HistoryScience in a broad sense existed before the and in many historical s. is distinct in its and successful in its , so it now defines what science is in the strictest sense of the term. Science in its original sense was a word for a type of , rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge. In particular, it was the type of knowledge that people can communicate to each other and share. For example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before and led to the development of complex . This is shown by the construction of complex s, techniques for making poisonous plants edible, at a national scale, such as those which harnessed the of the with s, dams, and dikes, and buildings such as the Pyramids. However, no consistent conscious distinction was made between knowledge of such things, which are true in every community, and other types of communal knowledge, such as mythologies and legal systems. was known in prehistory, and the was the earliest known producer of bronze-like alloys. It is thought that early experimentation with heating and mixing of substances over time developed into .
Earliest rootsThe earliest roots of science can be traced to and in around 3000 to 1200 BCE. Although the words and concepts of "science" and "nature" were not part of the conceptual landscape at the time, the ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamians made contributions that would later find a place in Greek and medieval science: mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. Starting in around 3000 BCE, the ancient Egyptians developed a numbering system that was decimal in character and had orientated their knowledge of geometry to solving practical problems such as those of surveyors and builders. They even developed an official calendar that contained twelve months, thirty days each, and five days at the end of the year. Based on the medical papyri written in the 2500-1200 BCE, the ancient Egyptians believed that disease was mainly caused by the invasion of bodies by evil forces or spirits. Thus, in addition to drug treatments, healing therapies would involve , , and ritual. The ancient ns used knowledge about the properties of various natural chemicals for manufacturing , , glass, soap, metals, , and waterproofing; they also studied , , and for purposes and made extensive records of the movements of astronomical objects for their study of . The Mesopotamians had intense interest in medicine and the earliest s appear in during the ( 2112 BCE – 2004 BCE). Nonetheless, the Mesopotamians seem to have had little interest in gathering information about the natural world for the mere sake of gathering information and mainly only studied scientific subjects which had obvious practical applications or immediate relevance to their religious system.
Classical antiquityIn , there is no real ancient analog of a modern . Instead, well-educated, usually upper-class, and almost universally male individuals performed various investigations into nature whenever they could afford the time. Before the invention or discovery of the of " " ( '' '') by the s, the same words tend to be used to describe the ''natural'' "way" in which a plant grows, and the "way" in which, for example, one tribe worships a particular god. For this reason, it is claimed that these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense, and also the first people to clearly distinguish "nature" and "convention." , the precursor of , was thereby distinguished as the knowledge of nature and things which are true for every community, and the name of the specialized pursuit of such knowledge was '' '' – the realm of the first philosopher-physicists. They were mainly speculators or , particularly interested in . In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature (artifice or , Greek ''technē'') was seen by classical scientists as a more appropriate interest for of lower . The early of the , which was founded by and later continued by his successors and Anaximenes, were the first to attempt to explain without relying on the . The developed a complex number philosophy and contributed significantly to the development of mathematical science. The theory of atoms was developed by the Greek philosopher and his student . The Greek doctor established the tradition of systematic medical science and is known as " The Father of Medicine". A turning point in the history of early philosophical science was ' example of applying philosophy to the study of human matters, including human nature, the nature of political communities, and human knowledge itself. The as documented by 's dialogues is a method of hypothesis elimination: better hypotheses are found by steadily identifying and eliminating those that lead to contradictions. This was a reaction to the emphasis on . The Socratic method searches for general, commonly held truths that shape beliefs and scrutinizes them to determine their consistency with other beliefs. Socrates criticized the older type of study of physics as too purely speculative and lacking in self-criticism. Socrates was later, in the words of his ''Apology'', accused of corrupting the youth of Athens because he did "not believe in the gods the state believes in, but in other new spiritual beings". Socrates refuted these claims, but was sentenced to death. later created a systematic programme of teleological philosophy: Motion and change is described as the actualization of potentials already in things, according to what types of things they are. In his physics, the Sun goes around the Earth, and many things have it as part of their nature that they are for humans. Each thing has a formal cause, a final cause, and a role in a cosmic order with an unmoved mover. The Socratics also insisted that philosophy should be used to consider the practical question of the best way to live for a human being (a study Aristotle divided into ethics and political philosophy). Aristotle maintained that man knows a thing scientifically "when he possesses a conviction arrived at in a certain way, and when the first principles on which that conviction rests are known to him with certainty". The Greek astronomer Aristarchus of Samos (310–230 BCE) was the first to propose a Heliocentrism, heliocentric model of the universe, with the Sun at the center and all the planets orbiting it. Aristarchus's model was widely rejected because it was believed to violate the laws of physics. The inventor and mathematician Archimedes, Archimedes of Syracuse made major contributions to the beginnings of calculus and has sometimes been credited as its inventor, although his proto-calculus lacked several defining features. Pliny the Elder was a Roman writer and polymath, who wrote the seminal encyclopedia ''Natural History (Pliny), Natural History'', dealing with history, geography, medicine, astronomy, earth science, botany, and zoology. Other scientists or proto-scientists in Antiquity were Theophrastus, Euclid, Herophilos, Hipparchus, Ptolemy, and Galen.
