TheInfoList

In
cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two Bail (cricket), bai ...

, a run is the unit of
scoring Score or scorer may refer to: *Test score, the result of an exam or test Business * Score Digital, now part of Bauer Radio#Score Digital, Bauer Radio * Score Entertainment, a former American trading card design and manufacturing company * Score ...
. The team with the most runs wins in many versions of the game, and always draws at worst (see
result A result (also called upshot) is the final consequence of a sequence In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes a ...
), except for some results decided by the DLS method, which is used in limited overs games where the two teams have had different opportunities to score runs. One run (known as a "
single Single may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Single (music), a song release Songs * Single (Natasha Bedingfield song), "Single" (Natasha Bedingfield song), 2004 * Single (New Kids on the Block and Ne-Yo song), "Single" (New Kids on the B ...
") is scored when the two
batsmen In cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two Bail ...
(the striker and the non-striker) start off positioned at opposite ends of the
pitch Pitch may refer to: Acoustic frequency * Pitch (music), the perceived frequency of sound including "definite pitch" and "indefinite pitch" ** Absolute pitch or "perfect pitch" ** Pitch class, a set of all pitches that are a whole number of octaves ...

(which has a length of 22 yards) and then they each arrive safely at the other end of the pitch (i.e. they cross each other without being
run out Run out is a method of Dismissal (cricket), dismissal in cricket, governed by Law 38 of the Laws of cricket, Laws of Cricket. A run out usually occurs when the batsmen are attempting to run between the Wicket, wickets, and the fielding team suc ...
). There is no limit on the number of runs that may be scored off of a single
delivery Delivery may refer to: *Delivery (commerce), of goods, e.g.: **Pizza delivery **Milk delivery Film and television *Delivering (film), ''Delivering'' (film), a 1993 short film by Todd Field *Delivery (film), ''Delivery'' (film), a 2005 animated sho ...
, and depending on how long it takes the fielding team to recover the ball, the batsmen may run more than once. Each completed run, if it occurs after the striker hit the ball with the bat (or a gloved hand holding the bat), increments the scores of both the team and the striker. A batsman may also score 4 or 6 runs (without having to run) by striking the ball to the
boundary Boundary or Boundaries may refer to: * Border, in political geography Entertainment *Boundaries (2016 film), ''Boundaries'' (2016 film), a 2016 Canadian film *Boundaries (2018 film), ''Boundaries'' (2018 film), a 2018 American-Canadian road trip ...
. * If the ball hits the ground before hitting or passing the boundary, then four runs are scored. * If the ball passes or hits the boundary without first bouncing, then six runs are scored. The team's total score in the
innings An innings is one of the divisions of a cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at ...
is the aggregate of all its batsmen's individual scores plus any extras (which are runs scored regardless of whether the bat or glove hit the ball). To complete a run, both batsmen must make their
ground Ground may refer to: * Soil File:Stagnogley.JPG, Surface-water-Gley soil, gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. Earth's body ...
, with some part of their person or bat touching the ground behind the
popping crease In the sport of cricket, the crease is a certain area demarcated by white lines painted or chalked on the field of play, and pursuant to the rules of cricket they help determine legal play in different ways for the fielding and batting side. They ...
at the other end of the pitch. Attempting a run carries a risk factor because either batsman can be
run out Run out is a method of Dismissal (cricket), dismissal in cricket, governed by Law 38 of the Laws of cricket, Laws of Cricket. A run out usually occurs when the batsmen are attempting to run between the Wicket, wickets, and the fielding team suc ...
, (one method of dismissal), if the fielding side can break the
wicket In cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two Bail ...

with the ball before the batsman has completed the run.

# Method

Scoring runs is the subject of Law 18 in the ''
Laws of Cricket The ''Laws of Cricket'' is a code which specifies the rules of the game of cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cric ...
''. Boundaries are covered in Law 19. How the Batsman makes his ground is Law 30.

## Runs scored by running

Batsmen frequently
singlesSingles may refer to: * Single persons and associated businesses and discussions Film and television * Singles (miniseries), ''Singles'' (miniseries), a 1984 Australian television series * Singles (1992 film), ''Singles'' (1992 film), written and ...
and also "twos" and "threes". If the batsmen run a single or a three, they have "changed ends", so the striking batsman becomes the non-striker for the next delivery, and vice versa. If the single or three is scored off the last delivery of the over, the striker, having changed ends, retains the strike for the first delivery of the next over. There are rare instances of "fours" being all run when the ball does not reach the boundary. A "five" is possible, but usually arises from a mistake by the fielders, such as an overthrow. The batsman is never compelled to run and can deliberately play without attempting to score. This is known as ''running between the wickets''. The batsmen stop running when they judge that the ball is sufficiently controlled by the fielding team to prevent another run, for example when it is returned to the bowler or the
wicketkeeper The wicket-keeper in the sport of cricket Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two opposing teams, in which the action starts ...
. If, when turning for an additional run, one of the batsmen fails to ground some part of their body or bat behind the popping crease, the umpire declares a "short run" and the run does not count but, even if the bat is dropped, runs do count as long as each batsman makes his ground with his bat or person somehow.

