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A school district is a
special-purpose district Special districts (also known as special service districts, special district governments, limited purpose entities, or special-purpose districts) are independent, special-purpose governmental units that exist separately from local governments such a ...
that operates local public
primary Primary or primaries may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Music Groups and labels * Primary (band), from Australia * Primary (musician), hip hop musician and record producer from South Korea * Primary Music, Israeli record label Works * ...

primary
and
secondary Secondary is an adjective meaning "second" or "second hand". It may refer to: * Secondary (chemistry), term used in organic chemistry to classify various types of compounds * The group of (usually at least four) defensive backs in gridiron football ...
schools in various nations.


North America


United States

In the U.S, most K–12 public schools function as units of local school districts, which usually operate several schools, and with the largest urban and suburban districts operating hundreds of schools. While practice varies significantly by state (and in some cases, within a state), most American school districts operate as independent local governmental units under a grant of authority and within geographic limits created by state law. The executive and legislative power over locally controlled policies and operations of an independent school district are, in most cases, held by a school district's board of education. Depending on state law, members of a local board of education (often referred to informally as a school board) may be elected, appointed by a political office holder, serve ex officio, or a combination of any of these. An independent school district is a legally separate body corporate and politic. While the controlling law varies, in the United States most school districts operate as independent local governmental units with exclusive authority over K–12 public educational operations and policies. The extent of this control is set by state-level law. Independent school districts often exercise authority over a school system that is analogous to the authority of local governments like that of a
town A town is a human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth an ...

town
or a
county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert Chambers (publisher bo ...
. These include the power to enter contacts,
eminent domain Eminent domain (United States, Philippines), land acquisition (India, Malaysia, Singapore), compulsory purchase/acquisition (Australia, New Zealand, Republic of Ireland, United Kingdom), resumption (Hong Kong, Uganda), resumption/compulsory acquis ...
, and the power to issue binding rules and regulations affecting school policies and operations. The power of school districts to tax and spend, however, is generally more limited. An independent school district's annual budget may require approval by plebiscite (much of New York) or the local government. Additionally, independent
taxation A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or Legal person, legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund government spending and various public expenditures (regional, ...
authority may or may not exist as in
Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), '' ...

Virginia
, whose
school divisionA school division is a geographic division over which a school board A board of education, school committee or school board is the board of directors or board of trustees of a school, local school district or equivalent. The elected council dete ...
s have no taxing authority and must depend on another local government (county, city, or town) for funding. Its governing body, which is typically elected by direct popular vote but may be appointed by other governmental officials, is called a ''
school board A board of education, school committee or school board is the board of directors or board of trustees of a school, local school district or equivalent. The elected council determines the educational policy in a small regional area, such as a ci ...

school board
'', ''board of trustees'', ''board of education,'' ''school committee'', or the like. This body appoints a ''
superintendent of schools In education in the United States Education in the United States of America is provided in public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the ...
'', usually an experienced public school administrator, to function as the district's
chief executive A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator officer, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of corporate executives A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co ...
for carrying out day-to-day decisions and policy implementations. The school board may also exercise a
quasi-judicial A quasi-judicial body is a non-judicial body which can interpret law. It is an entity such as an Arbitration Image:LCIA.jpg, upright=1.5, The London Court of International Arbitration Arbitration, a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR ...
function in serious
employee Employment is the relationship between two parties Image:'Hip, Hip, Hurrah! Artist Festival at Skagen', by Peder Severin Krøyer (1888) Demisted with DXO PhotoLab Clearview; cropped away black border edge.jpg, 300px, ''Hip, Hip, Hurrah!'' ...

employee
or
student A student is primarily a person enrolled in a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers. Most c ...

student
discipline Discipline is action ACTION is a bus operator in Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city of Australia. Founded following the Federation of Australia, federation of the colonies of Australia as the seat of government for the new n ...