Medieval scienceBecause of the collapse of the Western Roman Empire due to the Migration Period an intellectual decline took place in the western part of Europe in the 400s. In contrast, the Byzantine Empire resisted the attacks from invaders, and preserved and improved upon the learning. John Philoponus, a Byzantine scholar in the 500s, questioned Aristotle's teaching of physics, noting its flaws. John Philoponus' criticism of Aristotelian principles of physics served as an inspiration to medieval scholars as well as to Galileo Galilei who ten centuries later, during the , extensively cited Philoponus in his works while making the case for why Aristotelian physics was flawed. During late antiquity and the early Middle Ages, the Aristotelian approach to inquiries on natural phenomena was used. Aristotle's four causes prescribed that the question "why" should be answered in four ways in order to explain things scientifically. Some ancient knowledge was lost, or in some cases kept in obscurity, during the and periodic political struggles. However, the general fields of science (or " " as it was called) and much of the general knowledge from the ancient world remained preserved through the works of the early Latin encyclopedists like Isidore of Seville. However, Aristotle's original texts were eventually lost in Western Europe, and only one text by Plato was widely known, the ''Timaeus (dialogue), Timaeus'', which was the only Platonic dialogue, and one of the few original works of classical natural philosophy, available to Latin readers in the early Middle Ages. Another original work that gained influence in this period was Ptolemy's ''Almagest'', which contains a geocentric description of the solar system. During late antiquity, in the Byzantine empire many Greek classical texts were preserved. Many Syriac language, Syriac translations were done by groups such as the Nestorians and Monophysites. They played a role when they translated Greek classical texts into Arabic under the Caliphate, during which many types of classical learning were preserved and in some cases improved upon. In addition, the neighboring Sasanian Empire, Sassanid Empire established the medical Academy of Gondishapur, Academy of Gondeshapur where Greek, Syriac, and Persian physicians established the most important medical center of the ancient world during the 6th and 7th centuries. The House of Wisdom was established in Abbasid-era Baghdad, Iraq, where the Islamic study of Aristotelianism#Islamic world, Aristotelianism flourished. Al-Kindi (801–873) was the first of the Muslim Peripatetic school, Peripatetic philosophers, and is known for his efforts to introduce Greek philosophy, Greek and Hellenistic philosophy to the Arab world. The flourished from this time until the Mongol invasions of the 13th century. Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), as well as his predecessor Ibn Sahl (mathematician), Ibn Sahl, was familiar with Ptolemy's ''Optics (Ptolemy), Optics'', and used experiments as a means to gain knowledge. See p. 464: "Schramm sums up [Ibn Al-Haytham's] achievement in the development of scientific method.", p. 465: "Schramm has demonstrated .. beyond any dispute that Ibn al-Haytham is a major figure in the Islamic scientific tradition, particularly in the creation of experimental techniques." p. 465: "only when the influence of ibn al-Haytam and others on the mainstream of later medieval physical writings has been seriously investigated can Schramm's claim that ibn al-Haytam was the true founder of modern physics be evaluated." Alhazen disproved Ptolemy's theory of vision, but did not make any corresponding changes to Metaphysics (Aristotle), Aristotle's metaphysics. Furthermore, doctors and alchemists such as the Persians Avicenna and Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Al-Razi also greatly developed the science of Medicine with the former writing the The Canon of Medicine, Canon of Medicine, a medical encyclopedia used until the 18th century and the latter discovering multiple compounds like ethanol, alcohol. Avicenna's canon is considered to be one of the most important publications in medicine and they both contributed significantly to the practice of experimental medicine, using clinical trials and experiments to back their claims. In Classical antiquity, Greek and Roman taboos had meant that dissection was usually banned in ancient times, but in Middle Ages it changed: medical teachers and students at Bologna began to open human bodies, and Mondino de Luzzi (c. 1275–1326) produced the ﬁrst known anatomy textbook based on human dissection. By the eleventh century, most of Europe had become Christian; stronger monarchies emerged; borders were restored; technological developments and agricultural innovations were made which increased the food supply and population. In addition, classical Greek texts started to be translated from Arabic and Greek into Latin, giving a higher level of scientific discussion in Western Europe. By 1088, the first university in Europe (the University of Bologna) had emerged from its clerical beginnings. Demand for Latin translations grew (for example, from the Toledo School of Translators); western Europeans began collecting texts written not only in Latin, but also Latin translations from Greek, Arabic, and Hebrew. Manuscript copies of Alhazen's ''Book of Optics'' also propagated across Europe before 1240, as evidenced by its incorporation into Vitello's ''Perspectiva''. Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine, Canon was translated into Latin. In particular, the texts of Aristotle, Ptolemy, and Euclid, preserved in the Houses of Wisdom and also in the Byzantine Empire, were sought amongst Catholic scholars. The influx of ancient texts caused the Renaissance of the 12th century and the flourishing of a synthesis of Catholicism and Aristotelianism known as Scholasticism in western Europe, which became a new geographic center of science. An ''experiment'' in this period would be understood as a careful process of observing, describing, and classifying. One prominent scientist in this era was Roger Bacon. Scholasticism had a strong focus on revelation and dialectic, dialectic reasoning, and gradually fell out of favour over the next centuries, as 's focus on experiments that include direct observation and meticulous documentation slowly increased in importance.