## Boundaries

The act of running is unnecessary if the batsman hits the ball to the marked
boundary Boundary or Boundaries may refer to: * Border, in political geography Entertainment *Boundaries (2016 film), ''Boundaries'' (2016 film), a 2016 Canadian film *Boundaries (2018 film), ''Boundaries'' (2018 film), a 2018 American-Canadian road trip ...
of the
field Field may refer to: Expanses of open ground * Field (agriculture), an area of land used for agricultural purposes * Airfield, an aerodrome that lacks the infrastructure of an airport * Battlefield * Lawn, an area of mowed grass * Meadow, a grassl ...
. If the ball reaches the boundary having made contact with the ground, four runs are added to the scores of both the batsman (if he had struck the ball) and the team. If the batsman succeeds in hitting the ball onto or over the boundary on the full (i.e. the ball does not contact the ground until it has hit or is beyond the boundary), six runs are added. If the batsmen are running when the ball reaches the boundary, they can stop, and their team will be awarded either the number of runs for the boundary (4 or 6), or runs the batsmen completed together (including a run in progress if they already crossed when the boundary is scored), whichever is greater.

## Extras

In addition to runs scored by the batsmen, the team total is incremented by extras (also known as "sundries" in Australia; they are not added to a batsman's individual score), which arise because: * The bowler has delivered a wide or
no-ball In , a no-ball is an illegal to a . It is also the awarded to the batting team as a consequence. For most cricket games, especially amateur the definition of all forms of no-ball is from the MCC ''.'' The delivery of a no-ball results in one ...
* The fielders have caused a no-ball (each of which incurs a one-run penalty) * The fielders have failed to control a ball which did not make contact with the bat ( byes and
leg byeIn the sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants and, in some cases, entertainment to spec ...
s), thus allowing the batsmen to run. * Byes, leg-byes and wides that elude the fielders and cross the boundary score four (never six) in addition to the one-run penalty scored for a no-ball or wide if applicable. * Five
penalty run In cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two Bail (cricket ...
s are awarded by the umpires, either to the batting team or to the fielding team as applicable, for infringement of some of the Laws, usually relating to unfair play or player conduct. ** For example five runs are awarded to the batting team if the ball hits a helmet on the ground belonging to the fielding team; five runs are awarded to the fielding team if the batting team causes avoidable damage to the wicket after due warning by the umpire. If the umpire considers a short run to have been a deliberate act he will disallow all runs attempted, and impose a five-run penalty on the batting team.

# History

In the written records of cricket, "run" is as old as "cricket" itself. In the earliest known reference to the sport, dated Monday, 17 January 1597 (Julian date),
Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and R ...

coroner A coroner is a government or judicial official who is empowered to conduct or order an inquest An inquest is a judicial inquiry in common law jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin ''Wikt:ius#Latin, juris'' 'law' + ''Wikt:dictio, dictio'' 'd ...

John Derrick made a legal deposition concerning a plot of land in
Guildford Guildford () is a town in Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William ...

that when ():
"a scholler of the Ffree Schoole of Guildeford, hee and diverse of his fellowes did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies".
It may well be that, in this context, "runne" meant running in general. For a long time, until well into the 18th century, the scorers sat on the field and increments to the score were known as "notches" because they would notch the scores on a stick, with a deeper knick at 20. The same method was used by shepherds when counting sheep. In the earliest known Laws of cricket, dated 1744, one of the rules states:
"If in running a Notch, the Wicket is struck down by a Throw, before his Foot, Hand, or Bat is over the Popping-Crease, or a Stump hit by the Ball, though the Bail was down, it's out".
In the 1774 version, the equivalent rule states:
"Or if in running a notch, the wicket is struck down by a throw, or with the ball in hand, before his foot, hand, or bat is grounded over the popping-crease; but if the bail is off, a stump must be struck out of the ground by the ball".
These are the earliest known references to running as the means of scoring. The change of terminology from "notch" to "run" was gradual and both terms were in use in 1800. The result of a match played in Sussex on 3 August 1800 was a win "by 25 notches" while another match in Sussex on 9 August 1800 was won "by an innings and 38 runs".McCann, p. 198.

# Records

For team and individual run-scoring records, see
List of Test cricket records Test cricket is played between international cricket teams who are List of International Cricket Council members#Full Members, Full Members of the International Cricket Council (ICC). Unlike One Day Internationals, Test matches consist of two ...
,
List of One Day International cricket records One Day International (ODI) cricket is played between international cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket p ...
,
List of Twenty20 International records This article contains records for men's Twenty20 Internationals. Listing notation Team notation * (100/3) indicates that a team scored 100 runs for three wicket In cricket, the term wicket has several meanings: * It is one of the two ...
, and
List of first-class cricket records This list of first-class cricket records itemises some record team and individual performances in first-class cricket First-class cricket is an official classification of the highest-standard international or domestic matches in the sport of ...
.

# Bibliography

* * * * {{Cricket statistics Articles containing video clips Batting (cricket) Cricket laws and regulations Cricket terminology Scoring (cricket)