discipline
matters. School districts in the
Midwest The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the Midwest or the American Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a princ ...
and
West 250px, A compass rose with west highlighted in black West or Occident is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A co ...
tend to cross municipal boundaries, while school districts in
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
and the
Mid-AtlanticMid-Atlantic or Mid Atlantic can refer to: *The middle of the Atlantic Ocean *Mid-Atlantic English, a mix between British English and American English *Mid-Atlantic Region (Little League World Series), one of the United States geographic divisions of ...
regions tend to adhere to city, township, and/or county boundaries. school districts were independent governmental units in 26 states, while in 17 states there were mixes of independent school districts and school districts subordinate to other local governments. In nine states there were only school districts subordinate to local governments."State and Local Government Special Studies: Governments in the United States 1951." ''Property Taxation 1941''.
U.S. Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureau is part of th ...
. G-SS-No. 29, March 1952. p
2
(
Google Books Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its code-name Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet ...
RA3-PA56).
In most Southern states, school systems operate either as an arm of county government, or at least share coextensive boundaries with the state's counties. A 2010 study by economist William A. Fischel found that "two-thirds of medium-to-large American cities have boundaries that substantially overlap those of a single school district" with substantial regional and state variations in the degree of overlap, "ranging from nearly perfect congruence in
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
, New Jersey, and Virginia, to hardly any in Illinois, Texas, and Florida."Fischel, William A.
or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.967399 The Congruence of American School Districts with Other Local Government Boundaries: A Google-Earth Exploration
SSRN (April 1, 2010).
Older and more populous municipalities "tend to have boundaries that closely match those of a single school district." Noting that most modern school districts were forms by consolidating
one-room school One-room schools were commonplace throughout rural portions of various countries, including Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Ba ...
districts in the first seven decades of the 20th century, Fischel argues that "outside the South, these consolidations were consented to by local voters" who "preferred districts whose boundaries conformed to their everyday interactions rather than formal units of government" and that " e South ended up with county-based school districts because
segregationSegregation may refer to: Separation of people * Geographical segregation, rates of two or more populations which are not homogenous throughout a defined space *Educational segegration * Housing segregation * Racial segregation, separation of huma ...
imposed
diseconomies of scale In microeconomics, diseconomies of scale are the cost disadvantages that economic actors accrue due to an increase in organizational size or in output, resulting in production of goods In economics Economics () is the social science tha ...
on district operations and required larger land-area districts." In
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
, most
school districts A school district is a special-purpose district that operates local public elementary school, primary and middle school, secondary schools in various nations. North America United States In the U.S, most K–12 public schools function as unit ...
are separate governmental units with the power to levy taxes and incur debt, except for the five cities with population over 125,000 (, ,
Syracuse Syracuse may refer to: Places Italy *Syracuse, Sicily Syracuse ( ; it, Siracusa , or scn, Seragusa, label=none ; lat, Syrācūsae ; grc-att, wikt:Συράκουσαι, Συράκουσαι, Syrákousai ; grc-dor, wikt:Συράκοσ ...
,
Yonkers Yonkers () is a city in Westchester County, New York Westchester County is located in the U.S. state of New York. It is the seventh most populated county in New York and the most populated north of New York City. According to the 2010 U.S. ...
, and
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
), where the schools are operated directly by the municipalities. The
Hawaii State Department of Education The Hawaii State Department of Education (HIDOE) is the only statewide public education system in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous ...
functions as a single statewide school district, unique among states. According to a 2021 study, the demographics of voters who elect local school boards in the United States tends not to align with the demographics of the students. This gap is "most pronounced in majority nonwhite jurisdictions and school districts with the largest racial achievement gaps."


History

There were 130,000 school districts in the country in 1930, with an average student population of 150. From 1942 to 1951 the number of school districts declined from 108,579 to 70,452, a decrease by 38,127 or 35%."State and Local Government Special Studies: Governments in the United States 1951." ''Property Taxation 1941''.
U.S. Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureau is part of th ...
. G-SS-No. 29, March 1952. p
12
(
Google Books Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its code-name Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet ...
RA3-PA55 and PA56).
Many states had passed laws facilitating school district consolidation. In 1951 the majority of the school districts in existence were rural school districts only providing elementary education, and some school districts did not operate schools but instead provided transportation to other schools. The
Midwest The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the Midwest or the American Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a princ ...
had a large number of rural school districts. Previously areas of the
Unorganized Borough The Unorganized Borough is made up of the portions of the U.S. state of Alaska Alaska (; ale, Alax̂sxax̂; ; ems, Alas'kaaq; Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, Yup'ik: ''Alaskaq''; tli, Anáaski) is a U.S. state in the Western United ...
of
Alaska Alaska (; ale, Alax̂sxax̂; ; ems, Alas'kaaq; Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, Yup'ik: ''Alaskaq''; tli, Anáaski) is a U.S. state in the Western United States, on the northwest extremity of the country's West Coast of the United State ...