Renaissance and early modern scienceNew developments in optics played a role in the inception of the Renaissance, both by challenging long-held Metaphysics, metaphysical ideas on perception, as well as by contributing to the improvement and development of technology such as the camera obscura and the telescope. Before what we now know as the Renaissance started, Roger Bacon, Vitello, and John Peckham each built up a scholastic ontology upon a causal chain beginning with sensation, perception, and finally apperception of the individual and universal theory of forms, forms of Aristotle. A model of vision later known as perspectivism was One-point perspective, exploited and studied by the artists of the Renaissance. This theory uses only three of Aristotle's four causes: formal, material, and final. In the sixteenth century, Copernicus formulated a Heliocentrism, heliocentric model of the solar system unlike the geocentric model of Ptolemy's ''Almagest''. This was based on a theorem that the orbital periods of the planets are longer as their orbs are farther from the centre of motion, which he found not to agree with Ptolemy's model. Johannes Kepler, Kepler and others challenged the notion that the only function of the eye is perception, and shifted the main focus in optics from the eye to the propagation of light. Kepler modelled the eye as a water-filled glass sphere with an aperture in front of it to model the entrance pupil. He found that all the light from a single point of the scene was imaged at a single point at the back of the glass sphere. The optical chain ends on the retina at the back of the eye. Kepler is best known, however, for improving Copernicus' heliocentric model through the discovery of Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Kepler did not reject Aristotelian metaphysics and described his work as a search for the Musica universalis, Harmony of the Spheres. Galileo made innovative use of experiment and mathematics. However, he became persecuted after Pope Urban VIII blessed Galileo to write about the Copernican system. Galileo had used arguments from the Pope and put them in the voice of the simpleton in the work "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems", which greatly offended Urban VIII. In Northern Europe, the new technology of the printing press was widely used to publish many arguments, including some that disagreed widely with contemporary ideas of nature. René Descartes and Francis Bacon published philosophical arguments in favor of a new type of non-Aristotelian science. Descartes emphasized individual thought and argued that mathematics rather than geometry should be used in order to study nature. Bacon emphasized the importance of experiment over contemplation. Bacon further questioned the Aristotelian concepts of formal cause and final cause, and promoted the idea that science should study the laws of "simple" natures, such as heat, rather than assuming that there is any specific nature, or "formal cause", of each complex type of thing. This new science began to see itself as describing "Physical law, laws of nature". This updated approach to studies in nature was seen as mechanistic. Bacon also argued that science should aim for the first time at practical inventions for the improvement of all human life.
Age of EnlightenmentAs a precursor to the Age of Enlightenment, Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz succeeded in developing a new physics, now referred to as classical mechanics, which could be confirmed by experiment and explained using mathematics (Newton (1687), ''Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica''). Leibniz also incorporated terms from Aristotelian physics, but now being used in a new non-teleological way, for example, "energy" and "potential" (modern versions of Aristotelian "actuality and potentiality, ''energeia'' and ''potentia''"). This implied a shift in the view of objects: Where Aristotle had noted that objects have certain innate goals that can be actualized, objects were now regarded as devoid of innate goals. In the style of Francis Bacon, Leibniz assumed that different types of things all work according to the same general laws of nature, with no special formal or final causes for each type of thing. It is during this period that the word "science" gradually became more commonly used to refer to a ''type of pursuit'' of a type of knowledge, especially knowledge of nature – coming close in meaning to the old term " ." During this time, the declared purpose and value of science became producing wealth and inventions that would improve human lives, in the Economic materialism, materialistic sense of having more food, clothing, and other things. In Novum Organum, Bacon's words, "the real and legitimate goal of sciences is the endowment of human life with new inventions and riches", and he discouraged scientists from pursuing intangible philosophical or spiritual ideas, which he believed contributed little to human happiness beyond "the fume of subtle, sublime, or pleasing speculation". Science during the Enlightenment was dominated by scientific society, scientific societies and Academy, academies, which had largely replaced universities as centres of scientific research and development. Societies and academies were also the backbones of the maturation of the scientific profession. Another important development was the popular culture, popularization of science among an increasingly literate population. Philosophes introduced the public to many scientific theories, most notably through the ''Encyclopédie'' and the popularization of Newtonianism by Voltaire as well as by Émilie du Châtelet, the French translator of Newton's ''Principia''. Some historians have marked the 18th century as a drab period in the history of science; however, the century saw significant advancements in the practice of , , and ; the development of biological Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy; a new understanding of magnetism and electricity; and the maturation of as a discipline, which established the foundations of modern chemistry. Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors – Galileo Galilei, Galileo, Robert Boyle, Boyle, and Isaac Newton, Newton principally – as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of and natural law to every physical and social field of the day. In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded. Ideas on human nature, society, and economics also evolved during the Enlightenment. Hume and other Scottish Enlightenment thinkers developed a "A Treatise of Human Nature, science of man", which was expressed historically in works by authors including James Burnett, Lord Monboddo, James Burnett, Adam Ferguson, John Millar (philosopher), John Millar and William Robertson (historian), William Robertson, all of whom merged a scientific study of how humans behaved in ancient and primitive cultures with a strong awareness of the determining forces of modernity. Modern sociology largely originated from this movement. In 1776, Adam Smith published ''The Wealth of Nations'', which is often considered the first work on modern economics.M. Fry, ''Adam Smith's Legacy: His Place in the Development of Modern Economics'' (Routledge, 1992).
19th centuryThe nineteenth century is a particularly important period in the history of science since during this era many distinguishing characteristics of contemporary modern science began to take shape such as: transformation of the life and physical sciences, frequent use of precision instruments, emergence of terms like "biologist", "physicist", "scientist"; slowly moving away from antiquated labels like "natural philosophy" and "natural history", increased professionalization of those studying nature lead to reduction in amateur naturalists, scientists gained cultural authority over many dimensions of society, economic expansion and industrialization of numerous countries, thriving of popular science writings and emergence of science journals. Early in the 19th century, John Dalton suggested the modern atomic theory, based on 's original idea of indivisible particles called ''atoms''. Both John Herschel and William Whewell systematized methodology: the latter coined the term . To be exact, the person who coined the term ''scientist'' was referred to in Whewell 1834 only as "some ingenious gentleman." Ross added a comment that this "some ingenious gentleman" was Whewell himself, without giving the reason for the identification. Ross 1962, p. 72. During the mid-19th century, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace independently proposed the theory of evolution by natural selection in 1858, which explained how different plants and animals originated and evolved. Their theory was set out in detail in Darwin's book ''On the Origin of Species'', which was published in 1859. Separately, Gregor Mendel presented his paper, "''Versuche über Pflanzenhybriden''" ("Experiments on Plant Hybridization"), in 1865, which outlined the principles of biological inheritance, serving as the basis for modern genetics. The laws of conservation of energy, conservation of momentum and conservation of mass suggested a highly stable universe where there could be little loss of resources. With the advent of the steam engine and the industrial revolution, there was, however, an increased understanding that all forms of energy as defined in physics were not equally useful: they did not have the same energy quality. This realization led to the development of the laws of thermodynamics, in which the free energy of the universe is seen as constantly declining: the entropy of a closed universe increases over time. The electromagnetic theory was also established in the 19th century by the works of Hans Christian Ørsted, André-Marie Ampère, Michael Faraday, James Clerk Maxwell, Oliver Heaviside, and Heinrich Hertz. The new theory raised questions that could not easily be answered using Newton's framework. The phenomena that would allow the deconstruction of the atom were discovered in the last decade of the 19th century: the discovery of X-rays inspired the discovery of radioactivity. In the next year came the discovery of the first subatomic particle, the electron. During the late 19th century, psychology emerged as a separate discipline from philosophy when Wilhelm Wundt founded the first laboratory for psychological research in 1879.
