scotland, the Scottish National Party (SNP) campaigns for Scottish independence and direct Scottish membership in the EU. It has representation at all levels of politics in Scotland, Scottish politics and forms the devolved Scottish government. Later pro-independence parties have had lesser electoral success. The Scottish Green Party and the Scottish Socialist Party are most widely publicised. However all independence movements/parties are opposed by Unionism in Scotland, Unionists. A 2014 Scottish independence referendum, referendum on independence in which voters were asked "Should Scotland be an independent country?" took place in September 2014. It saw "no" win, as 55.3% of voters voted against independence. * In Wales, Plaid Cymru ''(Party of Wales)'' stands for Welsh independence within the European Union. It is also represented at all levels of Welsh politics and has often been the second largest party in the Welsh Parliament, Welsh Parliament (The Senedd). * England: ** In Cornwall, supporters of Mebyon Kernow call for the creation of a Cornish Assembly and separation from England, giving the county significant Cornish self-government movement, self-government, whilst remaining within the United Kingdom as a fifth home nation. ** The Acting Witan of Mercia calls for Mercia to be recognized as distinct from England. Other "Regionalism (politics), regionalists" call for similar recognition of other areas of Britain to be restored from Lapsed power, lapsed states. ** London has supporters of an independent or semi-autonomous city-state since the 2016 EU Referendum in which Londoners voted overwhelmingly to remain in the EU. A London independence party, known as Londependence, was established in June 2019. Their calls increased after the 2019 United Kingdom general election, 2019 General Election in which most Londoners voted for the Labour Party (UK), Labour Party, gaining a representative, bucking the national trend. ** The Northern Independence Party is a newly formed party that seeks to make Northern England an independent state under the name Northumbria.


United States

Discussions and threats of secession often surface in American politics, and secession was declared during the American Civil War. However, in 1869 the United States Supreme Court ruled in ''
Texas v. White ''Texas v. White'', 74 U.S. (7 Wall.) 700 (1869), was a case argued before the United States Supreme Court in 1869. The case involved a claim by the Reconstruction government of Texas that United States bonds owned by Texas since 1850 had been ille ...
'' that unilateral secession was not permitted, saying that the union between a state (Texas in the case before the bar) "was as complete, as perpetual, and as indissoluble as the union between the original States. There was no place for reconsideration or revocation, except through revolution or through consent of the States." In January 2021, after Donald Trump, President Donald J. Trump lost to Joe Biden in a hotly debated election, President Trump encouraged his supporters to march on the United States Capitol, Capitol building. The supporters proceeded to break into, and invade the building forcing an evacuation of the area. In the days after the riot, there were growing threats by Militia, militia groups and other Southern organizations to secede from the U.S. Thought leaders including Michael Malice have proposed that non-violent secession is a viable and humane outcome of the political strife the U.S. faces in 2021.


Yemen

Yemen Arab Republic, North Yemen and South Yemen merged in 1990; tensions led to a 1994 southern secession which was crushed in a 1994 civil war in Yemen, civil war.


Yugoslavia

On June 25, 1991, Croatia and Slovenia seceded from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Bosnia and Herzegovina and North Macedonia also declared independence, after which the federation broke up, causing the separation of the remaining two countries Serbia and Montenegro. Several Yugoslav Wars, wars ensued between FR Yugoslavia and seceding entities and among other ethnic groups in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and later, Kosovo. Montenegro peacefully separated from its union with Serbia in 2006. Kosovo declared de facto independence on February 17, 2008, and was recognized by several dozen countries, but officially remains under United Nations administration.


See also


Lists

* List of historical autonomist and secessionist movements * List of active autonomist and secessionist movements * List of unrecognized countries * List of U.S. state secession proposals * List of U.S. county secession proposals


Topics

* Autonomy * Bioregionalism * City state * Decentralization * Economic secession * Homeland * Micronation * Nullification (U.S. Constitution) * Schism (religion) * Separatism * Urban secession


Movements

* Balochistan Liberation Army * Black Liberation Army * Cape Party * Cascadia (independence movement), Cascadia * East Turkestan Independence Movement * Essex Junto * European Free Alliance * Free State Project * Hartford Convention * Kurdistan * League of the South * New York City secession * Orania, Northern Cape * Quebec sovereignty movement, Secession of Quebec * Scottish Secession Church * Second Vermont Republic * South Carolina Exposition and Protest * Texas Secession Movement * Tibetan Independence Movement * Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization


References


Further reading

* Buchanan, Allen, ''Justice, Legitimacy, and Self-Determination: Moral Foundations for International Law (Oxford Political Theory)'', Oxford University Press, 2007. * Buchanan, Allen, ''Secession: The Morality Of Political Divorce From Fort Sumter To Lithuania And Quebec'', Westview Press, 1991. * Coppieters, Bruno; Richard Sakwa, Richard (eds.), ''Contextualizing Secession: Normative Studies in Comparative Perspective'', Oxford University Press, USA, 2003 * Dos Santos, Anne Noronha, ''Military Intervention and Secession in South Asia: The Cases of Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Kashmir, and Punjab (Psi Reports)'', Praeger Security International, 2007. * Gordon, David, ''Secession, State and Liberty'', Transactions Publishers, 1998. * Hannum, Hurst, ''Autonomy, Sovereignty, and Self-Determination: The Accommodation of Conflicting Rights'', University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996. * Hawes, Robert F., ''One Nation, Indivisible? A Study of Secession and the Constitution'', Fultus Corporation, 2006. * Jovanovic, Miodrag, ''Constitutionalizing Secession in Federalized States: A Procedural Approach'', Ashgate Publishing, 2006. * Kohen, Marcelo G. (ed.), ''Secession: International Law Perspectives'', Cambridge University Press, 2006. * Kohr, Leopold, ''The Breakdown of Nations'', Routledge & K. Paul, 1957. * Lehning, Percy, ''Theories of Secession'', Routledge, 1998. * Norman, Wayne, ''Negotiating Nationalism: Nation-Building, Federalism, and Secession in the Multinational State'', Oxford University Press, USA, 2006. * Dmitry Orlov (writer), Orlov, Dimitry,
Reinventing Collapse
', New Society Books, 2008, * Pascalev, Mario, "Territory: An Account of the Territorial Authority of States"

Bowling Green State University, VDM, 2009. * Roeder, Philip G. 2018. National secession: persuasion and violence in independence campaigns. Cornell University Press. * Sorens, Jason, ''Secessionism: Identity, Interest, and Strategy'', McGill-Queen's University Press, 2012. * * Spencer, Metta, ''Separatism: Democracy and Disintegration'', Rowman & Littlefield, 1998. * Weller, Marc, ''Autonomy, Self Governance and Conflict Resolution (Kindle Edition)'', Taylor & Francis, 2007. * Wellman, Christopher Heath, ''A Theory of Secession'', Cambridge University Press, 2005. * ''Secession And International Law: Conflict Avoidanceregional Appraisals'', United Nations Publications, 2006.


External links


Secession (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
* {{Authority control Secession, International law Separatism Sovereignty Changes in political power Partition (politics)