Alaska
were not served by school districts, but instead served by schools directly operated by the
Alaska Department of Education The Alaska Department of Education & Early Development (EED) is the state agency controlling primary Primary or primaries may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Music Groups and labels * Primary (band), from Australia * Primary (musician) ...
and by
Bureau of Indian Affairs The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), also known as Indian Affairs (IA), is a United States federal government of the United States, federal agency within the U.S. Department of the Interior, Department of the Interior. It is responsible for imp ...

Bureau of Indian Affairs
(BIA) schools. The state schools were transferred to the Alaska State-Operated School System (SOS) after the
Alaska Legislature The Alaska Legislature is the state legislature (United States), state legislature of the U.S. state of Alaska. It is a Bicameralism, bicameral institution consisting of the 40-member Alaska House of Representatives (lower house) and the 20-memb ...
created it in 1971; that agency was terminated in 1975, with its schools transferred to the newly created Alaska Unorganized Borough School District, which was broken apart into twenty-one school districts the following year.Barnhardt, Carol.
Historical Status of Elementary Schools in Rural Alaskan Communities 1867–1980
" Alaska Native Knowledge Network (ANKN),
University of Alaska Fairbanks The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF or Alaska) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is a d ...
. Retrieved on March 13, 2017.
In the 2002 Census of Governments, the
United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, ...
enumerated the following numbers of school systems in the United States: *13,506 school district governments *178 state-dependent school systems *1,330 local-dependent school systems *1,196 education service agencies and (agencies providing support services to public school systems) School districts in the US have reduced the number of their employees by 3.3%, or 270,000 between 2008 and 2012, owing to a decline in property tax revenues during and after the
Great Recession The Great Recession was a period of marked general decline (recession In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution ( ...
. By 2016 there were about 13,000 school districts, and the average student population was about 5,000.


Terminology

Although these terms can vary slightly between various states and regions, these are typical definitions for school district constitution:


=Schools

= * An ''elementary'' or ''primary school'' usually includes
kindergarten Kindergarten (, ) is a preschool A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, or play school, is an school, educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin com ...

kindergarten
and grades
one 1 (one, also called unit, and unity) is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can ...
through five or six. In some school districts, these grades are divided into two schools. ''Primary school'' is most commonly used for schools housing students in kindergarten through grade two or three in districts where the older elementary students are in intermediate schools (see below). * A ''middle school'' usually includes grades six or
seven 7 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 7 or seven may also refer to: * AD 7, the seventh year of the AD era * 7 BC, the seventh year before the AD era * The month of July Music Artists * Seven (Swiss singer) (born 1978), a Swiss recording artist * Se ...
through eight or
nine 9 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 9 or nine may also refer to: Dates * AD 9, the ninth year of the AD era * 9 BC, the ninth year before the AD era * 9, numerical symbol for the month of September Places * Planet Nine, a planet proposed to ...
. In some places, the alternative terms ''junior high school'' or ''intermediate school'' are still used. ''Junior high school'' often refers to schools that cover grades seven through nine. ''Intermediate school'' is also used for schools that cover grades three through five (or so) when they are separated from elementary schools. * A ''high school'' usually includes grades nine or ten through twelve and may also include grades seven and eight. There are many high schools that cover only grades ten to twelve; this type of school is sometimes referred to as a ''senior high school''.


=Districts

= These terms may not appear in a district's name, even though the condition may apply. * A
unified school district A unified school district (in Arizona, California, Oregon, Kansas) or unit school district (in Illinois) is a school district that generally includes and operates both primary schools (kindergarten through middle school or junior high) and high scho ...
includes
elementary In computational complexity theory, the complexity class ELEMENTARY of elementary recursive functions is the union of the classes : \begin \mathsf & = \bigcup_ k\mathsf \\ & = \mathsf\left(2^n\right)\cup\mathsf\left(2^\right)\ ...
and
secondary Secondary is an adjective meaning "second" or "second hand". It may refer to: * Secondary (chemistry), term used in organic chemistry to classify various types of compounds * The group of (usually at least four) defensive backs in gridiron football ...
(
middle school A middle school (also known as intermediate school, junior high school, or lower secondary school) is an educational stage Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning Formal learning is education normally delivered by trained tea ...

middle school
and
high school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a ...