20th centuryAlbert Einstein's theory of relativity and the development of quantum mechanics led to the replacement of classical mechanics with a new physics which contains two parts that describe different types of events in nature. In the first half of the century, the development of antibiotics and artificial fertilizers made global human population growth possible. At the same time, the structure of the atom and its nucleus was discovered, leading to the release of "atomic energy" (nuclear power). In addition, the extensive use of technological innovation stimulated by the wars of this century led to revolutions in transportation (automobiles and aircraft), the development of ICBMs, a space race, and a nuclear arms race. Evolution became a unified theory in the early 20th-century when the Modern synthesis (20th century), modern synthesis reconciled Darwinian evolution with classical genetics. The molecular structure of DNA was discovered by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953. The discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation in 1964 led to a rejection of the Steady State theory of the universe in favor of the Big Bang theory of Georges Lemaître. The development of spaceflight in the second half of the century allowed the first astronomical measurements done on or near other objects in space, including six Apollo program, crewed landings on the Moon. Space telescopes lead to numerous discoveries in astronomy and cosmology. Widespread use of integrated circuits in the last quarter of the 20th century combined with communications satellites led to a revolution in information technology and the rise of the global internet and mobile computing, including smartphones. The need for mass systematization of long, intertwined causal chains and large amounts of data led to the rise of the fields of systems theory and computer-assisted scientific modelling, which are partly based on the Aristotelian paradigm. Harmful environmental issues such as ozone depletion, Acidification (disambiguation), acidification, eutrophication and climate change came to the public's attention in the same period, and caused the onset of environmental science and environmental technology.
21st centuryThe Human Genome Project was completed in 2003, determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome. Induced pluripotent stem cells were developed in 2006, a technology allowing adult cells to be transformed into stem cells capable of giving rise to any cell type found in the body, potentially of huge importance to the field of regenerative medicine. With the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012, the last particle predicted by the Standard Model of particle physics was found. In 2015, gravitational waves, predicted by general relativity a century before, were First observation of gravitational waves, first observed. In 2019, the Event Horizon Telescope, Event Horizon Telescope Observatory announced its first results in simultaneous press conferences around the world on April 10, 2019. Press conferences presented the first direct image of a black hole, where the supermassive black hole appeared in the heart of the galaxy Messier 87, which is 55 million light-years away from Earth. The scientific findings are presented in a series of six papers published in ''The Astrophysical Journal.''
Branches of scienceHistory of science#Modern science, Modern science is commonly divided into three major : , , and . Each of these branches comprises various specialized yet overlapping scientific Discipline (academia), disciplines that often possess their own nomenclature and expertise. Both natural and social sciences are empirical sciences, as their knowledge is based on Empirical evidence, empirical observations and is capable of being tested for its validity by other researchers working under the same conditions. There are also closely related disciplines that use science, such as and , which are sometimes described as applied sciences. The relationships between the branches of science are summarized by the following table.
Natural scienceNatural science is the study of the physical world. It can be divided into two main branches: list of life sciences, life science (or biological science) and Outline of physical science, physical science. These two branches may be further divided into more specialized disciplines. For example, physical science can be subdivided into , , , and earth science. Modern natural science is the successor to the that began in Ancient Greece. Galileo Galilei, Galileo, René Descartes, Descartes, Francis Bacon, Bacon, and Isaac Newton, Newton debated the benefits of using approaches which were more mathematical physics, mathematical and more experimental in a methodical way. Still, philosophical perspectives, conjectures, and presuppositions, often overlooked, remain necessary in natural science. Systematic data collection, including discovery science, succeeded natural history, which emerged in the 16th century by describing and classifying plants, animals, minerals, and so on. Today, "natural history" suggests observational descriptions aimed at popular audiences.
Social scienceSocial science is the study of human behavior and functioning of societies. It has many disciplines that include, but are not limited to anthropology, , history, human geography, political science, , and . In the social sciences, there are many competing theoretical perspectives, many of which are extended through competing research programs such as the Structural functionalism, functionalists, conflict theories, conflict theorists, and interactionism, interactionists in sociology. Due to the limitations of conducting controlled experiments involving large groups of individuals or complex situations, social scientists may adopt other research methods such as the historical method, case study, case studies, and cross-cultural studies. Moreover, if quantitative information is available, social scientists may rely on statistical approaches to better understand social relationships and processes.
Formal scienceFormal science is an area of study that generates knowledge using formal systems. It includes , systems theory, and . The formal sciences share similarities with the other two branches by relying on objective, careful, and systematic study of an area of knowledge. They are, however, different from the empirical sciences as they rely exclusively on deductive reasoning, without the need for , to verify their abstract concepts. The formal sciences are therefore A priori and a posteriori, ''a priori'' disciplines and because of this, there is disagreement on whether they actually constitute a science. Nevertheless, the formal sciences play an important role in the empirical sciences. Calculus, for example, was initially invented to understand Motion (physics), motion in physics. Natural and social sciences that rely heavily on mathematical applications include mathematical physics, mathematical chemistry, mathematical biology, mathematical finance, and mathematical economics.
Applied scienceApplied science is the use of the and knowledge to attain practical goals and includes a broad range of disciplines such as and . Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. Engineering itself encompasses a range of more specialized List of engineering branches, fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics, science, and types of application. Medicine is the practice of caring for patients by maintaining and restoring health through the prevention (medical), prevention, Medical diagnosis, diagnosis, and therapy, treatment of injury or disease. Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences, medical research, medical genetics, genetics, and medical technology to prevent, diagnose, and treat injury and disease, typically through the use of medications, medical devices, surgery, and non-pharmaceutical intervention, non-pharmacological interventions. The applied sciences are often contrasted with the basic sciences, which are focused on advancing scientific theories and laws that explain and predict events in the natural world.
Scientific researchScientific research can be labeled as either basic or applied research. Basic research is the search for knowledge and applied research is the search for solutions to practical problems using this knowledge. Although some scientific research is applied research into specific problems, a great deal of our understanding comes from the curiosity-driven undertaking of basic research. This leads to options for technological advances that were not planned or sometimes even imaginable. This point was made by Michael Faraday when allegedly in response to the question "what is the of basic research?" he responded: "Sir, what is the use of a new-born child?". For example, research into the effects of red light on the human eye's rod cells did not seem to have any practical purpose; eventually, the discovery that our night vision is not troubled by red light would lead search and rescue teams (among others) to adopt red light in the cockpits of jets and helicopters. Finally, even basic research can take unexpected turns, and there is some sense in which the scientific method is built to Scientific method#Role of chance in discovery, harness luck.
Scientific methodScientific research involves using the , which seeks to objectivity (science), objectively explain the events of in a reproducible way."The amazing point is that for the first time since the discovery of mathematics, a method has been introduced, the results of which have an intersubjective value!" ''(Author's punctuation)'' — An explanatory thought experiment or hypothesis is put forward as explanation using principles such as parsimony (also known as "Occam's Razor") and are generally expected to seek consilience – fitting well with other accepted facts related to the phenomena. This new explanation is used to make falsifiable predictions that are testable by experiment or observation. The predictions are to be posted before a confirming experiment or observation is sought, as proof that no tampering has occurred. Disproof of a prediction is evidence of progress. This is done partly through observation of natural phenomena, but also through experimentation that tries to simulate natural events under controlled conditions as appropriate to the discipline (in the observational sciences, such as astronomy or geology, a predicted observation might take the place of a controlled experiment). Experimentation is especially important in science to help establish causality, causal relationships (to avoid the correlation does not imply causation, correlation fallacy). When a hypothesis proves unsatisfactory, it is either modified or discarded. If the hypothesis survived testing, it may become adopted into the framework of a scientific theory, a logically reasoned, self-consistent model or framework for describing the behavior of certain natural phenomena. A theory typically describes the behavior of much broader sets of phenomena than a hypothesis; commonly, a large number of hypotheses can be logically bound together by a single theory. Thus a theory is a hypothesis explaining various other hypotheses. In that vein, theories are formulated according to most of the same scientific principles as hypotheses. In addition to testing hypotheses, scientists may also generate a Scientific modelling, model, an attempt to describe or depict the phenomenon in terms of a logical, physical or mathematical representation and to generate new hypotheses that can be tested, based on observable phenomena. While performing experiments to test hypotheses, scientists may have a preference for one outcome over another, and so it is important to ensure that science as a whole can eliminate this bias. This can be achieved by careful Design of experiments, experimental design, transparency, and a thorough peer review process of the experimental results as well as any conclusions. After the results of an experiment are announced or published, it is normal practice for independent researchers to double-check how the research was performed, and to follow up by performing similar experiments to determine how dependable the results might be. Taken in its entirety, the scientific method allows for highly creative problem solving while minimizing any effects of subjective bias on the part of its users (especially the confirmation bias).
VerifiabilityJohn Ziman points out that intersubjective verifiability is fundamental to the creation of all scientific knowledge. Ziman shows how scientists can identify patterns to each other across centuries; he refers to this ability as "perceptual consensibility." He then makes consensibility, leading to consensus, the touchstone of reliable knowledge.