high school
) educational levels. * The word ''central'' in a district's name indicates that the district is formed from a consolidation ("centralization") of multiple districts and that the central district's operations are centralized relative to those of the previous districts. * The word ''community'' in a district's name indicates that the district is formed to serve a community of people with common interests and associations and with a community center. * The word ''free'' in a district's name indicates that no tuition is charged to attend district schools. In New York, it is used in conjunction with ''union'' to indicate a district composed of multiple, formerly independent common school districts now ''free'' of restrictions placed on New York State's common school districts. * The word ''union'' or ''consolidated'' in a district's name indicates that it was formed from two or more districts. * In
Missouri Missouri is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Missouri
, most district names include a ''C-'' (for "consolidated") or, more commonly, an ''R-'' (for "reorganized") followed by a number, commonly in
Roman numerals Roman numerals are a that originated in and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the . Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the . Modern style uses seven symbols, each with a ...
. * The word ''joint'' in a district's name indicates that it includes territory from more than one county. By extension, a ''joint state'' school district, such as Union County–College Corner JSD, includes territory in more than one state. * The word ''
independent Independent or Independents may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Artist groups * Independents (artist group), a group of modernist painters based in the New Hope, Pennsylvania, area of the United States during the early 1930s * Independent ...
'' can have different meanings, depending on the state. **
Kentucky Kentucky ( , ), officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...
— Under
Kentucky Revised StatutesKentucky Revised Statutes (KRS) is the name given to the body of laws which govern the Commonwealth of Kentucky, United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Con ...
§ 160.020, an "Independent" district is defined as one whose jurisdiction does not cover an entire county. If a county has no independent district, its school district boundaries coincide exactly with its borders. Following the most recent closure of an independent district in 2019, the state has 52 independent school districts along with 120 county districts, with the most significant concentrations of independent districts found in
Northern Kentucky right Rights are law, legal, social, or ethics, ethical principles of Liberty, freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people according to some legal system, social co ...
and the Eastern Coalfield region. These districts are generally associated with a city, or sometimes with a cluster of adjoining cities. Unlike county districts, independent districts can cross county lines, as in the Caverna Independent School District centered on Cave City and Horse Cave and the Corbin Independent School District. Note that some districts in the state are independent despite not having "Independent" in their official name, as in the Owensboro Public Schools and Paducah Public Schools. **
Minnesota Minnesota () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Minnesota
— Per Minnesota Statute 120A.05, "Independent" denotes any school district validly created and existing as an independent, consolidated, joint independent, county or a ten or more township district as of July 1, 1957, or pursuant to the Education Code. **
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambigu ...

Texas
— Here, "Independent" denotes that the district is separate from any county- or municipal-level entity. All of the state's school districts, with only one exception (
Stafford Municipal School District Stafford schools are located at the Stafford Municipal Complex in the southern part of the city off of Staffordshire Road at Constitution Avenue Stafford Municipal School District (SMSD) is a school district A school district is a special-purp ...
), are independent of any municipal or county control. Moreover, school district boundaries rarely coincide with municipal limits or county lines. Most districts use the term "Independent School District" in their name; in the few cases where the term "Common School District" is used the district is still an independent governmental entity. *In
Ohio Ohio () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

Ohio
, school districts are classified as either ''city'' school districts, ''exempted village'' school districts, or ''local'' school districts. City and exempted village school districts are exempted from county boards of education, while local school districts remain under county school board supervision. School districts may combine resources to form a fourth type of school district, the joint vocational school district, which focuses on a technical skills–based curriculum. *In
Michigan Michigan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Michigan
, there are
intermediate school districtAn intermediate school district, in the United States, is a term used by some states to classify a special agency that operates outside the traditional charter of a school district. The specific role of these agencies varies by state. Michigan In M ...
s (ISD), regional education service districts (RESD), or regional education service agencies (RESA), largely at the county level. The local schools districts run the schools and most programs, but often bilingual aides, programs for the deaf and blind, special education for the severely impaired, and career and technical education programs are run by the intermediate school district or equivalent. *County-wide school districts are mostly commonly found in Mid-Atlantic and Southern states such as
Maryland Maryland ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware ...

Maryland
,
Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), '' ...

Virginia
,
North Carolina North Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily news ...

North Carolina
,
South Carolina South Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspap ...

South Carolina
,
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia (, ; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is a part of the Caucasus region, bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north and east by ...
,
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...