Role of mathematicsMathematics is essential in the formation of Hypothesis, hypotheses, Theory, theories, and physical law, laws in the Natural science, natural and Social science, social sciences. For example, it is used in quantitative Scientific modelling, scientific modeling, which can generate new hypotheses and predictions to be tested. It is also used extensively in observing and collecting measurements. Statistics, a branch of mathematics, is used to summarize and analyze data, which allow scientists to assess the reliability and variability of their experimental results. Computational science applies computing power to Simulation#Computer simulation, simulate real-world situations, enabling a better understanding of scientific problems than formal mathematics alone can achieve. The use of machine learning (also artificial intelligence) is becoming a central feature of computational contributions to science for example in agent-based computational economics, random forests, topic model
Philosophy of scienceScientists usually take for granted a set of basic assumptions that are needed to justify the scientific method: (1) that there is an objective reality shared by all rational observers; (2) that this objective reality is governed by natural laws; (3) that these laws can be discovered by means of systematic observation and experimentation. The philosophy of science seeks a deep understanding of what these underlying assumptions mean and whether they are valid. The belief that scientific theories should and do represent metaphysical reality is known as Scientific realism, ''realism''. It can be contrasted with Anti-realism#Anti-realism in science, anti-realism, the view that the success of science does not depend on it being accurate about unobservable entities such as electrons. One form of anti-realism is idealism, the belief that the mind or consciousness is the most basic essence, and that each mind generates its own reality. In an idealistic world view, what is true for one mind need not be true for other minds. There are different schools of thought in the philosophy of science. The most popular position is empiricism, which holds that knowledge is created by a process involving observation and that scientific theories are the result of generalizations from such observations. Empiricism generally encompasses inductivism, a position that tries to explain the way general theories can be justified by the finite number of observations humans can make and hence the finite amount of empirical evidence available to confirm scientific theories. This is necessary because the number of predictions those theories make is infinite, which means that they cannot be known from the finite amount of evidence using deductive logic only. Many versions of empiricism exist, with the predominant ones being Bayesianism and the hypothetico-deductive method. Empiricism has stood in contrast to rationalism, the position originally associated with Descartes, which holds that knowledge is created by the human intellect, not by observation. Critical rationalism is a contrasting 20th-century approach to science, first defined by Austrian-British philosopher Karl Popper. Popper rejected the way that empiricism describes the connection between theory and observation. He claimed that theories are not generated by observation, but that observation is made in the light of theories and that the only way a theory can be affected by observation is when it comes in conflict with it. Popper proposed replacing verifiability with falsifiability as the landmark of scientific theories and replacing induction with Critical rationalism, falsification as the empirical method. Popper further claimed that there is actually only one universal method, not specific to science: the negative method of criticism, trial and error. It covers all products of the human mind, including science, mathematics, philosophy, and art. Another approach, instrumentalism, emphasizes the utility of theories as instruments for explaining and predicting phenomena. It views scientific theories as black boxes with only their input (initial conditions) and output (predictions) being relevant. Consequences, theoretical entities, and logical structure are claimed to be something that should simply be ignored and that scientists should not make a fuss about (see interpretations of quantum mechanics). Close to instrumentalism is constructive empiricism, according to which the main criterion for the success of a scientific theory is whether what it says about observable entities is true. Thomas Kuhn argued that the process of observation and evaluation takes place within a paradigm, a logically consistent "portrait" of the world that is consistent with observations made from its framing. He characterized ''normal science'' as the process of observation and "puzzle solving" which takes place within a paradigm, whereas ''revolutionary science'' occurs when one paradigm overtakes another in a paradigm shift. Each paradigm has its own distinct questions, aims, and interpretations. The choice between paradigms involves setting two or more "portraits" against the world and deciding which likeness is most promising. A paradigm shift occurs when a significant number of observational anomalies arise in the old paradigm and a new paradigm makes sense of them. That is, the choice of a new paradigm is based on observations, even though those observations are made against the background of the old paradigm. For Kuhn, acceptance or rejection of a paradigm is a social process as much as a logical process. Kuhn's position, however, is not one of relativism.T.S. Kuhn, ''The Structure of Scientific Revolutions'', 2nd. ed., Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr., 1970, p. 206. Finally, another approach often cited in debates of scientific skepticism against controversial movements like "creation science" is methodological naturalism. Its main point is that a difference between natural and explanations should be made and that science should be restricted methodologically to natural explanations. That the restriction is merely methodological (rather than ontological) means that science should not consider supernatural explanations itself, but should not claim them to be wrong either. Instead, supernatural explanations should be left a matter of personal belief Non-overlapping magisteria, outside the scope of science. Methodological naturalism maintains that proper science requires strict adherence to empirical study and independent verification as a process for properly developing and evaluating explanations for observation, observable phenomena. The absence of these standards, Appeal to authority, arguments from authority, biased observational studies and other common fallacy, fallacies are frequently cited by supporters of methodological naturalism as characteristic of the non-science they criticize.
Certainty and scienceA scientific theory is empirical and is always open to falsifiability, falsification if new evidence is presented. That is, no theory is ever considered strictly Certainty, certain as science accepts the concept of fallibilism. The philosopher of science Karl Popper sharply distinguished truth from certainty. He wrote that scientific knowledge "consists in the search for truth," but it "is not the search for certainty ... All human knowledge is fallible and therefore uncertain." New scientific knowledge rarely results in vast changes in our understanding. According to psychologist Keith Stanovich, it may be the media's overuse of words like "breakthrough" that leads the public to imagine that science is constantly proving everything it thought was true to be false. While there are such famous cases as the theory of relativity that required a complete reconceptualization, these are extreme exceptions. Knowledge in science is gained by a gradual synthesis of information from different experiments by various ers across different branches of science; it is more like a climb than a leap. Theories vary in the extent to which they have been tested and verified, as well as their acceptance in the scientific community. For example, Heliocentrism, heliocentric theory, evolution, the theory of evolution, relativity theory, and Germ theory of disease, germ theory still bear the name "theory" even though, in practice, they are considered factual. Philosopher Barry Stroud adds that, although the best definition for " " is contested, being skeptical and entertaining the ''possibility'' that one is incorrect is compatible with being correct. Therefore, scientists adhering to proper scientific approaches will doubt themselves even once they possess the truth. The fallibilist Charles Sanders Peirce, C. S. Peirce argued that inquiry is the struggle to resolve actual doubt and that merely quarrelsome, verbal, or hyperbolic doubt is fruitless – but also that the inquirer should try to attain genuine doubt rather than resting uncritically on common sense. He held that the successful sciences trust not to any single chain of inference (no stronger than its weakest link) but to the cable of multiple and various arguments intimately connected. Stanovich also asserts that science avoids searching for a "magic bullet"; it avoids the Fallacy of the single cause, single-cause fallacy. This means a scientist would not ask merely "What is cause of ...", but rather "What the most significant of ...". This is especially the case in the more macroscopic fields of science (e.g. , physical cosmology). Research often analyzes few factors at once, but these are always added to the long list of factors that are most important to consider. For example, knowing the details of only a person's genetics, or their history and upbringing, or the current situation may not explain a behavior, but a deep understanding of all these variables combined can be very predictive.
Scientific literatureScientific research is published in an enormous range of scientific literature. Scientific journals communicate and document the results of research carried out in universities and various other research institutions, serving as an archival record of science. The first scientific journals, ''Journal des Sçavans'' followed by the ''Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Philosophical Transactions'', began publication in 1665. Since that time the total number of active periodicals has steadily increased. In 1981, one estimate for the number of scientific and technical journals in publication was 11,500. The United States National Library of Medicine currently indexes 5,516 journals that contain articles on topics related to the life sciences. Although the journals are in 39 languages, 91 percent of the indexed articles are published in English. Most scientific journals cover a single scientific field and publish the research within that field; the research is normally expressed in the form of a scientific paper. Science has become so pervasive in modern societies that it is generally considered necessary to communicate the achievements, news, and ambitions of scientists to a wider populace. List of science magazines, Science magazines such as ''New Scientist'', ''Science & Vie'', and ''Scientific American'' cater to the needs of a much wider readership and provide a non-technical summary of popular areas of research, including notable discoveries and advances in certain fields of research. Science books engage the interest of many more people. Tangentially, the science fiction genre, primarily fantastic in nature, engages the public imagination and transmits the ideas, if not the methods, of science. Recent efforts to intensify or develop links between science and non-scientific disciplines such as literature or more specifically, poetry, include the ''Creative Writing Science'' resource developed through the Royal Literary Fund.
Practical impactsDiscoveries in fundamental science can be world-changing. For example: :
Replication crisisThe replication crisis is an ongoing methodological crisis primarily affecting parts of the social science, social and life sciences in which scholars have found that the results of many scientific studies are difficult or impossible to reproducibility, replicate or reproduce on subsequent investigation, either by independent researchers or by the original researchers themselves. The crisis has long-standing roots; the phrase was coined in the early 2010s as part of a growing awareness of the problem. The replication crisis represents an important body of research in metascience, which aims to improve the quality of all scientific research while reducing waste.
Fringe science, pseudoscience, and junk scienceAn area of study or speculation that masquerades as science in an attempt to claim a legitimacy that it would not otherwise be able to achieve is sometimes referred to as pseudoscience, fringe science, or junk science. Physicist Richard Feynman coined the term "cargo cult science" for cases in which researchers believe they are doing science because their activities have the outward appearance of science but actually lack the "kind of utter honesty" that allows their results to be rigorously evaluated. Various types of commercial advertising, ranging from hype to fraud, may fall into these categories. Science has been described as "the most important tool" for separating valid claims from invalid ones. There can also be an element of political or ideological bias on all sides of scientific debates. Sometimes, research may be characterized as "bad science," research that may be well-intended but is actually incorrect, obsolete, incomplete, or over-simplified expositions of scientific ideas. The term "scientific misconduct" refers to situations such as where researchers have intentionally misrepresented their published data or have purposely given credit for a discovery to the wrong person.
Scientific communityThe scientific community is a group of all interacting scientists, along with their respective societies and institutions.
ScientistsScientists are individuals who conduct Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an area of interest. The term ''scientist'' was coined by William Whewell in 1833. In modern times, many professional scientists are trained in an Academy, academic setting and upon completion, attain an academic degree, with the highest degree being a doctorate such as a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). Many scientists pursue careers in various Sector (economic), sectors of the economy such as Academy, academia, Private sector, industry, Administration (government), government, and nonprofit organizations. Scientists exhibit a strong curiosity about reality, with some scientists having a desire to apply scientific knowledge for the benefit of health, nations, environment, or industries. Other motivations include recognition by their peers and prestige. The Nobel Prize, a widely regarded prestigious award, is awarded annually to those who have achieved scientific advances in the fields of , , , and .
Women in scienceScience has historically been a male-dominated field, with some notable exceptions. Women faced considerable discrimination in science, much as they did in other areas of male-dominated societies, such as frequently being passed over for job opportunities and denied credit for their work. For example, Christine Ladd-Franklin, Christine Ladd (1847–1930) was able to enter a Ph.D. program as "C. Ladd"; Christine "Kitty" Ladd completed the requirements in 1882, but was awarded her degree only in 1926, after a career which spanned the algebra of logic (see Truth table#Truth table for all binary logical operators, truth table), color vision, and psychology. Her work preceded notable researchers like Ludwig Wittgenstein and Charles Sanders Peirce. The achievements of women in science have been attributed to the defiance of their traditional role as laborers within the Separate spheres, domestic sphere. In the late 20th century, active recruitment of women and elimination of institutional discrimination on the basis of sex greatly increased the number of women scientists, but large gender disparities remain in some fields; in the early 21st century over half of the new biologists were female, while 80% of PhDs in physics are given to men. In the early part of the 21st century, women in the United States earned 50.3% of bachelor's degrees, 45.6% of master's degrees, and 40.7% of PhDs in science and engineering fields. They earned more than half of the degrees in psychology (about 70%), social sciences (about 50%), and biology (about 50–60%) but earned less than half the degrees in the physical sciences, earth sciences, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. Lifestyle choice also plays a major role in female engagement in science; women with young children are 28% less likely to take tenure-track positions due to work-life balance issues, and female graduate students' interest in careers in research declines dramatically over the course of graduate school, whereas that of their male colleagues remains unchanged.