Florida
,
Alabama (We dare defend our rights) , anthem = "Alabama (We dare defend our rights) , anthem = "Alabama (state song), Alabama" , image_map = Alabama in United States.svg , seat ...

Alabama
,
Mississippi Mississippi () is a U.S. state, state in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States, bordered to the north by Tennessee; to the east by Alabama; to the south by the Gulf of Mexico; to the southwest by Louisiana; a ...
,
Louisiana Louisiana (Standard French Standard French (in French: ''le français standard'', ''le français normé'', ''le français neutre'' eutral Frenchor ''le français international'' nternational French is an unofficial term for a standard ...

Louisiana
,
Tennessee Tennessee (, ), officially the State of Tennessee, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The S ...

Tennessee
, and
Kentucky Kentucky ( , ), officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...
. Nevada and Utah also have mostly county-wide school districts, and Alaska has many
borough A borough is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for ...
-wide school districts.
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Hawaii
operates its schools at the state level through its
department of education An education ministry is a national or subnational government agency A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversigh ...
. *In
Maine Maine () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Qu ...

Maine
, there are regional school units wherein smaller districts were consolidated into RSUs in 2008 when state laws changed.


Europe

Outside the United States, autonomous districts or equivalent authorities often represent various groups seeking education autonomy. In European history, as in much of the world, religious (confessional), linguistic, and ethnic divisions have been a significant factor in school organization. This paradigm is shifting. In
England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, parts of the United Kingdom. England and Wales forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows ...

England and Wales
,
school boards A board of education, school committee or school board is the board of directors A board of directors is a group of people who jointly supervise the activities of an organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth Englis ...
were established in 1870, and abolished in 1902, with
county council A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county. This term has slightly different meanings in different countries. Members are elected in County Council elections. Ireland The county councils created und ...
and
county borough County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiabl ...
councils becoming the local education authorities. In France, the system of the carte scolaire was dismantled by the beginning of the 2007 school year. More school choice has been given to French students; however, priority is given to those who meet the following criteria: * students with disabilities * students on scholarships or special academic merit * students who meet "group cohesiveness, social cohesion" criteria (essentially to Diversity (politics), diversify the school population) * students who require specialized medical attention from a hospital * students who want to study a course offered only by the school * students who have siblings that attend the school * students who live close to the school In Germany, schools are predominately funded by the States of Germany, which also are in control of the overall education policies. On the other hand, schools are mostly run and partly funded by Municipalities of Germany, municipal governments on different levels of the municipal system (municipalities proper, districts), depending on the size and specialization of a certain school or the population size of a certain municipality. As with other fields of government, for more specialized schools, special government bodies ("Zweckverband") can be established, where municipalities, and not voters, are members; these are to a certain degree comparable to a school district. Other arrangements are possible: certain types of Special_education#Special_schools, special schools in North Rhine-Westphalia are run by the States_of_Germany#Area_associations_(Landschaftsverb%C3%A4nde), Landschaftsverbände. There also exist Education_in_Germany#Public_and_private_schools, private schools, mostly funded by the States, but run by private entities like churches or foundations. In Italy, school districts were established in 1974 by the "''Provvedimenti Delegati sulla scuola''" ("Assigned Laws [to the Government] about the school"). Each district must contain a minimum of 10,000 inhabitants. The national government attempted to link the local schools with local society and culture and local governments. The school districts were dissolved in 2003 by the "legge finanziaria" (law about the government budget) in an attempt to trim the national budget.


Asia

In Hong Kong, the Education Bureau divides primary schools into 36 districts, known as school nets, for its Primary One Admission System. Of the 36 districts, districts 34 and 41 in Kowloon and districts 11 and 12 in Hong Kong Island are considered the most prestigious.


Examples

* London School Board * School districts in Canada


See also

* Lists of school districts in the United States * List of the largest school districts in the United States by enrollment * State education agency * School division, School division (Virginia) * Unified school district * School district drug policies * School Improvement Grant * School catchment area


Notes


References


Further reading

* Yan, Wenfan (Indiana University of Pennsylvania).
A Comparison of Rural School Districts

Archive
. The Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania General Assembly. September 2006. *
How Small Is Too Small? An Analysis of School District Consolidation

Archive
. Legislative Analyst's Office (LAO) (Fiscal and policy advisor of the California Legislature). May 2, 2011.


External links


2002 Census of Governments


{{DEFAULTSORT:School District School districts, Local government