Learned societiesLearned society, Learned societies for the communication and promotion of scientific thought and experimentation have existed since the Renaissance. Many scientists belong to a learned society that promotes their respective scientific discipline (academia), discipline, profession, or group of related disciplines. Membership may be open to all, may require possession of some scientific credentials, or may be an honor conferred by election. Most scientific societies are non-profit organizations, and many are professional associations. Their activities typically include holding regular academic conference, conferences for the presentation and discussion of new research results and publishing or sponsoring academic journals in their discipline. Some also act as professional bodies, regulating the activities of their members in the public interest or the collective interest of the membership. Scholars in the sociology of science argue that learned societies are of key importance and their formation assists in the emergence and development of new disciplines or professions. The professionalization of science, begun in the 19th century, was partly enabled by the creation of distinguished academy of sciences in a number of countries such as the Italian in 1603, the British Royal Society in 1660, the French in 1666, the American National Academy of Sciences in 1863, the German Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in 1911, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1928. International scientific organizations, such as the International Council for Science, have since been formed to promote cooperation between the scientific communities of different nations.
Science and the public
Science policyScience policy is an area of public policy concerned with the policies that affect the conduct of the scientific enterprise, including research funding, often in pursuance of other national policy goals such as technological innovation to promote commercial product development, weapons development, health care, and environmental monitoring. Science policy also refers to the act of applying scientific knowledge and consensus to the development of public policies. Science policy thus deals with the entire domain of issues that involve the natural sciences. In accordance with public policy being concerned about the well-being of its citizens, science policy's goal is to consider how science and technology can best serve the public. State (polity), State policy has influenced the funding of and science for thousands of years, particularly within civilizations with highly organized governments such as History of China, imperial China and the Roman Empire. Prominent historical examples include the Great Wall of China, completed over the course of two millennia through the state support of Dynasties in Chinese history, several dynasties, and the Grand Canal (China), Grand Canal of the Yangtze, Yangtze River, an immense feat of hydraulic engineering begun by Sunshu Ao (孫叔敖 7th cent. BCE), Ximen Bao (西門豹 5th cent. BCE), and Shi Chi (4th cent. BCE). This construction dates from the 6th century BCE under the Sui dynasty, Sui Dynasty and is still in use today. In China, such state-supported infrastructure and scientific research projects date at least from the time of the Mohists, who inspired the study of during the period of the Hundred Schools of Thought and the study of defensive fortifications like the Great Wall of China during the Warring States period. Public policy can directly affect the funding of capital equipment and intellectual infrastructure for industrial research by providing tax incentives to those organizations that fund research. Vannevar Bush, director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development for the United States government, the forerunner of the National Science Foundation, wrote in July 1945 that "Science is a proper concern of government."
Funding of scienceScientific research is often funded through a competitive process in which potential research projects are evaluated and only the most promising receive funding. Such processes, which are run by government, corporations, or foundations, allocate scarce funds. Total research funding in most developed country, developed countries is between 1.5% and 3% of Gross domestic product, GDP. In the OECD, around two-thirds of research and development in scientific and technical fields is carried out by industry, and 20% and 10% respectively by universities and government. The government funding proportion in certain industries is higher, and it dominates research in and humanities. Similarly, with some exceptions (e.g. biotechnology) government provides the bulk of the funds for Basic science, basic scientific research. Many governments have dedicated agencies to support scientific research. Prominent scientific organizations include the National Science Foundation in the United States, the CONICET, National Scientific and Technical Research Council in Argentina, CSIRO, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) in Australia, in France, the Max Planck Society and in Germany, and Spanish National Research Council, CSIC in Spain. In commercial research and development, all but the most research-oriented corporations focus more heavily on near-term commercialisation possibilities rather than "Blue skies research, blue-sky" ideas or technologies (such as nuclear fusion).
Public awareness of scienceThe public awareness of science relates to the attitudes, behaviors, opinions, and activities that make up the relations between science and the general public. It integrates various themes and activities such as science communication, science museums, science festivals, science fairs, citizen science, and science in popular culture. Social scientists have devised various metrics to measure the public understanding of science such as factual knowledge, self-reported knowledge, and structural knowledge.
Science journalismThe mass media face a number of pressures that can prevent them from accurately depicting competing scientific claims in terms of their credibility within the scientific community as a whole. Determining how much weight to give different sides in a scientific debate may require considerable expertise regarding the matter. Few journalists have real scientific knowledge, and even beat reporters who know a great deal about certain scientific issues may be ignorant about other scientific issues that they are suddenly asked to cover.
Politicization of sciencePoliticization of science occurs when government, business, or advocacy groups use legal or economic pressure to influence the findings of scientific research or the way it is disseminated, reported, or interpreted. Many factors can act as facets of the politicization of science such as Populism, populist anti-intellectualism, perceived threats to religious beliefs, Postmodernism, postmodernist subjectivism, and fear for business interests. Politicization of science is usually accomplished when scientific information is presented in a way that emphasizes the uncertainty associated with the scientific evidence. Tactics such as shifting conversation, failing to acknowledge facts, and capitalizing on doubt of scientific consensus have been used to gain more attention for views that have been undermined by scientific evidence. Examples of issues that have involved the politicization of science include the global warming controversy, health effects of pesticides, and health effects of tobacco.
See also* Antiquarian science books * Antiscience * Criticism of science * Index of branches of science * List of scientific occupations * Normative science * Outline of science * Pathological science * Protoscience * Science in popular culture * Science wars * Scientific dissent * Scientism * Sociology of scientific knowledge * Wissenschaft – all areas of scholarly study
Works cited* ** **
Further reading* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Jessica Riskin, Riskin, Jessica, "Just Use Your Thinking Pump!" (review of Henry M. Cowles, ''The Scientific Method: An Evolution of Thinking from Darwin to Dewey'', Harvard University Press, 372 pp.), ''The New York Review of Books'', vol. LXVII, no. 11 (2 July 2020), pp. 48–50. * * *
External linksPublications * Resources